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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Hello doctor I am 7th month pregnant and my stomach have stretch mark and itching in stretch mark what I do for this?
I always feel sleepy during class hours. Please help me I want to concentrate in class. I am 17 year old.
Hi. I got married two months back and my husband is in abroad. We are yet to have our intercourse as I was have PCOS. Next month I will be leaving to his place, where we are planning to have sex. When I discussed with my friends who got married, they said they had pain during sex, which is making me afraid. Kindly help me to overcome the fear.
WHO *(वर्ल्ड हेल्थ ओर्गनाइजेशन)* का कहना हैं आज हमारे शरीर की जरुरत है शुद्ध हवा, शुद्ध पानी, शुद्ध भोजन और 60 से 80 मिनरल्स, 40 के 46 पोषक तत्व और एन्जाइम्स l
जो आज हमें पूर्ण रूप से नहीं मिल पा रहे हैं ।
क्या आप जानते हैं कि हमारी रोजमर्रा की जिन्दगी में हमारे शरीर में कोशिकायें (cells) व मज्जातंतु (tissues) क्षतिग्रस्त होते रहते है और अधिकतर देखा गया है कि हम अपने भोजन में पोषक तत्वों की मात्रा शरीर की जरूरत के मुताबिक नहीं ले पाते हैं l
आज के इस प्रदूषित वातावरण तथा भागदौड़ भरी जिन्दगी में मधूमेह, उच्च रक्तचाप, गठिया, दिल का दौरा बहुत ही आम समस्या है l जो हमारे जीवन शैली को भी प्रभावित करती है l रासायनिक खाद और छिड़काव के द्वारा अनाज की पैदावार और इन्जेक्शन के द्वारा दूध, फलों और सब्जियों की पैदावार को बढ़ाना यह सब हमारे शरीर के लिये बहुत हानिकारक है और जो हमारी प्रतिरोधक क्षमता, आन्तरिक बल और एनर्जी लेवल को दिन प्रति दिन कम करती जा रही है l जिससे संक्रमण होने की सम्भावनायें बढ़ जाती हैंl जैसे वायरल फीवर, सर्दी व जुकाम, बुखार, कमजोरी थकान, काम के प्रति रूचि न होना इ. L हमने देखा की अधिकांश समस्यायें विषाक्त पदार्थों (टॉक्सिन्स) से उत्पन्न होती हैं और यह विषाक्त पदार्थ प्रदूषित जल, वायु और भोजन के परिणाम हैं ।
आज हर घर में कोई न कोई व्यक्ति किसी न किसी समस्या से परेशान है i
आप किसी भी ऐसे व्यक्ति को जानते हो जो कि नीचे लिखी किसी भी समस्या/बीमारी से परेशान हो (चाहे उसे डॉक्टर ने जवाब भी दे दिया हो).
1- शुगर (मधुमेह)
2- ब्लड प्रेशर (b. P.)
3- हृदय रोग
7- लकवा (paralysis)
8- स्वाइन फ्लू
14-जोड़ों का दर्द
15- कमर में दर्द
16- बदन दर्द
17- सेक्सुअल समस्या
19- त्वचा / चर्म रोग
25- श्वसन संबंधी समस्या
26- पाचन सम्बंधित रोग
27- एंटी एजिंग
28- लीवर से जुडी कोई भी परेशानी
30- अनीमिया (खून की कमी)
31- मानसीक तनाव
34- पेट में गैस बनना
35- पैर के तलवे मे जलन
36- आखों से संबंधित रोग
37- स्वेद प्रदर
38- मlसिक धर्म (m. C.) अनियमितता
I inserted a hard thing in my vagina, and satisfied myself. I saw my vagina bleeding for few minutes. Is this something to worry about? I am scared.
Hiii doctor, is it necessary to use contraceptic pill? what if we use condom, and if I took birth control then will it effect me in future.?
Hi, I keep getting one cranker sore after another. Once one heals up, I get another. Its really annoying now because I now just got one cranker sore and am getting a new one starting to come in. Why does this happen? What can I do. Does being iron deficiency anemia and Type 2 diabetes have something to do with this?
Preconception planning and health care focus on things you can do before and between pregnancies to increase your odds of having a healthy child. For a few women, preparing their body for pregnancy takes a couple of months. For others, it may take longer. Here are a few things you should consider in your preconception planning:
- See your doctor: Before getting pregnant, consult a doctor and talk to them about the preconception healthcare needs. The doctor will need to examine your family history and any other medical conditions you may have at present that could influence your future pregnancy.
- Medical conditions: In case you have any medicinal conditions, make sure they are under control and being dealt with properly. Some of these conditions include: STDs (sexually transmitted diseases), diabetes, thyroid, phenylketonuria (PKU), seizures, hypertension, joint inflammation, dietary issues and other chronic diseases.
- Lifestyle and behavior: Consult a doctor or a specialist in case you smoke, drink liquor or use drugs; live in an unpleasant or oppressive environment; or work with or live around harmful substances.
- Medication: Consuming certain medicines during pregnancy can bring about genuine birth defects. These include some remedy and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and dietary or home grown supplements. In case you are planning a pregnancy, you need to examine the requirement for any medicine with your specialist before becoming pregnant and ensure you are taking just those medicines that are vital.
- Take 400 micrograms of folic acid every day: Folic acid is a vital nutrient that the body requires, especially during pregnancy. If a woman has enough folic acid in her body at least one month before and during pregnancy, it can prevent some birth defects of the infant's brain and spine.
- Quit drinking alcohol, smoking, and using drugs: Smoking, drinking liquor and consuming drugs can bring about numerous issues during pregnancy for a woman and her child which may include untimely birth, birth imperfections, and newborn death.
- Dodge toxic substances and environmental contaminants: Dodge lethal substances and other ecological contaminants and destructive materials at work or at home. For example, engineered chemicals, metals, bug sprays, fertilizers and animal faeces.
- Maintain a healthy weight: Women who are overweight have a higher risk for some serious conditions, including complications during pregnancy, coronary disease, type-2 diabetes and certain other diseases (endometrial, bosom, and colon). Women who are underweight are likewise at risk for other medical issues. The way to accomplish and keep up a sound weight is not about short-term dietary changes. One should maintain it throughout in order to stay healthy and fit.
- Family history: Gathering your family's health history can be critical for your child’s well-being. Depending upon your family history, you might be recommended to genetic counselling by your doctor. Women go for genetic counselling owing to different reasons such as having had premature deliveries in the past, an infant’s death, infertility, or even a hereditary condition or birth defect that happened during a past pregnancy. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
What is contraceptive pill. I had sex on 26 jan Should she take i- pil now or other medicine. Please describe the medicine. And will it effect her periods.
Is there any possibility to get pregnant after removal of uterus? Uterus transplant is easier or difficult? How much it costs in India!
Hi, I am 22 years old. I have been diagnosed with PCOS a year ago. I have been taking allopathy medicine. I have gained a lot of weight. Now I have started taking Homeopathy. I want to loose weight but it is very difficult to loose weight with PCOS. Please suggest proper diet and exercise for weight loss.
For some women, a period can be more than just uncomfortable. There are a number of menstrual problems that could affect women. These range from irregular periods to excessive bleeding and premenstrual syndrome. The good news is that homeopathy can be used to effectively treat these problems. Homeopathy is a holistic form of treatment that addresses the root cause of the problem instead of the symptoms. Additionally, it has negligible side effects.
Here are a few homeopathic forms of treatment for menstrual problems:
- Sepia: Sepia can be used to treat late menstruation as well as scanty blood flow. It is also helpful is the period is accompanied by pain and a sense of weight in the pelvic area and lower back. This can also be used to treat irritability and depression.
- Pulsatilla: Pulsatilla is helpful in cases where menstrual bleeding causes substantial weight fluctuations, bloating and water retention. It can also be used to treat irregular periods and scanty or excess blood flow. Pulsatilla is also used as a form of treatment for the severe griping pains that can accompany menstrual flow.
- Cimicifuga: This is used to treat irregular periods and painful periods. It also treats mental unrest, nervousness and irritability triggered by menstruation.
- Lycopodium: In some cases, delayed menses can last longer than normal and have an abnormally heavy blood flow. In such cases, lycopodium is an effective homeopathic remedy.
- Belladonna: Excessive menstrual bleeding and early menses can be treated with belladonna. This type of menses is also accompanied by intense pain that is relieved by standing and cramps in the back and arms. Belladonna is also extremely useful in acute cases of endometriosis and inflammation of the ovaries.
- Creosote: Excessive blood flow that is intermittent and preceded by abdominal bloating can be treated using Creosote. This blood flow is usually dark brown in colour and accompanied by an offensive odor. Creosote can also be used against ulcerations in the female genital organs, burning pain and soreness.
- Helonias: Pain extending from the back of the uterus and loss of muscle strength in the genital organs can be treated with helonias. It can also be used to treat leucorrhoea or dark, offensive vaginal discharge as well as displacement of the uterus.
When prescribing medication for a menstrual problem, a homeopathic doctor not only looks at the symptoms presented but also the personality and lifestyle of the patient. Hence what suits one person may not have the same effect on another. Hence, if you are facing a menstrual problem, it is best to consult a doctor at the earliest.
In 5 Years, Threat Of Drug-Resistant Superbugs Doubles
A 72-year-old woman in Bengaluru consulted a hospital physician about a severe skin infection and fever. She had previously consulted a couple of general practitioners, who prescribed a course of penicillin for three days and fluoroquinolones—both antibiotics—for two days.
There was no relief.
So, the consultant ordered a culture sensitivity test of pus from the skin lesions to identify what was causing her ailment and figure out what antibiotics it would respond to.
Here’s what the report said:
Pathogen: Klebsiella pneumoniae
Susceptible to: No antibiotic
Resistant to: All antibiotics, including advanced drugs like fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and even the last resort combination usually reserved for severe cases of ICU infection, colistin-tigecycline.
With nothing to offer the patient, save a prescription for paracetamol to keep her fever in check, the doctor sent the patient home, and asked her to return after a week.
In such cases, sometimes, the body’s immunity kicks in and throws off the infection, the physician, Sheela Chakravarthy, consultant (internal medicine) at Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru, told IndiaSpend.
Sometimes, resistance to one or more drugs abates, allowing treatment to be resumed. Chances of that happening are greater at home, not in the hospital, which is a more infectious space where sepsis—a disproportionate and potentially life-threatening immune response by your body to an infection—could set in, she explained.
Most patients, however, succumb to the infection.
Chakravarthy faces situations where she has nothing to offer patients, not because they are suffering from terminal illnesses, such as some forms of cancer, but even when they present with what should be curable infections, “almost every day”, she said.
What Chakravarthy described is the consequence of rampant, inappropriate consumption of antibiotics, spurring the development of superbugs, as the recently released State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015 affirms.
India is fast becoming home to superbugs
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are three of the deadliest pathogens facing humanity, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). And India is gradually but increasingly becoming home to multi-drug resistant strains of these pathogens, according to the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015.
Escherichia coli is notorious for causing food poisoning and urinary tract infections.
In 2010, 5% of Escherichia coli samples in India were resistant to carbapenems, last-resort antibiotics for bacteria that are resistant to first-, second- and third-line drugs. By 2014, 12% of E. coli samples were similarly resistant.
Klebsiella pneumoniae causes pneumonia, septicaemia and infections in the urinary tract, lower biliary tract and at surgical wound sites, to name a few.
While 29% of Klebsiella pneumonia isolates were resistant to carbapenems in 2008, this increased to 57% in 2014.
For comparison, fewer than 10% of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in Europe are carbapenem-resistant.
Staphylococcus aureus can cause skin and soft tissue infections, bloodstream infections, pneumonia and surgical site infections. A particularly nasty strain of, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is common in India and increasingly hard to treat.
MRSA was responsible for 40% of post-surgical site infections, according to a 2013 study by the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh.
Between 2009 and 2014, the incidence of MRSA in India has risen from 29% to 47%.
People with MRSA are 64% more likely to die than people with a non-resistant form of the infection, according to the WHO.
How ignorance is spurring the development of superbugs
“My understanding of antibiotic is that it stops bacteria growing in body…I think amoxicillin is for throat infection.”
–An urban participant of a study of perceptions about antibiotic use and resistance among urban and rural doctors, pharmacists and public in Vellore.
Mox, short for amoxicillin, has become a household word across India.
A little knowledge, however, is a dangerous thing. It encourages self-medication, even when medicine is unnecessary, such as when people suffer viral infections—against which drugs are ineffective. Most viral fevers dissipate on their own after a few days with rest, hot fluids and a check on the fever.
Consuming too many antibiotics contributes to pathogen drug resistance.
“Resistance is an outcome of accumulated use,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, vice president, Research and Policy, Public Health Foundation of India, and director and senior fellow, Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, US, and co-author of the State of the World’s Antibiotic Report 2015.
Indians often rely on corner pharmacists, whose knowledge of dosages may be limited.
Here’s what a rural pharmacist participant of the aforementioned Vellore study said: “Amoxicillin, 6 tablets is to be taken [for full course].”
Amoxicillin’s full course depends on the kind and severity of bacterial infection.
When an antibiotic of lower strength or fewer pills than needed is prescribed, the body cannot fully eradicate the pathogen. Sensing it has come under attack, the bacterium responds by evolving into more resilient, antibiotic-resistant strains.
But with a course of antibiotics, say generic Amoxicillin, costing about Rs 160, close to a day’s wage in many states, and a doctor’s consultation costing anywhere between Rs 100 and Rs 1,000, more than a day’s wage in most places, patients are bound to cut corners.
Another Vellore study participant summed up the situation thus: “If I have money I go to hospital. If not, I get medicine from pharmacy shop. If I get better, I stop and keep for future use.”
Stopping a course of drugs mid-way also contributes to antibiotic microbial resistance.
In a 2015 study in Chennai, 70% respondents confessed to stopping the medication when they felt better. Only 57% completed the antibiotic course.
“Less is more”: the key to preserving antibiotic efficiency
Educate health professionals, policy makers and the public on sustainable antibiotic use, says the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015.
That is sensible advice.
Denmark and Sweden boast of low rates of antibiotic use and near-zero rates of antibiotic resistance because the risks of antibiotic overuse are widely known.
Instituting regulations on antibiotic use has reduced the proportion of MRSA in Europe and the US by about a fifth over the last eight years.
India requires more stringent regulations for antibiotic use.
It isn’t enough to tell physicians that they should prescribe antibiotics only when essential to cure bacterial infections. The right way is to order a culture sensitivity test, which costs money, and the patience to wait for the result.
“Patients want instant and cheap relief, and are willing to shop around for a doctor who obliges,” said Dr Himanshu Shekhar, medical director, SCI International Hospital, New Delhi.
“Some judge doctors on how fast the prescribed medicine cures. Practice pressures lead many doctors to prescribe advanced drugs, without getting a culture-sensitivity test done.”
So, it’s also not enough to have 24 advanced antibiotics, including third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and newer fluoroquinolones, under the ambit of Schedule H1 of the Drugs & Cosmetic Rules, 1945, with effect from March 1, 2014.
That means these drugs cannot be sold over-the-counter, but they are still freely prescribed.
Chakravarthy’s suggestion: “Make Schedule H antibiotics available only through hospitals and health centres.”
“Changing antibiotic usage behaviours is critical to preserve the efficacy of existing and new drugs,” proposed Laxminarayan.
India also sorely needs regulations to check antibiotic use in animals raised for human consumption, to meet the State of the World’s Antibiotic Report 2015 recommendation to reduce and eventually phase out sub-therapeutic antibiotic use in agriculture.
Sub-therapeutic use implies mixing antibiotics in animal feed to make them grow faster and to prevent infections from devastating the herd or flock.
India is among the world’s five biggest consumers of antibiotics for livestock. IndiaSpend has earlier reported increasing evidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals in India, and how this impacts humans.
“Using antibiotics to make animals fatter faster is a waste of a precious resource,” said Laxminarayan.
How surgeons contribute to antibiotic resistance
Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the prescribing of antibiotics before, during and after operations to prevent infection.
Between 19% and 86% of patients in hospitals in India receive “inappropriate antibiotic prophylaxis”, according to the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015. A prophylactic is preventive treatment for a disease.
Ideally, antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered as a single dose within 60 minutes of the skin incision. However, a 2013 Mangalore-based study found timing adhered to in 22% of cases in a government hospital, 64.9% cases in a medical-college teaching hospital and 80.7% of patients in a tertiary care corporate hospital.
“Smart antibiotic prophylaxis also includes choosing narrow-spectrum antibiotics to target the organism most likely to present concerns based on the kind of surgery being performed, this avoids needless exposure to antibiotics for the other microbes and helps prevent resistance,” said Vimesh Mistry, assistant professor, Pharmacology, Baroda Medical College.
Staphylococcus aureus, which lives on the skin, is most likely to cause infection during surgery. But surgeons frequently make poor antibiotic choices.
“We found appropriateness of choice of antibiotic in 68% cases and 52% compliance with the in-house prophylaxis guidelines,” said Tanu Singhal, infectious diseases specialist, Mumbai, and co-author of another study on antibiotic prophylaxis conducted in PD Hinduja Hospital, Mumbai.
Other prophylaxis inaccuracies include the unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics, inaccurate dose and inaccurate duration of prescription.
“We logged 63% accuracy in prescription duration. Surgeons tend to prescribe antibiotics for too long fearing post-surgery infection,” said Singhal.
In the trade off between protecting the patient better and increasing the risk to society of a pathogen developing resistance, surgeons are choosing the former.
Needed: A back-to-the-basics approach to health
Reducing the need for antibiotics through improved water, sanitation and immunisation is another strategy recommended in the State of the World’s Antibiotics Report 2015.
“Vaccination against pathogens such as the diarrhoea-causing rotavirus and pneumonia-causing Klebsiella pneumoniae helps curtail antibiotic demand, thereby reducing the chances of resistant strains developing,” said Laxminarayan.
In Canada, the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for pneumonia in children has reduced the incidence of pneumonia caused by strains the vaccine covers.
However, just as antibiotic usage spurs the development of superbugs, vaccination is a double-edged sword.
Canada is seeing a rapid increase in the incidence of other strains of pneumonia not protected against by the vaccine.
So, it is better to focus on the basic constituents of health.
Making available clean drinking water and improving sanitation would prevent people from getting sick in the first place. India still has a lot to do on both these fronts.
Improving individual immunity is the best bet to ward off infections, and that is also achievable by healthier eating, exercising, healthier living and the better management of chronic conditions like diabetes and asthma that increase vulnerability to infections when they are not kept in check.
Dr Himanshu Shekhar
( Above Article , with My Inputs was published in a leading Health Magazine)