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Ovarian cancer occurs when there is a formation of tumor in the ovarian cells. This kind of cancer basically happens in the cells of the ovaries, which are responsible for the production of estrogen and progesterone the two female hormones. The ovaries themselves are the reproductive glands that produce and release eggs. When abnormal cells in these glands begin to grow and multiply, then a tumor begins to manifest, which leads to cancer. Let us find out more about ovarian cancer, including its early diagnosis.
Detecting Early Signs: The problem with this kind of cancer is that it produces vague symptoms in the beginning, which may be easy to dismiss. Yet, as per many medical reports, about 20% of the cases may be detected in the early stages, depending on the kind of cancer.
Symptoms and Early Signs: The earliest signs of this kind of cancer include bloating in the abdomen, as well as a feeling of excessive fullness after each and every meal. Many people tend to ignore such signs, but they must be reported to a doctor in case these signs are persistent and do not go away after a few days. Gradually, the patient will also show signs like lack of appetite and a failure to eat and retain food properly. An increase in the urge to urinate is also an early sign that must not be ignored.
Other Signs and Symptoms: As the cancer progresses, other signs and symptoms of the condition include indigestion, unexplained fatigue, Irregular menstrual cycles, pain during sexual intercourse and back pain as well as constipation. While these symptoms may occur due to a number of reasons, it is best to have the same checked by a doctor so that proper diagnosis may take place and cancer may be ruled out.
Diagnosis: For the earliest signs of the disease, the doctor will prescribe an ultrasound and an X-ray. These tests will help in creating an image of the internal organs that may have been affected. Also, CT and MRI scans will usually follow in such cases. Routine lab tests will also be conducted with the help of blood and urine samples.
Pap Smear: One of the best ways of early diagnosis is with the help of a regular Pap Smear test. This test is usually taken by extracting a sample from the vaginal area so that the doctor may study any growth or anomalies in the cervical and ovarian cells. One must have this test done on a regular basis after going through child birth and even after reaching one’s thirties, so that any change may be detected at the earliest. It is said that every woman must go through this test annually as a matter of priority. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
My Mother is 45 years old. She has Breast Cancer. Now she is under Chemotherapy. What will do to prevent from it in future.
Prostate cancer is a cancerous tumor in a man’s prostate gland, a small gland that is responsible for producing the seminal fluid which transports and nourishes the sperm. It is a very common type of cancer among men. A few cases of prostate cancer tend to develop slowly while others may progress very fast.
In the initial stages, prostate cancer may not show any symptom. However, in the latter stages, there may be symptoms such as:
Pain in the bones.
Urination can get troublesome.
Presence of blood in the semen.
Pain and discomfort in the pelvic region.
The exact causes of prostate cancer are not known. It starts to develop when certain cells in the prostate gland start to mutate. These mutations cause these cells to multiply at a very fast rate and thus, soon form tumors. Although the causes are not known, certain factors tend to aggravate this condition; them being:
Color: According to certain medical reports, a darker skin may mean increased chances of suffering from prostate cancer.
Age: The risk of developing prostate cancer tends to increase with age.
Genetics and Family History: Faulty genes could be another cause of this condition. Also, having some member in the family who is diagnosed with this type of cancer only increases the risks of you suffering from them.
Obesity: If you are obese, then you are more likely to develop prostate cancer.
The treatments for prostate cancer include:
Radiation Therapy: In this procedure, high energy rays are used to target and destroy cancer cells. Usually X-rays or protons are used to treat the cancer cells.
Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy is a type of treatment wherein certain medications are administered to prevent your body from producing testosterone.
Surgery: If the other treatment methods do not produce desired results, then a surgery is carried out for the removal of the prostate gland. In addition to the prostate gland, some adjoining lymph nodes and tissues are also removed.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is method of destroying cancer cells by injecting chemicals into the body. The medicines are injected into the veins in the arms.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer similar to lymphoma and leukemia. Normally, plasma cells make antibodies which are responsible for fighting off infectious diseases. With multiple myeloma, however, they release too much of a protein known as immunoglobulin. Due to the excess buildup of protein in the body, organ damage occurs. Multiple myeloma cannot be cured, it can only have its progression slowed down. Here is everything you need to know about multiple myeloma:
Just like with other forms of cancer, the exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known. However, there are several risk factors which are responsible for increasing your chances of suffering from multiple myeloma.
- Age: Age poses as one of the most important risk factors. Being over 65 increases your chances of getting multiple myeloma, according to studies.
- Race: African-Americans are more likely to get multiple myeloma compared to other races.
- Genetics: Multiple myeloma is more likely to happen if a family member has it as well.
- Other Diseases: Solitary plasmacytoma, MGUS and other plasma related diseases make you more likely to develop multiple myeloma.
- Bone pain or bone fractures
- Increased vulnerability to infections
- Increased or decreased urination
- Restlessness – eventually followed by extreme weakness and fatigue
- Increased thirst
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Impaired kidney function
Your doctor may test you for multiple myeloma if a blood test reveals:
- Too much calcium in your blood (hypercalcemia)
- Kidney problems
- High protein levels in your blood combined with a low albumin level (globulin gap)
There is no cure for multiple myeloma; however with good treatment you can resume normal activities. Here are the treatment options-
- Biological therapy: These are medications given in pill form which enhance the body's immune system; so that it can fight off myeloma cells.
- Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is when cancerous cells are killed by targeting the abnormalities within them. These are given through a vein in your arm.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy kills all the cells which are growing at a rapid rate. These drugs can be given through injection or orally.
- Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids are medicines which regulate the immune system by controlling the inflammation in the body. Corticosteroids can be taken in pill form or even through injections.
- Stem Cells Transplant: An autologous stem cell transplant is recommended for all eligible and suitable patients of multiple myeloma under 65 yrs of age, who show a good response to initial therapy, as it has been proven to improve survival. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!