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This is My MRI Report Pl suggest next circumferential posterior disc bulge with posterocentral and bilateral forminal protrusion at l4 l5 level indenting the anterior thecal sac ,encroaching over the inferior aspect af the bilateral neural foramina and indenting over the traversing L5 exiting nerve root on either side circumferential posterior disc bulge with bilateral forminal protrusion at L3 L4 level indenting the anterior thecal sac encroaching over the inferior aspect af the bilateral neural foramina and indenting over bilateral L3 nerve root.
A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:
Types of Mastectomy
1. Total or simple mastectomy
This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
2. Preventive mastectomy
Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.
3. Partial mastectomy
Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.
4. Radical mastectomy
Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.
5. Modified mastectomy
It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.
Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:
• Age of the individual
• Health in general
• Size of the tumor
• The spread of the tumor
• The rate of progression of the tumor
• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
What is a breast Cancer? How can identify ?Symptoms? One year baby stop feed's but if a milk. What can I do?
Doctor my 13 year old daughter has developed slip disc in her L4 and L5 vertebrae. What should be her treatment?
Hello Doctor, I was suffered from herniated disc. Now I am feeling well. Can I do the exercises for abs. Please suggest.
Hi Sir/Madam. I Have Disc problem (L4 L5 S1. Is It Come Under Physically Handicapped). If I Apply Government Jobs. please help me. Thank you.
Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the breast. Mainly it occurs in females but less than 1% of all the breast cancer cases develop in males. The majority of breast cancers start in the milk ducts. A small number start in the milk sacs or lobules. It can spread to the lymph nodes and to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs and to the brain.
With more reliable early detection methods as well as the trend towards less invasive surgery, there is hope that even more women with breast cancer will be treated successfully and will go on to resume their normal lives.
Signs & Symptoms
It is painless, especially, during the early stage. Watch out for the following changes in the breast:
- A persistent lump or thickening in the breast or in the axilla.
- A change in the size or shape of the breast.
- A change in the colour or appearance of the skin of the breast such as redness, puckering or dimpling.
- Bloody discharge from the nipple.
- A change in the nipple or areola such as scaliness, persistent rash or nipple retraction (nipple pulled into the breast).
Consult a doctor immediately if you notice any of these changes.
Being a woman puts you at risk of getting breast cancer. There are certain factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Some of them have been listed below:
- The risk increases with age; most cases of breast cancer develop after the age of 50
- Genetic alterations in certain genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2
- Family history of breast cancer
- Being overweight
- Early menarche (onset of menstruation before the age of 12)
- Late menopause (after the age of 55)
- Never had children
- Late childbearing
- No breast feeding
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- Use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) for a long period of time
However, most women who have breast cancer have none of the above risk factors. Likewise, not having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will not get breast cancer.
Early Detection and Screening
More treatment options are available when breast cancer is diagnosed at an early stage and hence the chances of recovery is also higher. So regular breast screening is important for early detection even if there are no symptoms. Following are the ways of screening:
- Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Perform BSE once a month about a week after your menses are over. If you no longer menstruate, choose a date each month which is easy to remember e.g. your date of birth or anniversary.
- Clinical Breast Examination: Get a breast specialist to examine your breast once a year if you are 40 years and above.
- Mammogram: Go for a screening mammogram once a year if you are 40 to 49 years old and once every two years if you are 50 years and above even if you do not have any symptom. It is not recommended for younger women (less than 40 years of age) as they have dense breasts, making it difficult for small changes to be detected on a mammogram. So ultrasonography of the breasts is advisable to them.
Types of Breast cancer
- Non-Invasive Breast cancer: These are confined to the ducts within the breasts. They are known as Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS).
- Invasive Breast cancer: It occurs when cancer cells spread beyond the ducts or lobules. Cancer cells first spread to the surrounding breast tissue and subsequently to the lymph nodes in the armpit (Axillary lymph nodes). These cells can also travel to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs or brain and hence known as metastatic breast cancer.
Making A Diagnosis
If you notice any unusual changes in your breasts, you should see a doctor immediately. He will examine you clinically and may ask you to undergo some tests so that a definitive diagnosis can be made. Further, the staging work up is done to find out the stage of the disease and management accordingly.
Treatment of breast cancer may include various methods such as surgery with or without breast reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. Treatment options offered, depend upon the number of factors such as the stage of cancer and likelihood of cure, your general health and your preference. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an oncologist.
Ihc ka test cancer mei kyu kia jata hai? Ye immunity ka test hota To agar har 2 neu positive hai To extra immune tab kha sakte hain?
Breast cancer begins when cells in the breast start to get out of control. These cells are mostly in the form of a tumor that can be regularly seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is dangerous (malignant) if the cells attack the surrounding tissues or spread to far off zones in the body. Breast cancer happens mostly in women, yet men can get it, as well.
This is how breast cancer can spread:
- Bosom cancer can spread through the lymph framework
- The lymph framework includes lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and lymph liquid found all throughout the body
- Lymph nodes are little, bean-shaped accumulations of immune system cells that are connected by lymph (or lymphatic) vessels. Lymph vessels resemble little veins, with the exception of that they transport a liquid called lymph (rather than blood) far from the breast
- Lymph contains tissue liquid, waste items, and immune system cells. Breast cancer cells can enter lymph vessels and start to develop into lymph nodes
A large portion of the lymph vessels of the breast deplete into the:
- Lymph nodes under the arm (axillary hubs)
- Lymph nodes around the neck bone (supraclavicular and infraclavicular lymph hubs)
- Lymph nodes inside the neck close to the breast bone (inner mammary lymph hubs)
Following are some of the causes of breast cancer:
- Hormones play a part in creating breast cancer disease; however exactly how this happens is not completely known
- Ordinary breast cells get to be distinctly carcinogenic in view of changes (transformations) in DNA
- Yet, most DNA changes identified with breast cancer are gained in breast cells during a woman’s life as opposed to having been acquired
- Qualities that accelerate cell division are called oncogenes
- Tumor silencer qualities are typical qualities that back off cell division, repair DNA oversights, or advise cells when to bite the dust
- Certain acquired DNA transformations (changes) can drastically increase chances for building up specific growths and are in charge of a large number of tumors that keep running in few families
Some of the treatments of breast cancer include:
- Health alterations: Body weight, physical action, and eating routine are all connected to breast tumor, so these may be territories where you can make a move.
- Restorative alternatives for women at expanded hazard: For women who have certain hazard components for breast growth, for example, a family history; various restorative alternatives may counteract breast cancer.
- Medications to lessen hazard: For women at expanded danger of breast cancer, medications, for example, tamoxifen and raloxifene, can reduce the hazard. However, these medications can have their own dangers and symptoms.
- Preventive surgery: In case that you have a solid family history of breast cancer, you can talk with your specialist about hereditary testing. This test addresses changes in qualities that increase the danger of breast cancer; for example, the BRCA qualities. In case you have a hereditary change from a family with a transformation, however, have not been tried, you could consider surgery to bring down your danger of tumor.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Breast cancer is usually genetic in nature and it may affect women whose mother or grandmother may have suffered from the disease. This disease may start from the inner portion of the milk duct, in which case it is called ductal carcinoma. In case the cancer initiated through the lobules, it is called lobular carcinoma. In order to find the existence of the disease on a timely basis, it is imperative to get regular screening done. This can also prevent the disease and its spread. Read on to find out more about symptoms and breast cancer screening methods.
There are many symptoms of breast cancer, which can point at the existence of the same. Therefore, it is imperative to be vigilant and take note of such changes and symptoms so that the disease may be tackled on time. Persistent and unexplained pain in and around the breasts is one of the major symptoms that one should not ignore. Also, dimpling and the formation of new lumps under the armpits are other changes that should be reported to the doctor for more advanced screening. Further, irritation and redness in the area which does not go away after the onset of periods and remains for many weeks, should be checked. Bleeding, swelling and pulling of the nipple area can also point at the existence of breast cancer.
How screeing can be done?
The doctor will, first of all, carry out a physical examination. This is due to the fact that breast cancer is not a mere existence of the lump. The various changes in the breasts as discussed above, especially dimpling of the breasts and pulling of the nipples, can point at the beginning of the disease, which must be tackled so as to prevent the full-fledged onset of the same. During this kind of clinical breast exam, the doctor will also show the patient how to conduct the test on her own every few weeks.
This is essentially an X-Ray of the breasts and is usually carried out for women who have been facing consistent symptoms or even for those who are going through menopause. This kind of a test should not be done too frequently as it can expose the patient to the risk of breast cancer, in case she does not already have the problem. This test is usually carried out with the help of a mammogram machine that will give a reading once the breasts are placed on the metal plates.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test seeks to create pictures of the area of the body in question with the help of radio waves. This is usually conducted for those patients who already run a high risk of breast cancer due to a family history of the same.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!