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Hello doctor, I am having a burning or may be acidity from my stomach to my throat and sometimes in my chest, sometimes when I breath deep I feel someone is stretching my veins in my chest, and I feel some kind of lumps is there in my throat, I am having this for 4 days. I use to smoke a little, but was a heavy smoker for 3 years like 10 cigarettes on an average in past but now 1 or 2 on a daily basis, should I be worried of cancer or something, am nervous and can't sleep please help me out doctor. Thanks a lot in advance.
2 years back I had a lump in my breast after diagnose, I got to know it was fibroid and I got operated for the same. Dr. Pls tell me is that possible that it can happen again. Cz currently I feel there little tiny lump in my breast it's smaller than a piece of rice. Pls advice me is that serious or what precautions I should take.
I have been smoking regularly for 40 year, I want to get some test done to check my health and the early risk of cancer (if any). What tests should I go for?
My sister is 21 year old. She had a tumour near her private part, 3 week before and get operated. Even before the wounds suffered due to operation get heeled, another tumour started to grow near the same place. Please suggest me the best solution or better place to get treated. She is suffering more with the pain and bedridden for past 3 week. Kindly help me.
My mother is 51 years old and still has her periods and this time the flow was too much and she had stomach pain also. Sonography reports say that the uterus is bulky. Doctor had advised for paps smear test. Can it be cancer also. I am worried. Please suggest your thoughts.
My age is 28 and I have a disease named Chronic myeloid leukemia. Chronic phase (BLOOD CANCER) Bcr qualification 44.96 I have this disease since 2013 nd I am taking glivec 400 mg till now So I just want to know how much time it take to Overcome And also which treatment is best Also I want to know which stage of blood cancer is this.
Hello All, My father's prostate gland got enlarged also his sodium level became down so doctors put foley catheter as he has become so weak, and did medication for sodium level increase. After discharge they said to keep catheter for two weeks as he has become weak, when we took my father to home he was getting few drops of blood in insertion area of catheter and few amount of blood through pipe also, but next day it was all OK, but after six to ten days he started bleeding from catheter like continuous blood was flowing and that catheter bag was full of blood, we took him again to doctor and it's been two days the flow of blood is now reduced but it's still coming. Also as he was having cholesterol problem so doctor has given tablets which will thin blood, please can someone help me out with how many days it will be fine and why this issue can be occurred. Is this normal because doctors has hospitalized him but blood flow is still there. Thanks so much in advance!
With the modernization of all economies around the world, one health hazard that has become one of the largest perils within both developed and developing nations is the incidence of cancers of the female reproductive system, especially cervical and breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the formation of malignant tumors within the breast tissues of a woman. Usually, breast cancer affects women in the age range of 40 to 50, but there have been many reports of it occurring earlier. About 48 % percent of the Indian women having breast cancer have been reported to be under 50. This is an almost 17 percent jump compared to figures 25 years earlier.
Alarming Signs of Breast Cancer:
- The most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded.
- Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
- Skin irritation or dimpling
- Breast or nipple pain
- Nipple retraction (turning inward)
- Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
- Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
Screening Guidelines for Breast cancer:
- Mammography: US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography once in every 2 year for females between age group 50-75 years. Women with a family history has a benefit of starting at age 40 years. After 75 years there are insufficient evidence of benefit of screening mammography.
- Breast Self Examination and annual Clinical examination: breast self examination is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist.
- For High Risk/ Genetic risk factors: screening should start by age 25 or 10 years earlier of youngest relative affected. Annual mammogram and MRI or Doppler ultrasound alternating at 6 month interval can be considered.
Some of the common treatment options for breast cancers are:
- Breast conservation surgery - This is where the tumors are removed without cutting out too much of the surrounding breast tissue.
- Mastectomy - If the cancer has spread too far then large amounts of breast tissue has to be removed along with the tumor to stop its spread any further.
- Sentinel lymph node Biopsy - it's part of both surgical procedures, it decreases morbidities of lymph node dissection first draining lymph nodes only are removed in patients with clinically negative axilla. If negative on frozen section further axillary dissection is avoided. It avoids the morbidity of complete axillary clearance.
Cervical cancer ( Carcinoma Cervix)
Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix, which is the opening of the uterus and connects the uterus to the vagina. Indian women in particular are susceptible to cervical cancer as more than 1/3rd of the cervical cancer related deaths in the entire world happens here in India, which is about 74000 deaths annually. The leading cause for cervical cancer is HPV or Human Papillomavirus infection, which if left untreated and unchecked will result in cancer.
Alarming Signs of Cervical Carcinoma:
- Early lesions and precancerous lesions have no symptoms
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding such as bleeding after vaginal intercourse, bleeding after menopause, bleeding and spotting between periods or longer/heavier periods
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Pelvic pain
- Late stage disease may cause lower extremity swelling, problem with urine and/or stool passage
- Cervical cancer screening is most effective screening programme of any cancer disease resulting in significant decrease in mortality from carcinoma cervix
- United state preventive services task force (USPSTF) recommend cervical cancer screening starting at age 21 yrs.
- Between age 21-30 years cytology recommended at 3 year interval and HPV testing is not recommended.
- Between 30-65 years cytology every 3 year or cytology +HPV testing every 5 year.
- If previously adequately screened screening can be discontinued after 65 years.
- Women with prior total hysterectomy and no CIN can discontinue screening.
Apart from breast and cervical cancers, certain other cancers have also reported an alarming increase such as:-
Ovarian cancer (Carcinoma Ovary)
Starting in the ovaries, diagnosis of this type of cancer is usually delayed due to lack of visible symptoms in the initial stages. About 85% to 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Epithelial ovarian cancers tend to spread to the lining and organs of the pelvis and abdomen (belly) first. This may lead to the buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (called ascites). As it advances, it may spread to the lung and liver, or, rarely, to the brain, bones, or skin. The main treatments for ovarian cancer are surgery and chemotherapy.
Cancer of the endometrium (Carcinoma Endometrium)
Endometrium is the lining of the uterine wall and has along with ovarian, uterine and cervical cancer is also increasing in occurrences throughout India and the world.
The grade of an endometrial cancer is based on how much the cancer forms glands that look similar to those found in normal, healthy endometrium.
- Grade 1 tumors have 95% or more of the cancerous tissue forming glands.
- Grade 2 tumors have between 50% and 94% of the cancerous tissue forming glands.
- Grade 3 tumors have less than half of the cancerous tissue forming glands. Grade 3 cancers tend to be aggressive and have a poorer outlook than lower-grade cancers.
Cervical cancer along with Ovarian, uterine and endometrial cancer can be treated using the following methods:
1. Surgery: Radical Hysterectomy primarily preferred option for early stage disease. Both open and minimal invasive approaches are suitable.
- For precancer high grade lesion conisation is also option for compliant patient.
- In young suitable patient willing for childbearing trachelectomy is also possible in very early lesion.
- Depending on risk factors after surgery adjuvant treatment may be advised.
2. Radiation therapy or Combined Radiation therapy+Chemotherapy: Alternative to surgery in early stage and choice in late stage.
Certain prevention techniques that would be advisable to detect cancer in its early stages would be,
- Regular Pap smear tests for cervical cancer
- Taking vaccines for cervical cancer
- Regular mammograms and checkups for breast cancer
- Changing lifestyles to reduce stress
- Changes in diet to reduce risks
- Leading a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The term bone marrow transplant is actually a misnomer in the present context as a vast majority of transplants are now conducted by harvesting stem cells from the blood of the donor.
So the correct and logical term now is peripheral blood stem cell transplant. This is just like a blood donation for the donor and poses no risk at all to the donor. The term blood cancer is generally used for leukemias, these can be of two types - acute and chronic.
For the chronic leukemias, especially chronic myeloid leukemia, stem cell transplant is now generally not required as drugs like imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib are extremely effective. For chronic lymphocytic leukemia transplant is rarely done these days and is generally reserved for relatively younger patients. Even in the imatinib era transplant is an effective procedure and can cure patients with CML (chronic myeloid leukemia) who do not respond to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
For acute myeloid leukemias stem cell transplant is recommended for all cases except the low risk cases, after completion of chemotherapy. Risk is defined based on kind of genetic mutations in the leukemic cells for acute lymphoblastic leukemia transplant is generally done at relapse, but certain genetic mutations necessitate an earlier transplant, so does presence of or increase in minimal residual disease, which signifies cancer cells not visible to the human eye under the microscope.
Procedure of stem cell transplant HLA matching is done between patient and siblings. Best match is selected as a donor. Matched sibling is the most commonly used donor in blood cancers. In many cases a match is not available, for such cases matched unrelated donor, cord blood, or a partially matched donor (haploidentical donor) is sometimes selected. Donor is given growth factor injection subcutaneously to bring out the stem cells from the bone marrow to bloodstream, twice daily for 5 days. After that the stem cells are collected and stored. Patient is given high dose chemotherapy to kill cancer cells as well as his normal marrow. After chemotherapy, donor stem cells are injected into the body of patient from a vein. After approximately 11-14 days the donor cells get engrafted in the patient's marrow and start producing normal blood cells. The donor cells also kill the cancer cells and prevent cancer from coming back.
Overall depending on whether the patients cancer is controlled or not before transplant the cure rate after transplant can vary from 60 % for patients who have a good control and less aggressive disease biology, to less then 20 % in patients with uncontrolled disease before transplant. Overall, approximately 40 % patients get cured with a transplant. Upto 40 % patients can develop complications, and half of these may be very severe and life threatening. This figure is more in mismatched transplants. Apart from complications, there is still a risk of relapse and these patients need close monitoring in the first few years after transplant.