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May Flower Hospital For Women And Children, Hyderabad

May Flower Hospital For Women And Children

  4.5  (95 ratings)

Pediatric Clinic

Opposite Bharat Petrol Pump, Sainikpuri Hyderabad
1 Doctor · ₹300 · 2 Reviews
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May Flower Hospital For Women And Children   4.5  (95 ratings) Pediatric Clinic Opposite Bharat Petrol Pump, Sainikpuri Hyderabad
1 Doctor · ₹300 · 2 Reviews
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Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.By combining excellent care with a state-......more
Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.By combining excellent care with a state-of-the-art facility we strive to provide you with quality health care. We thank you for your interest in our services and the trust you have placed in us.
More about May Flower Hospital For Women And Children
May Flower Hospital For Women And Children is known for housing experienced Pediatricians. Dr. Ramakanth Reddy, a well-reputed Pediatrician, practices in Hyderabad. Visit this medical health centre for Pediatricians recommended by 56 patients.


09:30 AM - 10:30 AM


Opposite Bharat Petrol Pump, Sainikpuri
Sainikpuri Hyderabad, Telangana - 500062
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Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

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Doctor in May Flower Hospital For Women And Children

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
90%  (95 ratings)
23 Years experience
300 at clinic
₹200 online
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09:30 AM - 10:30 AM
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MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Children



What is GERD?

GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

GERD is a more serious and long-lasting form of gastroesophageal reflux (GER).

GER is common in babies under 2 years old. Most babies spit up a few times a day during their first 3 months. GER does not cause any problems in babies. In most cases, babies outgrow this by the time they are 12 to 14 months old.

It is also common for children and teens ages 2 to 19 to have GER from time to time. This doesn’t always mean they have GERD.

When GER becomes GERD

Your baby, child, or teen may have GERD if:

  • Your baby’s symptoms prevent him or her from feeding. These symptoms may include vomiting, gagging, coughing, and trouble breathing.
  • Your baby has GER for more than 12 to 14 months
  • Your child or teen has GER more than 2 times a week, for a few months 

What causes GERD?

GERD is often caused by something that affects the LES, the lower esophageal sphincter. The LES is a muscle at the bottom of the food pipe (esophagus). The LES opens to let food into the stomach. It closes to keep food in the stomach. When the LES relaxes too often or for too long, stomach acid flows back into the esophagus. This causes vomiting or heartburn.

Everyone has reflux from time to time. If you have ever burped and had an acid taste in your mouth, you have had reflux. Sometimes the LES relaxes at the wrong times. Often your child will just have a bad taste in his or her mouth. Or your child may have a short, mild feeling of heartburn.

Babies are more likely to have a weak LES. This makes the LES relax when it should stay shut. As food or milk is digesting, the LES opens. It lets the stomach contents go back up to the esophagus. Sometimes the stomach contents go all the way up the esophagus. Then the baby or child vomits. In other cases, the stomach contents only go part of the way up the esophagus. This causes heartburn or breathing problems. In some cases there are no symptoms at all.

Some foods seem to affect the muscle tone of the LES. They let the LES stay open longer than normal. These foods include:

Other foods cause the stomach to make more acid. These foods include:

  • Citrus foods
  • Tomatoes and tomato sauces

Other things that may lead to GERD include:

  • Being obese
  • Medicines, including some antihistamines, antidepressants, and pain medicines
  • Being around secondhand smoke

What are the risk factors for GERD?

GERD is very common during a baby’s first year of life. It often goes away on its own. Your child is more at risk for GERD if he or she has:

  • Down syndrome
  • Neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy

What are the symptoms of GERD?

Heartburn, or acid indigestion, is the most common symptom of GERD. Heartburn is described as a burning chest pain. It begins behind the breastbone and moves up to the neck and throat. It can last as long as 2 hours. It is often worse after eating. Lying down or bending over after a meal can also lead to heartburn.

Children younger than age 12 will often have different GERD symptoms. They will have a dry cough, asthma symptoms, or trouble swallowing. They won’t have classic heartburn.

Each child may have different symptoms. Common symptoms of GERD include:

  • Burping or belching
  • Not eating
  • Having stomach pain
  • Being fussy around mealtimes
  • Vomiting often
  • Having hiccups
  • Gagging
  • Choking
  • Coughing often
  • Having coughing fits at night

Other symptoms may include:

  • Wheezing
  • Getting colds often
  • Getting ear infections often
  • Having a rattling in the chest
  • Having a sore throat in the morning
  • Having a sour taste in the mouth
  • Having bad breath
  • Loss or decay of tooth enamel

GERD symptoms may seem like other health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a digestive disorder that causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, gas or a combination of the above. IBS occurs in people of all ages, including children. Some children may have diarrhea as a dominant symptom, while others may have constipation as a dominant symptom. Certain children have symptoms that alternate between diarrhea and constipation. Stress has been implicated as a trigger in IBS, but stress alone does not cause IBS.


  • Diarrhea 

  • Constipation 

  • Diarrhea alternating with constipation

  • Flatulence

  • Bloating

  • Mucus in the stool

  • Vomiting 

  • Nausea 

  • Weight loss in some children

  • Urgency with bowel movement

  • Sensation of incomplete emptying after bowel movement


To diagnose IBS, the doctor will ask questions about symptoms and examine the child to rule out more serious problems or diseases. IBS is not a disease — it is a syndrome, or group of symptoms that occur together. It does not damage the intestine, so if the physical exam and other tests show no sign of disease or damage, the doctor may diagnose IBS.


IBS is usually treated by introducing more fiber into the child’s diet. Bowel-training to empty the bowels at regular, specific times during the day may help. In children with constipation, laxatives should be used with caution because they may lead to addiction and compound the problem. When used, laxatives are taken usually short term and parents must follow the doctor’s instructions precisely.

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What is Delayed Puberty?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
What is Delayed Puberty?

What is Delayed Puberty?

Delayed puberty is a condition where the sexual development starts later than usual, typically later than 14 years of age. Medical conditions, including diabetescystic fibrosis or kidney disease, can cause delayed puberty, but sometimes no cause can be identified. Disorders of the thyroid or pituitary glands may cause delayed puberty. Malnutrition can also delay puberty. 


  • No breast development in girls by age 13 

  • No menstruation for five or more years after the first appearance of breast tissue 

  • No testicles development by age 14 in boys 

  • Incompletely developed male organs by five years after the first start to develop 


  • Complete physical exam and medical history 

  • Blood tests to determine hormone levels 

  • X-rays of the hand to determine bone age 

When to Call for Help

If your child exhibits no signs or few signs of sexual development by age 13 for girls, or by age 14 for boys, see a doctor. 


Treatment depends on the individual case and the specific cause. For example, if insufficient hormones are the cause, delayed puberty can be treated by the use of supplemental hormones.

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What is Impetigo in Children?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is impetigo in children?

Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

Impetigo is most common in children from ages 2 to 5. It is contagious. This means it’s easily passed from one person to another. It can be spread around a household. Children can infect other family members, and can reinfect themselves.

What causes impetigo in a child?

Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The bacteria that can cause it include:

  • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

  • Staphylococcus aureus

Who is at risk for impetigo in a child?

Impetigo is more common in children, but adults may also have the infection. A child is more likely to get impetigo if he or she:

  • Has close contact with to others with impetigo

  • Does not keep clean (poor hygiene)

  • Is in warm, moist (humid) air

  • Has other skin conditions, such as scabies or eczema

What are the symptoms of impetigo in a child?

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They also vary depending on which bacteria caused it. Symptoms can include:

  • Red bumps

  • Sores that are filled with fluid, draining fluid, or crusted over

  • Areas that are red, swollen, and may itch

  • Swelling of nearby lymph glands (nodes)

The bumps or sores can occur anywhere on the body. But they are most common on the face, arms, and legs.

The symptoms of impetigo can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is impetigo diagnosed in a child?

The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. A sample of the pus from the sores may be sent to a lab. This is called a culture. It’s done to see what type of bacteria caused the infection. It can help the doctor decide the best antibiotic for treatment.

How is impetigo treated in a child?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include:

  • Prescription antibiotic cream or ointment. This is most often done for mild impetigo. Over-the-counter antibiotic cream or ointment is usually not advised.

  • Antibiotic pills or liquid by mouth (oral). This is most often advised if your child has several areas of impetigo or ecthyma. It may also be advised if more than one person in a household has impetigo.

  • Cleaning and bandaging. You will need to gently washing affected areas of your child’s skin with mild soap and water. Cover areas that are draining fluid. Make sure to wash your hands before and after caring for your child’s impetigo.

What are possible complications of impetigo in a child?

Possible complications of impetigo can include:

  • Worsening or spreading of the infection

  • Scarring, which is more common with ecthyma

Impetigo caused by beta-hemolytic strep bacteria can cause:

  • Kidney damage (poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis)

  • Fever, joint, and other problems (rheumatic fever)

What can I do to prevent impetigo in my child?

You can help to prevent impetigo and prevent it from spreading to others. The following may help:

  • Keep your child out of daycare or school for 24 hours after starting antibiotic treatment. Your child can return after 24 hours. Cover any draining sores with bandages.

  • Make sure your child and everyone else in your household washes his or her hands well. This means using soap and water and scrubbing well.

  • Have everyone in the household use their own towels for drying hands and for after bathing. Do not share towels.

  • Keep your child's fingernails short. This can help prevent your child scratching and spreading the infection.

When should I call my child's healthcare provider?

Call the healthcare provider if your child has a skin infection after being in contact with anyone who has impetigo.

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What Causes Childhood Asthma?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
What Causes Childhood Asthma?

What causes childhood asthma?

Researchers continue to learn what causes asthma. It is not entirely understood. The following things play a part:

  • Genetics. Asthma runs in families.

  • Allergies. Some allergies are more common in people with asthma. And, allergies also tend to run in families.

  • Respiratory infections. Infants and young children who have some respiratory infections are more likely to have long-term lung problems.

  • Environmental factors. Irritants, like pollution and allergens, are known to cause asthma.

What causes asthma symptoms to worsen (flare-ups)? 

Those things that cause asthma symptoms to get worse or asthma flare-ups. Each child has different triggers. A very important part of asthma management is identifying and then trying to avoid triggers. Asthma triggers include:

  • Allergens, such as pollen, dust, and pets

  • Upper respiratory infections, such as colds or the flu.

  • Inhaled irritants, such as secondhand smoke.

  • Certain weather conditions, such as cold air.

  • Exercise or physical activity.

  • Physical expressions of emotion, such as crying, laughing, or yelling.

Do children outgrow asthma?

How asthma will affect a child throughout his or her lifetime varies.

  • Many infants and toddlers may wheeze when sick with a viral illness, such as cold or flu. However, most of these children don't get asthma later in life.

  • Some children with persistent wheezing and asthma get better during the teenage years.

  • About half of the children who have asthma at a young age appear to "outgrow" it, although asthma symptoms may reappear later in life.

If my child has asthma, can he or she participate in sports and activities?

Exercise, such as long-distance running, may trigger a flare-up in many children with asthma. However, with proper management, a child with asthma can fully participate in most sports. Aerobic exercise actually improves airway function by strengthening breathing muscles. Some tips for exercising with asthma include the following:

  • Teach your child to breathe through the nose and not the mouth to warm and humidify the air before it enters the airways.

  • During cold weather, have your child wear a scarf over his or her mouth and nose to warm inhaled air.

  • Give your child asthma medication before exercising, as recommended by your child's health care provider. If your child is not already on controller medication and he or she exercises daily, the provider may recommend daily controller medication.

  • Have your child carry his or her quick-relief inhaler medication.

Asthma and school

Some children with asthma may need to take their medications during school hours. It's important that you and your child work with his or her health care provider and school staff to meet the child's asthma treatment goals. For the best asthma care for your child at school, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology recommends the following:

  • Meet with teachers and other relevant school staff to inform them about your child's condition, special needs, and asthma management plan.

  • Educate school personnel on your child's asthma medications and how to assist during an asthma flare-up.

  • Ask school staff to treat your child as normal as possible when the asthma is under control.

  • Before starting a physical education class or a team sport, make sure the teacher or coach understands that exercise can trigger asthma symptoms.

  • Talk with teachers and school administrators about indoor air quality, allergens, and irritants in the school.

  • Ensure your child's emotional well-being by reassuring that asthma doesn't have to slow him or her down or make him or her different from other children.

Control of asthma through the years

Be honest with your child about asthma. Remember, as your child grows, that independence is an important goal. Children with asthma don't want to be different, yet they need guidance and supervision.

  • Toddlers. This age group relies completely on the parents. These children understand little about asthma. The most important factor with this age group is to try to make medication time a fun one, while stressing the importance of taking the medications. Let the children assist in any way possible.

  • School-age. These children have an increased ability to understand asthma. They should be taught about their medications and how to avoid their triggers. They should begin to monitor their own symptoms.

  • Adolescents. Often, adolescents resist taking chronic medications, don't like restrictions, and don't want to be different. Involve adolescents in every aspect of asthma management. They should help with goal setting and help decide which medications work best. An asthma care "contract" can be used. It should allow for self-care while allowing overall parental supervision.

    Having asthma doesn't mean having less fun than other adolescents. It is important for your adolescent to tell his or her friends about his or her triggers.

Always consult your child's provider if you or your child has questions or concerns.

Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis

What are pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections that cause inflammation. If the tonsils are affected, it is called tonsillitis. If the throat is affected, it is called pharyngitis. If you have both, it’s called pharyngotonsillitis. These infections are spread by close contact with others. Most cases happen during the winter or colder months.

What causes pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

There are many causes of infections in the throat. Viruses are the most common cause and antibiotics will not help. Causes of throat infections include: 

  • Viruses (most common)

  • Bacteria (such as strep)

  • Fungal infections

  • Parasitic infections

  • Cigarette smoke

  • Other causes

What are the symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

The symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis depend greatly on what’s causing it. For some people, symptoms may start quickly. For others, symptoms start slowly. These are the most common symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis:

The symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always check with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How are pharyngitis and tonsillitis diagnosed?

In most cases, it is hard to tell the difference between a viral sore throat and a strep throat based on physical exam. It is important, though, to know if the sore throat is caused by strep bacteria, as this calls for antibiotics to help prevent the complications that can happen with these bacteria.

As a result, most people, when they have the above symptoms, will get a strep test and throat culture to find out if it is an infection caused by strep. This will involve a throat swab in the healthcare provider’s office.

Quick tests, called rapid strep tests, may be done. This may immediately show as positive for strep and antibiotics can be started. If it is negative, part of the throat swab will be kept for a throat culture. This will further identify strep in 2 to 3 days. Your healthcare provider will discuss the treatment plan with you based on the findings.

How are pharyngitis and tonsillitis treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment based on:

  • How old you are

  • His or her overall health and medical history

  • How sick you are

  • How well you can handle specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • How long the condition is expected to last

  • Your opinion or preference

If bacteria are not the cause of the infection, the treatment is usually more for comfort. Antibiotics will not help treat viral sore throats. Treatment may include:

  • Acetaminophen or ibuprofen (for pain)

  • Increased fluid intake

  • Throat lozenges

  • Gargling with warm salt water

Antibiotics are prescribed if the cause of the infection is bacterial.

What are the complications of pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

Most cases of pharyngitis and tonsillitis will run their course without any complications. But, if the disease is caused by strep, rare complications, including rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, and kidney disease can happen. Treatment with antibiotics can prevent these complications.

When to call your healthcare provider?

If a sore throat is severe and includes trouble swallowing, drooling, or neck swelling, see a healthcare provider right away.

Key points about pharyngitis and tonsillitis

  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause inflammation

  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and cigarette smoking

  • Most infections are caused by viruses. Antibiotics do not cure a viral infection, and should not be used

  • If a bacterial infection is diagnosed, it will be treated with antibiotics

  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis can be treated with pain relievers, increased fluid intake, throat lozenges, and gargling with warm salt water

1 person found this helpful

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Children


What is oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in children?

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. It is mostly diagnosed in childhood. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures. They are more troubling to others than they are to themselves.

What causes ODD in a child?

Researchers don’t know what causes ODD. But there are 2 main theories for why it occurs:

  • Developmental theory. This theory suggests that the problems start when children are toddlers. Children and teens with ODD may have had trouble learning to become independent from a parent or other main person to whom they were emotionally attached. Their behavior may be normal developmental issues that are lasting beyond the toddler years.
  • Learning theory. This theory suggests that the negative symptoms of ODD are learned attitudes. They mirror the effects of negative reinforcement methods used by parents and others in power. The use of negative reinforcement increases the child’s ODD behaviors. That’s because these behaviors allow the child to get what he or she wants: attention and reaction from parents or others.

Which children are at risk for ODD?

ODD is more common in boys than in girls. Children with the following mental health problems are also more likely to have ODD:

  • Mood or anxiety disorders
  • Conduct disorder
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

What are the symptoms of ODD in a child?

Most symptoms seen in children and teens with ODD also happen at times in other children without it. This is especially true for children around ages 2 or 3, or during the teen years. Many children tend to disobey, argue with parents, or defy authority. They may often behave this way when they are tired, hungry, or upset. But in children and teens with ODD, these symptoms happen more often. They also interfere with learning and school adjustment. And in some cases, they disrupt the child’s relationships with others.

Symptoms of ODD may include:

  • Having frequent temper tantrums
  • Arguing a lot with adults
  • Refusing to do what an adult asks
  • Always questioning rules and refusing to follow rules
  • Doing things to annoy or upset others, including adults
  • Blaming others for the child’s own misbehaviors or mistakes
  • Being easily annoyed by others
  • Often having an angry attitude
  • Speaking harshly or unkindly
  • Seeking revenge or being vindictive

These symptoms may look like other mental health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is ODD diagnosed in a child?

If you notice symptoms of ODD in your child or teen, you can help by seeking a diagnosis right away. Early treatment can often prevent future problems.

A child psychiatrist or qualified mental health expert can diagnose ODD. He or she will talk with the parents and teachers about the child’s behavior and may observe the child. In some cases, your child may need mental health testing.

How is ODD treated in a child?

Early treatment can often prevent future problems. Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and health. It will also depend on how bad the ODD is.

Children with ODD may need to try different therapists and types of therapies before they find what works for them. Treatment may include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy. A child learns to better solve problems and communicate. He or she also learns how to control impulses and anger.
  • Family therapy. This therapy helps make changes in the family. It improves communication skills and family interactions. Having a child with ODD can be very hard for parents. It can also cause problems for siblings. Parents and siblings need support and understanding.
  • Peer group therapy. A child develops better social and interpersonal skills.
  • Medicines. These are not often used to treat ODD. But a child may need them for other symptoms or disorders, such as ADHD.

How can I help prevent ODD in my child?

Researchers don’t know what causes ODD. But certain approaches can help prevent the disorder. Young children be helped by early intervention programs that teach them social skills and how to deal with anger. For teens, talk therapy (psychotherapy), learning social skills, and getting help with schoolwork can all help reduce problem behaviors. School-based programs can also help to stop bullying and improve relationships among teens.

Parent-management training programs are also important. These programs teach parents how to manage their child’s behavior. Parents learn positive reinforcement methods, and also how to discipline their child.

How can I help my child live with ODD?

Early treatment for your child can often prevent future problems. Here are things you can do to help:

  • Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider.
  • Take part in family therapy as needed.
  • Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about other providers who will be involved in your child’s care. Your child may get care from a team that may include counselors, therapists, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists. Your child’s care team will depend on his or her needs and how serious the disorder is.
  • Tell others about your child’s conduct disorder. Work with your child’s healthcare provider and school to develop a treatment plan.
  • Reach out for support. Being in touch with other parents who have a child with ODD may be helpful. If you feel overwhelmed or stressed out, talk with your child’s healthcare provider. He or she may direct you to a support group for caregivers of children with ODD.

When should I call my child’s healthcare provider?

Call your child’s healthcare provider right away if your child:

  • Feels extreme depression, fear, anxiety, or anger toward him or herself or others
  • Feels out of control
  • Hears voices that others don’t hear
  • Sees things that others don’t see
  • Can’t sleep or eat for 3 days in a row
  • Shows behavior that concerns friends, family, or teachers, and others express concern about this behavior and ask you to seek help


Key points about ODD in children

  • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures.
  • Developmental problems may cause ODD. Or the behaviors may be learned.
  • A child with ODD may argue a lot with adults or refuse to do what they ask. He or she may also be unkind to others.
  • A mental health expert often diagnoses ODD.
  • Therapy that helps the child interact better with others is the main treatment. Medicines may be needed for other problems, such as ADHD.

What are Absence Seizures?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What are absence seizures?

An absence seizure causes you to blank out or stare into space for a few seconds. They can also be called petit mal seizures. Absence seizures are most common in children and typically don’t cause any long-term problems. These types of seizures are often set off by a period of hyperventilation.

Absence seizures usually occur in children between ages 4 to 14. A child may have 10, 50, or even 100 absence seizures in a given day and they may go unnoticed. Most children who have typical absence seizures are otherwise normal. However, absence seizures can get in the way of learning and affect concentration at school. This is why prompt treatment is important.

Absence seizures are a type of epilepsy, a condition that causes seizures. Seizures are caused by abnormal brain activity. These mixed messages confuse your brain and cause a seizure.

Not everyone who has a seizure has epilepsy. Usually, a diagnosis of epilepsy can be made after two or more seizures.

Absence seizures often occur along with other types of seizures that cause muscle jerking, twitching, and shaking. Absence seizures may be confused with other types of seizures. Doctors will pay close attention to your symptoms in order to make the right diagnosis. This is very important for effective and safe treatment of your seizures.

It’s uncommon for absence seizures to continue into adulthood, but it’s possible to have an absence seizure at any age.

What causes absence seizures?

Like other kinds of seizures, absence seizures are caused by abnormal activity in a person’s brain. Doctors often don’t know why this happens. Most absence seizures are less than 15 seconds long. It’s rare for an absence seizure to last longer than 15 seconds. They can happen suddenly without any warning signs.

What are the symptoms of absence seizures?

The easiest way to spot an absence seizure is to look for a blank stare that lasts for a few seconds. People in the midst of having an absence seizure don’t speak, listen, or appear to understand. An absence seizure doesn’t typically cause you to fall down. You could be in the middle of making dinner, walking across the room, or typing an e-mail when you have the seizure. Then suddenly you snap out of it and continue as you were before the seizure.

These are other possible symptoms of an absence seizure:

  • Being very still

  • Smacking the lips or making a chewing motion with the mouth

  • Fluttering the eyelids

  • Stopping activity (suddenly not talking or moving)

  • Suddenly returning to activity when the seizure ends

If you experience jerking motions, it may be a sign of another type of seizure taking place along with the absence seizure.

How are absence seizures diagnosed?

You may have absence seizures repeatedly for years before heading to the doctor for a diagnosis. You may have “staring spells” without thinking of them as a medical problem or a seizure.

An EEG is a test most often used to diagnose absence seizures. This test records the brain’s electrical activity and spots any abnormalities that could indicate an absence seizure.

These tests also can help to diagnose absence seizures or rule out other conditions:

  • Blood tests

  • Tests of the kidneys and liver

  • CT or MRI scans

  • Spinal tap to test the cerebrospinal fluid

How are absence seizures treated?

Absence seizures can affect your ability to perform at work or school, so it’s a good idea to see your healthcare provider about treatment.

Absence seizures can be treated with a number of different antiseizure medicines. The type of medicine that your healthcare provider recommends you take will also depend on what other seizure disorder you may have. If you have more than one type of seizure disorder, you may need to take multiple medicines.

Can absence seizures be prevented?

Taking your medicines exactly as your doctor prescribed is one of the best ways to manage absence seizures. But you can also make some changes in your life to help prevent absence seizures from happening. These include:

  • Get plenty of sleep each night.

  • Find ways to manage your stress.

  • Eat a healthy diet.

  • Exercise regularly.

Living with absence seizures

Most people with epilepsy live full and active lives with medicine and other lifestyle changes. But it can be challenging at times to manage large and small life events when you have epilepsy. Depending on your age and the severity and type of epilepsy, you may need support with the following:

  • Behavioral and emotional issues. It is important to get enough sleep and manage stress when you have epilepsy. Stress and lack of sleep can trigger seizures. If you have trouble sleeping, talk with your healthcare provider about how to make sure you get enough sleep. Learn coping techniques that will help you manage stress and anxiety.

  • Employment. With proper treatment, people with epilepsy can do just about any job safely and effectively. But, certain jobs in which there is a high risk to public safety may not be an option. Epilepsy is covered under the Americans with Disabilities Act. This law prohibits discrimination against people with epilepsy and other disabilities.

  • Coping with discrimination and stigma. Children and adults with epilepsy may face discrimination and struggle to overcome the stigma associated with this neurological condition. Help educate family, friends, co-workers, and classmates on your condition. Let them know what to expect and how to help during a seizure.

  • Education. Children with epilepsy may be entitled to special services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Working closely with the child’s teacher and school nurse will help improve management of epilepsy at school. It’s important for parents of children with epilepsy to balance safety and fun. Allow your child to have some age-appropriate independence and participate in sports and other activities at school, when possible.

  • Driving. Each state has different driving laws for people with epilepsy. Licensing may depend on how severe seizures are and how well they are controlled. Consider public transportation where it is available. If you continue to have absence seizures, it may not be safe for you to drive.

  • Support and online resources. You may feel alone in dealing with day-to-day life with epilepsy, but be assured that many people have epilepsy. You can find local support groups through your healthcare provider or local hospital. Many online resources give tools and tips for managing this condition. Online social media support groups bring together people from all over the world who are managing their epilepsy. These groups provide support and encouragement.

If you have trouble managing your absence seizures, you may want to work more closely with your healthcare provider to find a better way to treat them.

Key points about absence seizures

  • Absence seizures are seizures that generally last just a few seconds, and are characterized by a blank or “absent” stare.

  • Absence seizures usually occur in children between ages 4 to 14, but it’s possible to have an absence seizure at any age.

  • Absence seizures are easy to miss, but tests and an evaluation of symptoms can diagnose them.

  • Healthcare providers can usually help find the right mix of medications and lifestyle changes to manage absence seizures.

  • Without treatment, school performance, work, and relationships can suffer.

Animal Bites and Rabies

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Animal Bites and Rabies

Animal Bites and Rabies

What are the dangers of animal bites?

Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, can become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body. Whether the bite is from a family pet or an animal in the wild, scratches and bites can carry disease. Cat scratches, even from a kitten, can carry "cat scratch disease," a bacterial infection. Other animals can transmit rabies and tetanus. Bites that break the skin are even more likely to become infected.

What is the care for animal bites?

For superficial bites from a familiar household pet that is immunized and in good health:

  • Wash the wound with soap and water under pressure from a faucet for at least 5 minutes, but do not scrub, as this may bruise the tissue. Apply an antiseptic lotion or cream.

  • Watch for signs of infection at the site, such as increased redness or pain, swelling, drainage, or if the person develops a fever. Call your healthcare provider right away if any of these symptoms happen.

For deeper bites or puncture wounds from any animal, or for any bite from a strange animal:

  • If the bite or scratch is bleeding, apply pressure to it with a clean bandage or towel to stop the bleeding.

  • Wash the wound with soap and water under pressure from a faucet for at least 5 minutes. Do not scrub as this may bruise the tissue.

  • Dry the wound and cover it with a sterile dressing. Do not use tape or butterfly bandages to close the wound as this could trap harmful bacteria in the wound.

  • Call your healthcare provider for guidance in reporting the attack and to determine whether additional treatment, such as antibiotics, a tetanus booster, or rabies vaccine is needed. This is especially important for bites on the face, hands, or feet, or for bites that cause deeper puncture wounds of the skin. It is also important for all cat bites that have a high incidence of infection. 

  • If possible, locate the animal that inflicted the wound. Some animals need to be captured, confined, and observed for rabies. Do not try to capture the animal yourself. Contact the nearest animal warden or animal control office in your area.

  • If the animal cannot be found or is a high-risk species (raccoon, skunk, or bat), or the animal attack was unprovoked, the victim may need a series of rabies shots and a dose of rabies immunoglobulin.

Call your healthcare provider for any flu-like symptoms, such as a fever, headache, malaise, decreased appetite, or swollen glands following an animal bite.

What is rabies?

Rabies is a viral infection of certain warm-blooded animals and is caused by a virus in the Rhabdoviridae family. It attacks the nervous system and, once symptoms develop, is 100% fatal in animals, if left untreated.

In North America, rabies happens primarily in skunks, raccoons, foxes, coyotes, and bats. In some areas, these wild animals infect domestic cats, dogs, and livestock. In the U.S., cats are more likely than dogs to be rabid.

Individual states maintain information about animals that may carry rabies. It is best to check for region-specific information if you are unsure about a specific animal and have been bitten.

Travelers to developing countries, where vaccination of domestic animals is not routine, should talk with their healthcare provider about getting the rabies vaccine before traveling. 

How does rabies happen?

The rabies virus enters the body through a cut or scratch, or through mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and eyes), and travels to the central nervous system. Once the infection is established in the brain, the virus travels down the nerves from the brain and multiplies in different organs.

The salivary glands are most important in the spread of rabies from one animal to another. When an infected animal bites another animal, the rabies virus is transmitted through the infected animal's saliva. Scratches by claws of rabid animals are also dangerous because these animals lick their claws.

What are the symptoms of rabies?

The incubation period in humans from the time of exposure to the onset of illness can range anywhere from 5 days to more than a year, although the average incubation period is about 2 months. The following are the most common symptoms of rabies. Symptoms may include:

Rabies: Stage 1

Rabies: Stage 2

  • Initial period of vague symptoms, lasting 2 to 10 days

  • Vague symptoms may include, fever, headache, malaise, decreased appetite, or vomiting

  • Pain, itching, or numbness and tingling at the site of the wound

  • People often develop difficulty in swallowing (sometimes referred to as "foaming at the mouth") due to the inability to swallow saliva. Even the sight of water may terrify the person.

  • Some people become agitated and disoriented, while others become paralyzed

  • Immediate death, or coma resulting in death from other complications, may result

The symptoms of rabies may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is rabies diagnosed?

In animals, the direct fluorescent antibody test (dFA) done on brain tissue is most often used to detect rabies. Within a few hours, diagnostic labs can determine whether an animal is rabid and provide this information to medical professionals. These results may save a person from undergoing treatment if the animal is not rabid.

In humans, a number of tests are necessary to confirm or rule out rabies, as no single test can be used to rule out the disease with certainty. Tests are done on samples of serum, saliva, and spinal fluid. Skin biopsies may also be taken from the nape of the neck.

What is the treatment for rabies?

Unfortunately, there is no known, effective treatment for rabies once symptoms of the disease appear. However, there are effective vaccines that provide immunity to rabies when administered soon after an exposure. It may also be used for protection before an exposure happens, for people such as veterinarians and animal handlers.

How can animal bites and rabies be prevented?

Being safe around animals, even your own pets, can help reduce the risk of animal bites. Some general guidelines for avoiding animal bites and rabies include the following:

  • Do not try to separate fighting animals.

  • Avoid strange and sick animals.

  • Leave animals alone when they are eating.

  • Keep pets on a leash when out in public.

  • Select family pets carefully.

  • Never leave a young child alone with a pet.

  • All domestic dogs and cats should be immunized against rabies and shots kept current.

  • Do not approach or play with wild animals of any kind, and be aware that domestic animals may also be infected with the rabies virus.

  • Supervise pets so they do not come into contact with wild animals. Call your local animal control agency to remove any stray animals.

What would my healthcare provider need to know about an animal bite?

If you or someone you know is bitten by an animal, remember these facts to report to your healthcare provider:

  • Location of the incident

  • Type of animal involved (domestic pet or wild animal)

  • Type of exposure (cut, scratch, licking of open wound)

  • Part of the body involved

  • Number of exposures

  • Whether or not the animal has been immunized against rabies

  • Whether or not the animal is sick or well; if "sick," what symptoms were present in the animal

  • Whether or not the animal is available for testing or quarantine

Sinusitis in Children

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Sinusitis in Children

What are sinuses?

The sinuses


The sinuses are cavities, or air-filled spaces, near the nasal passage. Like the nasal passage, the sinuses are lined with mucous membranes. There are four different types of sinuses:

  • Ethmoid sinus. Located inside the face, around the area of the bridge of the nose. This sinus is present at birth, and continues to grow.

  • Maxillary sinus. Located inside the face, around the area of the cheeks. This sinus is also present at birth, and continues to grow.

  • Frontal sinus. Located inside the face, in the area of the forehead. This sinus does not develop until around 7 years of age.

  • Sphenoid sinus. Located deep in the face, behind the nose. This sinus does not develop until adolescence.

How the Sinuses Work?

A basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nose and sinuses is necessary to understand nasal and sinus disorders.

The nose and sinuses are a part of the upper respiratory tract. The three-dimensional anatomy of this area is complex. The function of the nose in addition to smell is to warm, humidify and filter air that passes through it. The external nose consists of a bony and cartilaginous framework. The nostrils, or anterior nares, form the external opening to the nose. The nasal septum is a midline internal structure that separates the left and right nasal cavities. It is composed of cartilage and bone. A deviated nasal septum can cause nasal obstruction.

There are four sets of paired sinuses. The maxillary sinuses are located beneath the cheeks and under the eyes. The frontal sinuses are above the eyes behind the forehead. The ethmoid sinuses are honeycomb-shaped sinuses located between the eyes, and the sphenoid sinuses are located behind the nose and below the brain. Each of these sinuses is an enclosed space that drains through an ostium, or opening, into the nose. The sinuses are lined by mucosa that is similar to the lining of the nose. These ostia can become blocked by inflammation or swelling of the mucosa as well as by tumors or bony structures.

The lateral nasal wall internally contains the three turbinate bones. These scroll-like structures are covered in a mucous membrane that contains vascular channels that can swell under certain conditions, such as allergy or inflammation. The tear duct or nasolacrimal duct drains tears from the eyes into the nose where it enters beneath the inferior turbinate. Blockage of this duct from injury or disease causes excess tearing of the eye, or epiphora. The middle meatus is a space under the middle turbinate. Within the middle meatus is the osteomeatal complex, which is the common pathway for the drainage of the maxillary (cheek) sinus, frontal (forehead) sinus and anterior ethmoid sinus. Inflammation or swelling of these key areas may cause blockage of the sinuses.

The superior turbinate is a small structure located high in the nose. Behind the superior turbinate is the opening of the sphenoid sinus, located near the back portion of the septum. The pituitary gland is located directly above and behind the sphenoid sinus. Pituitary surgery is performed through the sphenoid sinus.

What is sinusitis?

Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses near the nose. These infections usually occur after a cold or after an allergic inflammation. There are four types of sinusitis:

  • Acute. Symptoms of this type of infection last less than four weeks and get better with the appropriate treatment.

  • Subacute. This type of infection does not get better with treatment initially, and symptoms last 4 to 12 weeks.

  • Chronic. This type of infection happens with repeated acute infections or with previous infections that were inadequately treated. These symptoms last 12 weeks or longer.

  • Recurrent acute. Four or more episodes of acute sinusitis a year.

What causes sinusitis?

Sometimes, a sinus infection happens after an upper respiratory infection (URI) or common cold. The URI causes inflammation of the nasal passages that can block the opening of the paranasal sinuses, and result in a sinus infection. Allergies can also lead to sinusitis because of the swelling of the nasal tissue and increased production of mucus. There are other possible conditions that can block the normal flow of secretions out of the sinuses and can lead to sinusitis including the following:

  • Abnormalities in the structure of the nose

  • Infections from a tooth

  • Trauma to the nose

  • Foreign objects stuck in the nose

  • Cleft palate

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

When the flow of secretions from the sinuses is blocked, bacteria may begin to grow. This leads to a sinus infection, or sinusitis. The most common bacteria that cause acute sinusitis include the following:

  • Streptococcus pneumonia

  • Haemophilus influenzae

  • Moraxella catarrhalis

Treatment for chronic sinusitis must be aimed at different bacteria, such as pseudomonas (gram-negative rods), because there are more often the culprit.

What are the symptoms of sinusitis?

The symptoms of sinusitis depend greatly on the age of the child. The following are the most common symptoms of sinusitis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

Younger children:

  • Runny nose

    • Lasts longer than seven to 10 days

    • Discharge is usually thick green or yellow, but can be clear

  • Nighttime cough

  • Occasional daytime cough

  • Swelling around the eyes

  • Usually no headaches younger than 5 years of age

Older children and adults

  • Runny nose or cold symptoms lasting longer than seven to 10 days

  • Drip in the throat from the nose

  • Headaches*

  • Facial discomfort

  • Bad breath

  • Cough

  • Fever

  • Sore throat

  • Swelling around the eye, often worse in the morning

The symptoms of sinusitis may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always see your child's health care provider for a diagnosis.

How is sinusitis diagnosed?

Generally, your child's health care provider can diagnose sinusitis based on your child's symptoms and physical examination. In some cases additional tests may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. These may include:

  • Sinus X-rays. Diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. (X-rays are not typically used, but may help assist in the diagnosis.)

  • Computed tomography (also called CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.

  • Cultures from the sinuses. Laboratory tests that involve the growing of bacteria or other microorganisms to aid in diagnosis.

What is the treatment for sinusitis?

Specific treatment for sinusitis will be determined by your child's health care provider based on:

  • Your child's age, overall health, and medical history

  • How sick he or she is

  • Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • How long the condition is expected to last

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment of sinusitis may include the following:

  • Antibiotics, as determined by your child's physician (antibiotics are usually given for at least 14 days)

  • Acetaminophen (for pain or discomfort)

  • A decongestant (for instance, pseudoephedrine [Sudafed] and/or mucus thinner such as guaifenesin [Robitussin])

  • Cool humidifier in your child's room

  • Nasal spray to reduce inflammation

  • Medications to treat GERD

  • Surgery to remove the adenoids

  • Endoscopic sinus surgery

Antibiotics may not be given for the first 10 to 14 days, unless severe symptoms develop, such as: fever, facial pain or tenderness, or swelling around the eye. Surgery should be considered only if other treatments have failed.

You may need to take your child to an allergist/immunologist, particularly if he or she has chronic or recurrent sinusitis or has had sinus surgery, but still experience sinusitis.

Antihistamines do not help the symptoms of sinusitis unless it is caused by an allergy.

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