Minimally Invasive Hip Correction Procedure
Minimally Invasive Knee Correction Procedure
Rotator Cuff Injury Treatment
Scoliosis Correction Surgery
Treatment Of Meniscus Injury
Acl Reconstruction Procedure
Column Traumatology Procedure
Treatment of Mckinzie Treatment For Spine
Pelvic Rehabilitation Techniques
Rf Neurotomy Procedure
Treatment of Rheumatic Complaints
Treatment Of Lumbago
Custom Splinting Bracing Procedure
Treatment of Joint Dislocation
Joint Mobilization Procedure
Treatment of Disc Prolapse
Joint Replacement Surgery
Treatment of Limping Child
Causes, symptoms and treatment of Osteoarthritis
Broken bone is commonly known as bone fracture a d it occurs when an exorbitant amount of force is applied causing the bone to split or shatter. While some minor fractures lead to cracks and crannies, others may lead to complete breakage of the bones. Despite being hard, bones are formed in such a way that they can absorb pressure to only a certain extent, beyond which they break. Statistically, the incidence of broken bones are most common in children and in old age people.
Causes of Bone Fracture
Bone fracture can be caused due to a number of reasons; both intentional and accidental. Some of them include:
1. Accidents and injuries: Sports injuries, being hit by a car and tripping and falling are some of the typical episodes.
2. Old age: Diseases such as osteoporosis and brittle bone disease are common in aged people. As bones tend to become more fragile among the aged, they are at a greater chance of bone fractures.
Type of bone fractures
Primarily bone fractures are of four types, based on the way the bone splits. They are:
- Complete fracture: This type of fracture refers to a complete breakage of the bone wherein the fracture may occur at various parts of the bone.
- Incomplete fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone partially breaks instead of splitting entirely.
- Compound fractures: This is a type of a fracture wherein the bone breaks past the skin. It is also known as an open fracture.
- Simple fracture: In this type of a fracture, the bone breaks without causing an open wound on the skin.
Treatment of bone fractures
In case of a broken bone, the immediate course of action would be to reach for the first aid box. This can be done to stabilize the bone prior to hospitalization. Icing the injury, elevating the injured area to prevent further swelling and covering the wound with bandages are common measures. In many cases, people also make household splints (made of newspapers) to keep the bone stabilized. Hospitalization and especially surgery, can be also opted for in case of severe fractures. Consult a doctor for more details.
The knee joint is made up of several elements including the knee cap, meniscus, connective tissue, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and muscles. Damage to any part of the knee can cause chronic pain.
What can cause knee pain:
Fractures: These are caused by the breaking up of the kneecap due to falls or collisions.
ACL Injuries: Caused due to the tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (that connects the femur and the shinbone). Especially common in sportspersons such as footballers or basketball players.
Meniscus tears: The meniscus or the rubber-like cartilage (that acts as a shock absorber) can be torn by sudden jerks or excess pressure.
Arthritis: The chief cause of lingering knee pain, arthritis itself can be of a number of types.
- Osteoarthritis, which is a result of deterioration of cartilages due to wear and tear
- Rheumatoid Arthritis, an inflammatory chronic disorder
- Septic Arthritis, causing pain, swelling and redness.
- Gout caused due to the development of uric acid crystals in the joints
How to deal with it:
- Exercise: Moderate to intense exercise is prescribed for one and all. This, of course, depends on one's overall health and age. If you are already suffering from joint pain, then you may want to go easy on the exercise with a focus on building muscle strength and foundation. If you are healthy, then some amount of daily exercise as a routine will keep those knees in prime working condition and well lubricated as well. Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle can affect the knees very badly.
- Dealing with Load: Losing weight is an important factor as carrying around extra pounds and kilograms can be detrimental for your knees in the long run. Your knee is not equipped to handle the excessive weight. It already supports three to five times your weight when you get up and walk around or indulge in some mild jogging. One must be careful of those extra pounds to take the load off the knee and keep it from falling prey to damage.
- Do not Ignore: Warning signals such as chronic or acute knee pain should not be ignored. Remember to consult a doctor or an orthopaedic specialist to find out if you have contracted an infection or if you may have suffered a fracture due to an injury.
The ligaments around the knee are strong. However, sometimes they can become injured. They may be stretched (sprained), or sometimes torn (ruptured). A ligament rupture can be partial (just some of the fibres that make up the ligament are torn) or complete (the ligament is torn through completely). The majority of knee ligament injuries are sprains and not tears and they tend to settle down quickly.
ACL injury and other ligament injuries can be caused by:
- Twisting your knee with the foot planted
- Getting hit on the knee
- Extending the knee too far
- Jumping and landing on a flexed knee
- Stopping suddenly when running
- Suddenly shifting weight from one leg to the other
These injuries are common in soccer players, football players, basketball players, skiers, gymnasts, and other athletes.
- Rest the knee
- Ice your knee to reduce pain and swelling
- Compress your knee
- Elevate your knee on a pillow when you're sitting or lying down
- Wear a knee brace to stabilise the knee
- Practise stretching and strengthening exercises if they are recommended
For severe collateral ligament tears, you may need surgery to attach the ligament back to the bone if it was pulled away, or to the other part of the ligament if it was torn in the middle.
A meniscus tear is a common knee injury. The meniscus is a rubbery, C-shaped disc that cushions your knee. Each knee has two menisci (plural of meniscus)-one at the outer edge of the knee and one at the inner edge. The menisci keep your knee steady by balancing your weight across the knee. A torn meniscus can prevent your knee from working right.
A meniscus tear is usually caused by twisting or turning quickly, often with the foot planted while the knee is bent. Meniscus tears can occur when you lift something heavy or play sports. As you get older, your meniscus gets worn. This can make it tear more easily.
Treatment may include:
- Rest, ice, wrapping the knee with an elastic bandage, and propping up the leg on pillows
- Physical therapy
- Surgery to repair the meniscus
- Surgery to remove part of the meniscus
Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune chronic disorder that might cause abnormal swelling in the joints when the joint tissues are attacked by the human immune system. The more frequently used body joints, such as the knees, fingers, shoulders, wrists, elbows and hips commonly get affected by the disease. Rheumatoid arthritis can also occur in the ligaments or tendons and might affect areas such as the kidney, bone marrow, eyes, lungs, and heart.
If rheumatoid arthritis is not diagnosed on time, it might lead to future complications, such as blood cancer in the lymph regions, osteoporosis (a medical condition resulting in the weakness of the bones), infections, stiffening of the arteries and dry mouth.
What exactly causes the disease is not known, but a significant damage to the immune system might cause the inflammation of the joints, resulting in this condition. Obesity, a family history of this condition and other lifestyle habits such as smoking tobacco put one at higher risks of this disorder.
The symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis might vary among people. The most common symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are;
1. Severe pain in the morning
2. Episodes of mild fever with severe pain
3. Redness and inflammation of the joints which might cause intense pain
4. Stiffness in the joints
5. The pain might increase in low-temperature conditions
6. Acute lethargy and weight loss
The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis includes a prescribed dosage (depending on the intensity of the condition) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, anti-rheumatoid drugs such as methotrexate and steroid drugs such as prednisone to reduce the swelling and the subsequent pain. Performing regular exercises in order to retain the flexibility of the joints with appropriate consultation from the physiotherapist might cure rheumatoid arthritis.
Human bones are continuously being removed and formed, which is necessary for its proper maintenance. However, in certain cases, especially with aging, some bones and joints will be worn down to an extent where the body will not be able to reform them. This is especially true in the case of hips, which may become worn due to age or other problems within the body.
Hip replacement surgery:
When this happens, a hip replacement surgery can be performed to replace the original joints with a prosthesis or artificial hip, which is usually made out of metal or a specially formed composite material or even a combination of the two. Along with other parts, it replaces the natural hip with an artificial hip to restore mobility and other related functions.
Benefits of hip replacement surgery:
- Lessening hip pain: This is one of the major factors as well as symptoms of requiring hip replacement surgery. Due to the grinding down of the bones, even the slightest movement causes pain and after the surgery and the recovery period, the pain is lessened.
- Correction of bone deformity: When the bones grind down and are abnormally reformed, deformities may occur reducing mobility. Artificial hips will ensure that deformities are corrected and resulting problems are thus eliminated.
- Return to normal activities: This is possibly one of the primary advantages of this surgery, although it entails a long recovery period. However, most patients can get back to their normal activities and are able to resume a pain free life.
- Ability to have painless sleep: Many people who suffer from hip displacements or bone deformities are not able to sleep properly due to pain. After the surgery and the recovery period, they can return to normal functions and habits, thus are able to sleep properly.
- Leg strength increase: Many patients tend to have an increase in their leg strength as one side of the hip tends to become very weak due to bone problems before surgery. After surgery and recovery, the same side tends to have an increased strength due to the implant.
- In most cases a lifelong solution to hip problems: As the hip replacement prosthesis is made out of metal and if the operation is successful, it usually tends to last till the end of a person's life and this area usually doesn't tend to have problems again.
Related Tip: "5 Common Causes of Hip Pain in Women"
The shoulder is one of the most important joints in the body that uses a ball and socket to join the arm to the rest of the body. Any pain can make it difficult to carry out motion in a comfortable manner. The shoulder consists of the long arm bone called the humerus, the collarbone or the clavicle, as well as the shoulder blade called the scapula. A layer of cartilage provides essential padding to the bones in this area and its two main joints. There are a number of issues that can cause shoulder pain. Let us get to know the six most common ones.
- Rotator Cuff Injury: This is the most common cause of shoulder pain and it occurs when the four muscles or the tendons are injured. These muscles and tendons usually control the movement of the arm. This injury can involve strains and tears which may also be caused by constant lifting of heavy objects.
- Rotator Cuff Tendonitis: This condition affects the tendons and muscles that help in moving the arm freely. This usually happens due to inflammation in the tendons. It is commonly experienced by patients who are actively involved in sports and other heavy physical pursuits in their line of work.
- Frozen Shoulder: This is a debilitating condition that restricts the free movement of the arm and is also known as adhesive capsulitis. When the shoulder tissues become too thick, it leads to the growth of scar tissue that hinders proper movement and causes pain.
- Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a condition that comes as part of aging bones that also become hollow and brittle over the passage of time, which leads to joint and bone pains in various parts of the body. It is a degenerative disease that is caused due to prolonged wear and tear as well as other factors including family history and sports injury.
- Bursitis: This condition is known to affect the fluid filled sacs that lie in between the joints. These are known as bursae. When the bursae suffers from swelling, the effect usually shows up as pain in the joints.
- Tendon Sheath Inflammation: The fibrous tissue that connects the bones and the muscles is called a tendon. The presence of the tendon makes it possible to pursue activities like running, jumping, lifting, gripping and more. It is protected by a sheath known as synovium, which also lubricates the same. Any injury or tear to this sheath can cause shoulder pain.
Acute and persistent pain that does not abate and gets even worse should be treated with immediate medical intervention.
Related Tip: "What Does Neck and Shoulder Pain Indicate?"