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Apollo Health City, Hyderabad

Apollo Health City

  4.4  (12 ratings)

Gastroenterologist Clinic

FIlm Nagar, Jubilee Hills Hyderabad
1 Doctor · ₹600 · 3 Reviews
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Apollo Health City   4.4  (12 ratings) Gastroenterologist Clinic FIlm Nagar, Jubilee Hills Hyderabad
1 Doctor · ₹600 · 3 Reviews
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By combining excellent care with a state-of-the-art facility we strive to provide you with quality health care. We thank you for your interest in our services and the trust you have place......more
By combining excellent care with a state-of-the-art facility we strive to provide you with quality health care. We thank you for your interest in our services and the trust you have placed in us.
More about Apollo Health City
Apollo Health City is known for housing experienced Gastroenterologists. Dr. K. S Somasekhar Rao, a well-reputed Gastroenterologist, practices in Hyderabad. Visit this medical health centre for Gastroenterologists recommended by 79 patients.

Timings

MON-SAT
09:00 AM - 05:00 PM

Location

FIlm Nagar, Jubilee Hills
Jubilee Hills Hyderabad, Telangana - 500033
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Hello, I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroenterologist and hepatologist at the Apollo Hospitals, Jubi...

Hello, I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroenterologist and hepatologist at the Apollo Hospitals, Jubilee Hill, Hyderabad. I would like to talk about cirrhosis of liver and its complications and how to manage those things. Basically cirrhosis of liver is nothing but the liver get shrunken and it becomes nodular and hard so the functions of the liver comes down. The functions which are there are 600 vital functions that a liver does normally in a human being and all these functions are compromised in a patient with cirrhosis.

Most important cause for cirrhosis is always alcohol and next comes viruses called hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The evolving most increasing cause no is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease which we see on ultrasound can cause cirrhosis. Any patient in early cirrhosis may not present with any symptoms. The initial symptoms of decompensations would be:-

  • There will be swelling in the fluid
  • Swollen feet
  • There will be distinction of abdomen because of accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
  • Patients may have jaundice.
  • Sometimes they may present with a history of passing black color motion that means this patient is having bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. It can be most common because of the swollen blood vessels called viruses in the esophagus.

So other presentations would be disorientation. Patient can have hepatic encephalopathy,  the functions of the liver because the liver acts as a filter to many toxins. All these toxins enter into your brain and cause disorientation this is called hepatic encephalopathy.

So now we will talk about the treatment of cirrhosis. Whenever we see a patient with cirrhosis, most important thing is we will try and evaluate the cause of cirrhosis. See if the patient is a chronic alcoholic. We are taking a history of all college. The first thing is to cut down and stop intake of alcohol when the patient is in early cirrhosis. It can reverse the cirrhosis to normal liver. Most important and nutritional aspects along with some supportive medication but when a patient presents with complications already, then we will be treating only the complications. Once the cirrhosis sets in and he is in CTP. By the time. you see that the patient eventually progresses most of the time. We are trying to treat the complications of cirrhosis. Then a patient presents to us with bleeding then we will find out whether it is very variceal bleeding and there is a procedure called endoscopic variceal ligation to decrease the pressure of the varices blood pressure in the esophageal varices.

We have some medications which decrease the pressure. We treat these patients and we control the bleeding and a patient presents with fluid in the stomach abdominal cavity or fluid in the legs. These patients are treated with so called restricted diet. Also we give some tablets called diuretics which increase the urine output and decrease the fluid in the legs and in the abdominal cavity and a patient presents with hepatic encephalopathy. We treat hepatic encephalopathy by medications and we try to decrease the ammonia level which is released by cleansing the gut and all those things. So all these things are managing complications of cirrhosis. Very  rarely we see a patient in early cirrhosis then we treat the host.

The cirrhosis can be reversible. It is very rare but eventually when we see a patient in complications, he would always be in a stage called CTPB where he will progress to CTBC. CTBC is the end stage of cirrhosis and at that point of time the patient is left only with option of liver transplant.

Liver transplantation is again transplantation. It can be a live donor transplantation or deceased donor transplantation. So Eventually when you see a patient in CTBC we have to plan for liver transplantation. In these patient he can wait maybe for 2 or 3 months meanwhile we will be managing for complications.

 

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Diagnosis and Treatment for Hepatitis B & C<br/><br/><br/>Hello. I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroe...

Diagnosis and Treatment for Hepatitis B & C


Hello. I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroenterologist, and hepatologist at Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad. I have been working as a a gastroenterologist for the last 8 years and the most common cause which I felt was that people are not aware was Hepatitis B and C. So, I thought I will talk to about these viruses in short. So, basically, there are two chronic Hepatitis viruses, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. We can talk about them together because they have similar symptoms most of the times and similar modes of transmission. So, these viruses when they infect a given body they don’t harm any other organs of the body except the liver and these viruses are hepatotropic viruses and this damage the liver.

The damage caused by these viruses can be detrimental, can cause cirrhosis of the liver and cancer of the liver. So, all these things are avoidable when we can treat them adequately at the right time. Most of the time if you do a simple test called HBsAg, we will be able to detect the virus called Hepatitis B and if you do a test Anti-HCV, we will be able to detect a virus called Hepatitis C. So, when we detect these viruses based on the patients other parameters and the liver function test, we will decide if the patient needs treatment and If the patient needs treatment, then there are good drugs available for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, it can cure the disease. so, if we treat the virus then there is no chance of liver damage like Cirrhosis and cancer of the liver.

The mode of transmission of this virus is very important to know. Most of the times it is not only it is always intravenous. It can be transmitted by intravenous injections or needle sharing. It can be transmitted by blood products. It can be transmitted by sexual transmission. And, most of the time we see this IV drug abuser sharing needles. Therefore, these are the chances of transmission. The most important root of transmission is mother-child transmission which is another possibility of these viruses. So, we should be aware of these viruses and modes of transmission so that we can avoid the transmission of these viruses.

So, Hepatitis B is a treatable disease whenever there is a necessity. Whenever the liver function tests are high or the Hepatitis B viral load is high, we need to treat them. There are very good anti-viral tablets available for Hepatitis B and you are preventing the liver from going into Cirrhosis or cancer of the liver. Hepatitis C is a curable disease based on the Hepatitis C RNA count and Hepatitis C genotype. There are various drugs available in the markets which are newly available where the cure rates for Hepatitis C are more than 90%. So, I would suggest a simple blood test for Hepatitis B that is HBsAg and for Hepatitis C Anti-HCV can save your liver.

If you are positive, you need to consult your doctor and get treated. You can contact me through Lybrate or I am available at Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad.
 

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Dr. K. S Somasekhar Rao

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist
88%  (12 ratings)
15 Years experience
600 at clinic
₹400 online
Unavailable today
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Flatulence - Common Reasons Behind it!

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Flatulence - Common Reasons Behind it!

The build-up of gases in the stomach can be uncomfortable and very embarrassing when it leads to flatulence. Flatulence can be defined as the release of intestinal gas from the anus. This may or may not be accompanied by sound and odour. Both men and women can be affected by flatulence at any age.

Some of the causes of flatulence include:
• Swallowing excessive amounts of air while eating
Indigestion
• Lactose intolerance

Food that is difficult to digest often triggers the formation of gas such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and sulphur in the digestive system as a result of the microbial breakdown of this food. Sulphur is largely responsible for the odor that accompanies the release of these gases. Beans, chickpeas, cauliflower and cabbage are some such foods that can trigger flatulence.
Flatulence on its own is not a serious condition and usually resolves itself without medication. However if it triggers severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea, persistent constipation, blood in the stools, nausea and pain in the right side of the abdomen, medical care should be immediately sought.

If flatulence is a problem you suffer from often, take a look at your diet and modify your eating habits. Keep a food diary to determine what food triggers this condition and avoid it. If you are lactose intolerant switch your dairy products for soya substitutes and avoid dairy. Anti-gas compounds that are available over the counter can also provide relief. Chew your food slowly, thoroughly and ensure that your mouth is closed while chewing to prevent swallowing air. For this reason, also avoid chewing gums and fizzy drinks. If you must eat beans, soak them overnight before cooking.

Flatulence can be easily treated with home remedies. Following home remedies can be used
1. Ginger: Ginger aids the digestion process, eases bloating and reduces gas. It also helps stool pass smoothly and helps keep the intestines clear. This does not give stomach gases a chance to build up. Ginger can be consumed in the form of capsules or a tea made by steeping ginger in hot water for a few minutes.
2. Papaya: Along with being rich in antioxidants and flavonoids, papaya contains an enzyme known as papain that helps digest proteins and reduce gas. To benefit from papain, you could eat the papaya fruit or drink a tea made with papaya leaves. Papaya enzymes are also available as supplements. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.

4558 people found this helpful

Functional Abdominal Pain - The Best Way To Manage It!

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Functional Abdominal Pain - The Best Way To Manage It!

In most cases, pain anywhere in the body can be explained as a symptom of some other problem, but sometimes, there is no reason for abdominal pain. This type of pain is known as chronic functional abdominal pain. This is a gastrointestinal disorder that cannot be explained through X-ray or laboratory findings. It can be triggered by altered sensitivity to nerve impulses in the brain and gut. People suffering from this condition are often so debilitated by the pain that it becomes the central focus of their life.

This condition cannot be cured, but with proper treatment, it can be managed so that it does not affect the quality of your life. The aim of treatment for this condition is to control the symptoms and improve functioning. When it comes to treating this condition, the patient’s relationship with his or her doctor plays an important role as the condition cannot be proven through any form of testing and it has a great psychological effect on the person. Regular checkups are also a key to managing this condition effectively.

The first step towards achieving this is to identify possible emotional and situational triggers. Maintaining a journal that records these experiences can help with this. Further treatment is usually either through psychological treatment or antidepressants.

Psychological treatment is based on the understanding that the brain can block pain by diverting attention elsewhere. Nerve impulses that travel from the abdomen to the brain must pass through a type of ‘gate’ that is controlled by nerve impulses generated by the brain. When these impulses close the gates, pain is blocked while when these gates are open, the pain can be magnified. Psychological treatment for chronic functional abdominal pain can be in the form of relaxation techniques, imagery, hypnosis and cognitive behavioral therapy. While relaxation techniques such as meditation and hypnosis help a person shift focus from the pain, cognitive behavioral therapy teaches a person how to change thoughts and perceptions in order to control the pain.

Antidepressants can also act as pain relievers. This form of medication stimulates the production of brain signals that close the ‘gates’ of nerve transmissions. This blocks the pain but can take several weeks to be effective. Some people may experience side effects such as drowsiness and nausea and hence should never be taken without a doctor’s supervision. In some cases, antidepressants may also be combined with cognitive behavioral therapy or medication to regulate bowels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gastroenterologist.

3982 people found this helpful

Achalasia Disorder: Know The Causes and Symptoms

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Achalasia Disorder: Know The Causes and Symptoms

Achalasia is a very rare disease. Normally, your esophagus squeezes food down by making the muscular valve in between the stomach and esophagus relax. Achalasia occurs when this muscular valve is unable to relax and thus the esophagus is unable to squeeze the food down. The most common reason why this happens is because the nerves in your esophagus are damaged. The nerves most commonly get damaged because of abnormalities in the way your immune system responds. Till now, there is no cure to achalasia; however, surgery or minimally invasive therapy can make the symptoms of achalasia more manageable. Here are all the causes and symptoms of achalasia:

Symptoms:

  1. Difficulty swallowing: The difficulty you face when swallowing food is the most common symptom of achalasia. Both liquid as well as solid food will be hard to swallow.
  2. Regurgitation: If the food is regurgitating in the night, then the lungs may have been inhaling some food. This is very serious and you should see the doctor immediately if this occurs.
  3. Chest pain: You may suddenly experience chest pain from a completely unknown cause. 
  4. Weight loss: You may also suffer from sudden weight loss if you have achalasia. This is due to the reduced amount of food you will be consuming.
  5. Heartburn: Heartburn is when you have a very intense burning pain in your chest just behind your breastbone which is most commonly caused by regurgitation in your esophagus. 

Causes:
The exact cause of achalasia is not yet known. However, there are some theories on what causes achalasia. Here they are.

  1. Genes: The most common cause of achalasia is genes. 
  2. Autoimmune disease: An autoimmune disease is when your immune system attacks your body's own cells. Achalasia is a type of autoimmune disease.
  3. Infection: There have also been a lot of claims that infections are the cause of achalasia. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gastroenterologist.
1 person found this helpful

Know The Types and Causes of Hepatitis

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Know The Types and Causes of Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition of the liver, which may often progress to dangerous complications. There are many types of Hepatitis and each has its own particular set of causes, symptoms, mode of contraction and treatment procedures. Here are the main types of Hepatitis as well as some of the factors which may cause Hepatitis:

Types

  1. Hepatitis A: Hepatitis A virus infection causes this condition. The Hepatitis A virus comes from food or water contaminated with the feces of someone contaminated with Hepatitis A. This is not a chronic form of Hepatitis.
  2. Hepatitis B: This is a chronic form of Hepatitis. It is spread through body fluid, such as blood, saliva and semen. The possible causes of Hepatitis B include use of drugs through injections, having sex with an infected partner and sharing razors or other intimate articles with someone who is infected.
  3. Hepatitis C: This is also a chronic form of Hepatitis.The most common causes of Hepatitis C are injection drug use or having sex.
  4. Hepatitis D: This is a not a chronic form of Hepatitis and is also very uncommon. It is usually contracted along with Hepatitis B. It is usually caused due to puncture wounds or contact with infected blood.
  5. Hepatitis E: This is the most uncommon form of Hepatitis. It is due to poor sanitation and ingesting fecal matter. It is usually found in developing countries.

Causes

  1. Virus: This is the usual way of contracting Hepatitis. The virus attacks the liver and causes inflammation leading to the breakdown of a number of body systems.
  2. Alcohol and other toxins: Alcohol and certain prescribed medications cause the liver to swell and that is why this form of Hepatitis is known as alcoholic Hepatitis.
  3. Autoimmune disease: This is the rarest cause of Hepatitis. The immune system malfunctions and begins destroying its own tissues. It attacks the liver because it perceives the liver to be a foreign object. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gastroenterologist.
3734 people found this helpful

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: 6 Tips To Get Rid Of It!

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: 6 Tips To Get Rid Of It!

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, as it is commonly known is a digestive disorder that is caused primarily due to intestinal distress. GERD is caused in the muscle that lies between the oesophagus and the stomach, when the acid is produced in the stomach, it starts to flow backwards. For patients suffering from GERD, the acids flow back into the oesophagus instead of the stomach, causing symptoms like severe heartburn, chest pain and nausea, amongst others. So what does one do to deal with GERD? Here's a brief list!

  • Obesity: Being overweight and obese are two of the most important factors that contribute to discomfort in GERD patients. Working towards a healthier weight is a sure shot way of dealing with this ailment.
  • Alcohol and Smoking: The muscle ring that can be found between the stomach and the oesophagus relaxes with the intake of alcohol or with smoking, which prevents it from closing to stop the stomach's juices from reaching the oesophagus. So, giving up both substances would be a good idea if you are a GERD patient.
  • Go Gluten Free: Adopting a gluten free diet can help you cut out ingredients including grains and dairy products that contain more protein than what your digestive tracts can handle.
  • Other Dietary Measures: In order to handle GERD effectively, you will need to remove or reduce chocolate, fatty food, spicy food, and even oily and fried food from your diet. You may need the help of food with extra fibre, like fruit so that it can pass through the digestive tract faster.
  • Smaller and Well Timed Meals: Eating meals regularly and dividing them into smaller meals that can be digested quickly and more efficiently is one of the best ways of dealing with GERD to prevent the onset of backward flowing of stomach acids.
  • Exercise: Ensuring that you do not take a nap or lie down right after a meal and putting in a small amount of exercise everyday will also help in doing away with the uncomfortable and painful symptoms of this disease.

Making lifestyle changes is one of the best ways to deal with GERD. Yet, it would be best to see a doctor regarding severe cases where the symptoms do not abate and medication may be required. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gastroenterologist.

3731 people found this helpful

Dyspepsia: Symptoms And Causes

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Dyspepsia: Symptoms And Causes

Dyspepsia is a disorder of the stomach that is characterized by pain in the upper part of the stomach. It is not a single disorder, but is a collection of symptoms such as nausea, burping and bloating. It results when the acid of the stomach comes in contact with the mucosa of the digestive tract. These acids cause a breakdown of the mucosa leading to inflammation and irritation, which leads to indigestion. It may also result from eating disorders or certain medications.

Symptoms:
The symptoms of this disorder tend to occur mostly after consuming food and drink. In some cases, the symptoms tend to go away after eating or drinking. The symptoms of dyspepsia are: 

  1. You may feel bloated on a regular basis
  2. You may experience discomfort in your stomach
  3. Loss of appetite
  4. You may experience constant burping
  5. You may feel nauseous
  6. Symptoms of heartburn
  7. You may also experience chest pain and breathing difficulties
  8. You may be affected by jaundice

Causes:
The various causes of dyspepsia are: 

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome, which hampers the movement of food through the intestines
  2. If you are unable to properly digest dairy products
  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that results in reflux of the acids of the stomach
  4. Any inflammation of the gall bladder
  5. Various medicines such as aspirin, steroids and antibiotics may lead to dyspepsia
  6. If you suffer from depression or anxiety then it may lead to dyspepsia
  7. Excess consumption of chocolate, coffee and alcohol

Dyspepsia may be controlled by modifying your lifestyle. Some of the changes that you may make are

  1. Don't sleep immediately after eating, wait for at least two hours before you go to bed
  2. Avoid spicy foods as they tend to aggravate symptoms of dyspepsia
  3. Space out your meals, eat multiple smaller meals instead of few large ones
  4. Restrict smoking and alcohol consumption
  5. Lose weight as being overweight may lead to dyspepsia
  6. Avoid wearing tight clothes 
  7. Exercise on a regular basis to keep your body healthy and maintain optimal weight levels

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.

3585 people found this helpful

Colitis - 5 Common Types!

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Colitis - 5 Common Types!

Colitis is characterized by an inflammation of the large intestine (colon). It is generally caused due to reduced blood supply, autoimmune reactions (wherein the immune system erroneously starts attacking the body’s healthy tissues) and infections in the large intestine.

Symptoms of colitis
1. Presence of blood traces in the stool.
2. Acute colitis can itself be a symptom of hemorrhoids (inflamed and swollen veins in the anus or the rectum)
3. Tenesmus (constant urge to empty the bowels) is also quite common
4. Occurrence of abdominal pain in regular intervals, thus resulting in diarrhea
5. Constant abdominal pain
6. Fever and sudden chills throughout the day

Types of colitis
1. Inflammatory bowel disease: This condition is characterized by inflammation of the intestines or all the parts of one’s digestive tract
2. Microscopic colitis: This involves inflammation of the large intestine (colon), resulting in a cramping sensation that can be painful
3. Chemical colitis:  This condition is caused due to prolonged exposure to certain harsh chemicals which results in intestinal swelling and inflammation
4. Ischemic colitis: The most common form of colitis, this occurs mainly due to an insufficient blood supply to the large intestine
5. Infectious colitis: Caused due to certain bacterial or parasitic infections

Treatment for colitis
1. Medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be recommended to ease the pain
2. The drug ‘Loperamide’ can control the diarrhea. However, this should not be consumed if there is presence of blood in the stool
3. Colitis reduces your appetite. Thus, it is important to maintain a healthy diet in this regard. Avoid consuming dairy products or high fiber foods because they further inflame the large intestine.
4. Colectomy (surgically removing a part of the whole of the colon) is recommended in the most severe of cases. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.

3551 people found this helpful

Crohn's Disease - Causes And Symptoms

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Crohn's Disease - Causes And Symptoms

One of the more severe illnesses included in the larger group of diseases known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease is typically a long-lasting, chronic condition. The intestine or bowel, most commonly the colon and the lower part of the small intestine, are either marked by sores or get inflamed and ulcerated. It is a common occurrence in adolescents and in young adults.

Crohn's disease is subdivided into five types, each having its own set of symptoms:
1. Ileocolitis: The most common type, it affects the colon and the ileum and results in considerable weight loss as well as diarrhea and cramps.
2. Gastroduodenal crohn's disease: People who suffer from this type of disease have their stomach and duodenum affected and many experience symptoms like nausea, loss of appetite and weight loss.
3. Crohn's colitis: This involves only the stomach, and can cause joint pains, rectal bleeding, skin lesions and diarrheas,
4. Ileitis: This type affects the ileum and the symptoms are identical to those of ileocolitis.
5. Jejunoileitis: In this type, the jejunum gets affected and general symptoms include the formation of fistulas, diarrhea, intensive back pain as well as areas of inflammation.

Causes:
Despite the uncertainty as to the nature of the specific causes of Crohn's disease, there have been a few possible causes which have been identified. These include:
1. Immune system problems
2. Genetic disorders
3. Environmental factors
a) Certain edibles
b) Viruses or harmful bacteria
c) Smoke

Symptoms:
The primary symptoms of Crohn's disease include the following:
1. Diarrhea: This can occur for about 10 to 20 times a day in more severe cases.
2. In rare cases, there may be blood in your stool.
3. In more intense cases, you may even develop a fever.
4. Cramping and intermittent belly pain.
5. Anemia, due to a reduction in iron levels caused by bloody stools.
6. Weight loss.
7. Erratic appearance of small tears in the anus, called anal fissures. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.

3491 people found this helpful

Colon Cleansing - 5 Ways You Can Do it At Home

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Colon Cleansing - 5 Ways You Can Do it At Home

The colon is a part of the digestive system of your body, which extracts the vitamins, nutrients, water and salt from the indigestible food. This helps in getting rid of solid waste from your body. Now, you may wonder why colon cleansing is necessary. It is required when there is some disorder in the normal colon function, such as when the colon absorbs the toxins in place of removing them from your body, you may experience colon problems. These results in syndromes like gaining weight, fatigue, lack of energy, constipation, bloating and many more.

Cleaning the colon in a natural way is one of the earliest processes by which you can get a normal colon. This process is also called autointoxication. There are some ways by which you can go for natural colon cleansing.

  1. One of the easiest and best ways for colon cleansing is drinking plenty of water. Regular intake of water will keep your body hydrated and the body organs functioning. It will also help your body to get rid of various toxins.
  2. Intake of apple juice is yet another process of colon cleansing. Apple juice normalises your bowel movements and keeps your liver fit. It keeps the digestive system functioning as well. One glass of raw apple juice followed by one glass of water half an hour later works best for colon cleansing.
  3. Lemon juice with a high amount of vitamin C is excellent for the digestive system. A glass of warm water mixed with lemon juice and honey keeps your liver, colon and the entire digestive system fit and fine.
  4. Stay away from fried and processed food for a couple of days. It is better if you drink fresh vegetable juice for a number of times in a day. Green and leafy vegetables remove toxins from your body. They have high amount of minerals and enzymes which provides energy to your body
  5. Yogurt is your best companion when it comes to colon cleansing. It contains some bacteria, which are good for your body and helps accelerate the digestion process. It is one of the best way by which you can cure every stomach and digestion-related problems. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
3313 people found this helpful

Cirrhosis of Liver

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Play video

Hello, I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroenterologist and hepatologist at the Apollo Hospitals, Jubilee Hill, Hyderabad. I would like to talk about cirrhosis of liver and its complications and how to manage those things. Basically cirrhosis of liver is nothing but the liver get shrunken and it becomes nodular and hard so the functions of the liver comes down. The functions which are there are 600 vital functions that a liver does normally in a human being and all these functions are compromised in a patient with cirrhosis.

Most important cause for cirrhosis is always alcohol and next comes viruses called hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The evolving most increasing cause no is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease which we see on ultrasound can cause cirrhosis. Any patient in early cirrhosis may not present with any symptoms. The initial symptoms of decompensations would be:-

  • There will be swelling in the fluid
  • Swollen feet
  • There will be distinction of abdomen because of accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
  • Patients may have jaundice.
  • Sometimes they may present with a history of passing black color motion that means this patient is having bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. It can be most common because of the swollen blood vessels called viruses in the esophagus.

So other presentations would be disorientation. Patient can have hepatic encephalopathy,  the functions of the liver because the liver acts as a filter to many toxins. All these toxins enter into your brain and cause disorientation this is called hepatic encephalopathy.

So now we will talk about the treatment of cirrhosis. Whenever we see a patient with cirrhosis, most important thing is we will try and evaluate the cause of cirrhosis. See if the patient is a chronic alcoholic. We are taking a history of all college. The first thing is to cut down and stop intake of alcohol when the patient is in early cirrhosis. It can reverse the cirrhosis to normal liver. Most important and nutritional aspects along with some supportive medication but when a patient presents with complications already, then we will be treating only the complications. Once the cirrhosis sets in and he is in CTP. By the time. you see that the patient eventually progresses most of the time. We are trying to treat the complications of cirrhosis. Then a patient presents to us with bleeding then we will find out whether it is very variceal bleeding and there is a procedure called endoscopic variceal ligation to decrease the pressure of the varices blood pressure in the esophageal varices.

We have some medications which decrease the pressure. We treat these patients and we control the bleeding and a patient presents with fluid in the stomach abdominal cavity or fluid in the legs. These patients are treated with so called restricted diet. Also we give some tablets called diuretics which increase the urine output and decrease the fluid in the legs and in the abdominal cavity and a patient presents with hepatic encephalopathy. We treat hepatic encephalopathy by medications and we try to decrease the ammonia level which is released by cleansing the gut and all those things. So all these things are managing complications of cirrhosis. Very  rarely we see a patient in early cirrhosis then we treat the host.

The cirrhosis can be reversible. It is very rare but eventually when we see a patient in complications, he would always be in a stage called CTPB where he will progress to CTBC. CTBC is the end stage of cirrhosis and at that point of time the patient is left only with option of liver transplant.

Liver transplantation is again transplantation. It can be a live donor transplantation or deceased donor transplantation. So Eventually when you see a patient in CTBC we have to plan for liver transplantation. In these patient he can wait maybe for 2 or 3 months meanwhile we will be managing for complications.

 

3221 people found this helpful

Hepatitis B & C

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Play video

Diagnosis and Treatment for Hepatitis B & C


Hello. I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroenterologist, and hepatologist at Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad. I have been working as a a gastroenterologist for the last 8 years and the most common cause which I felt was that people are not aware was Hepatitis B and C. So, I thought I will talk to about these viruses in short. So, basically, there are two chronic Hepatitis viruses, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. We can talk about them together because they have similar symptoms most of the times and similar modes of transmission. So, these viruses when they infect a given body they don’t harm any other organs of the body except the liver and these viruses are hepatotropic viruses and this damage the liver.

The damage caused by these viruses can be detrimental, can cause cirrhosis of the liver and cancer of the liver. So, all these things are avoidable when we can treat them adequately at the right time. Most of the time if you do a simple test called HBsAg, we will be able to detect the virus called Hepatitis B and if you do a test Anti-HCV, we will be able to detect a virus called Hepatitis C. So, when we detect these viruses based on the patients other parameters and the liver function test, we will decide if the patient needs treatment and If the patient needs treatment, then there are good drugs available for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, it can cure the disease. so, if we treat the virus then there is no chance of liver damage like Cirrhosis and cancer of the liver.

The mode of transmission of this virus is very important to know. Most of the times it is not only it is always intravenous. It can be transmitted by intravenous injections or needle sharing. It can be transmitted by blood products. It can be transmitted by sexual transmission. And, most of the time we see this IV drug abuser sharing needles. Therefore, these are the chances of transmission. The most important root of transmission is mother-child transmission which is another possibility of these viruses. So, we should be aware of these viruses and modes of transmission so that we can avoid the transmission of these viruses.

So, Hepatitis B is a treatable disease whenever there is a necessity. Whenever the liver function tests are high or the Hepatitis B viral load is high, we need to treat them. There are very good anti-viral tablets available for Hepatitis B and you are preventing the liver from going into Cirrhosis or cancer of the liver. Hepatitis C is a curable disease based on the Hepatitis C RNA count and Hepatitis C genotype. There are various drugs available in the markets which are newly available where the cure rates for Hepatitis C are more than 90%. So, I would suggest a simple blood test for Hepatitis B that is HBsAg and for Hepatitis C Anti-HCV can save your liver.

If you are positive, you need to consult your doctor and get treated. You can contact me through Lybrate or I am available at Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad.
 

3415 people found this helpful

Gastroparesis - Nausea on Regular Basis Can be a Sign of it

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Gastroparesis - Nausea on Regular Basis Can be a Sign of it

Gastroparesis is a condition when your stomach feels full and heavy even after it has been more than a couple of hours after meal. Generally, it takes maximum 1 & ½ hours for the stomach to feel empty, but if the time taken for it is more, then this is a condition of gastroparesis. It means there is some change in your normal digestion process.

In this circumstance, the food in your stomach doesn’t digest easily and creates a lump. As a result, you have hard time digesting your food. It also means the nerves connected to the stomach are not functioning well. There are a number of reasons for which you can get gastroparesis.

  1. Diabetes is one of the most common causes of making you feel fuller.
  2. Disorders in the nervous system, mainly Parkinson’s disease or cerebral attack can create this problem.
  3. Some medicines, especially antidepressants or anti-inflammatory in nature and certain painkillers can cause this problem.

Gastroparesis shows a number of symptoms:

  1. Occasional vomiting as you feel unnecessarily fuller. When you vomit, it gives out chunks of undigested food
  2. A feeling of nausea
  3. You feel full after you have eaten very little
  4. Bloating and pain in your abdomen
  5. There is alteration in the blood sugar level
  6. You don’t feel like eating due to loss of appetite
  7. You lose considerable weight as you don’t eat much
  8. A possibility of suffering from malnutrition, again due to lack of appetite

How it can be treated?
When you identify the reason for gastroparesis, then treating it becomes easier. If diabetes or nerve disorder is creating the problem, leave it to your doctor to treat. For other causes like lack of appetite, there are some natural ways of treating it.

  1. Have frequent smaller meals. This way you don’t push yourself to eat much and at the same time, the body doesn’t lack nutrition and energy
  2. Avoid fibrous fruits
  3. Avoid high carbohydrate and high fat foods, which takes time to digest
  4. Intake foods which you can swallow, like soups or stew. They are healthy and are also easy to digest

If the problem still persists, consult your doctor who may prescribe some medicines to stimulate the stomach muscles. They generally have no side-effects. There are some medicines which can control your vomiting and nausea. There are some surgical treatments for gastroparesis, where the doctors place a feeding tube in your small intestine. A gastric venting channel is another option, which helps you to get relief from excessive gas formation in your stomach, thus accelerating the process of digestion.

3118 people found this helpful

Achalasia - Can Autoimmune Disorders be the Cause Behind it

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Achalasia - Can Autoimmune Disorders be the Cause Behind it

The tube that carries food to your stomach from your throat is called the oesophagus. When the muscular valve (lower oesophagus sphincter) in the oesophagus fails to relax and carry the food to the stomach, the condition is termed as achalasia.

Achalasia has a variety of causes, and can be difficult for your doctor to diagnose the exact cause. Some common causes of achalasia include:
1. Hereditary predispositions
2. Autoimmune disorders (The immune system erroneously destroys healthy cells in the body)
3. Nerve degeneration in the oesophagus
There other medical conditions that often lead to symptoms identical to achalasia, such as oesophageal cancer and Chagas’ disease (an infectious disease caused by a parasite).

Other symptoms of achalasia include:

The most prominent symptom of achalasia is dysphagia, which is characterised by swallowing difficulties or sensations of food stuck in the oesophagus. Dysphagia often triggers coughing and shortness of breath or choking on food.
1. Discomfort or pain in the chest
2. Weight loss
3. Heartburn
4. Intense discomfort or pain after eating

Some of the treatments include:

Most of the methods to treat achalasia focus on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). The treatments used can either permanently alter the sphincter’s function, or reduce symptoms.
1. Oral medications such as calcium channel blockers or nitrates are prescribed, which can relax the LES to let food pass through with more ease. Your doctor may also treat the LES with Botox.
2. For a more permanent treatment, the sphincter can be dilated or altered. In dilation, a balloon is inserted into the oesophagus and it is inflated. This will stretch out your oesophagus to improve function.
3. To alter the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy is performed. It is a kind of surgery where minimal incisions are made to gain access to the LES, and then it is carefully altered to improve flow of food to the stomach.

Unlike dilation, which can cause complications such as tears in the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy has a greater success rate. However, certain complications may still arise, such as:
1. Acid reflux
2. Respiratory conditions that are caused by food entering your windpipe

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

3212 people found this helpful

Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Can Severe Gas be a Sign of it

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Can Severe Gas be a Sign of it

Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder, which generally affects the colon (large intestine). It usually show symptoms like abdominal pain, cramping, bloating, diarrhea, gas and constipation. IBS is a long term condition. It can result in sudden mood swings, depression and thus, holds you back from living your life to the fullest. IBS can be controlled by managing lifestyle, stress and managing your diet. Medication and counseling could also be required to manage IBS.

Symptoms of IBS:
1. Immense cramping and pain.
2. A feeling that your belly is bloated all the time
3. Severe gas
4. Alternating and sudden bouts of constipation and diarrhea.
5. Presence of mucus in the feces.

Whenever you experience such kind of symptoms, it is always advisable that you must consult a doctor, so that it doesn't lead to a serious condition.

When should you consult a doctor for IBS?
IBS is not a chronic disorder and can be controlled by home remedies. It may also require medical treatment if the symptoms become acute and persist for too long. If you experience certain symptoms like rectal bleeding, weight loss and heavy abdominal pain that might increase at night, you may be at a risk for colon cancer. If such symptoms persist, you should visit a doctor as soon as possible.

Causes of IBS:

  1. Foods: Most people are susceptible to IBS if they consume foods like spices, fats, fruits, cabbage, beans, broccoli, cauliflower, carbonated beverage, milk or alcohol. These foods irritate the lining of the stomach and trigger IBS. However, the trigger may vary from person to person.
  2. Stress: Signs and symptoms of IBS can also increase if you are very stressed out. Stress makes your muscles too worked up and this may result in IBS. However, you should know that stress aggravates or triggers the symptoms but doesn’t cause IBS.
  3. Hormones: Women are more likely to develop IBS. Fluctuations in the hormonal cycle can trigger IBS. This usually occurs around or during menstruation.
  4. Other illnesses: Sometimes illness such as gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea) or bacterial overgrowth in the intestines can trigger symptoms of IBS.
  5. Age: You will be more likely to develop IBS if you are 45 years of age or above.
  6. Hereditary: People having a family history of IBS are more susceptible to develop IBS.
  7. Mental problems: Depression, personality disorder, anxiety and a history of sexual abuse can also trigger symptoms of IBS.
3216 people found this helpful

I have been suffering from gas problem since few days. My stomach is now looks bigger in size due to this problem I think. With very less amount of food my stomach get filled. Earlier it wasn't like that. Due to gas problem I had taken a unienzyme as I thought it was a digestion problem. But now I don't know what to do. If I intake a glass of water my stomach fills and feel like vomiting but it doesn't come. Also I feels my head heavy ,bitter mouth after drinking water. Please reply soon.

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
I have been suffering from gas problem since few days. My stomach is now looks bigger in size due to this problem I t...
I think you r having very less fiber in your diet, your stool habits might be irregular and you might also be having incomplete evacuation at stool. If you have the above symptoms also, take cremadiet powder 2 scoops in 1 glass water everyday after dinner for 2 weeks and observe.
1 person found this helpful
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