Corneal topography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique for mapping the surface curvature of the cornea, the outer structure of the eye. Since the cornea is normally responsible for the eye's refractive power, its topography is important in determining the quality of vision and corneal health. Corneal topography is a computer assisted diagnostic tool that can create a three dimensional map of the surface curvature of the cornea. About 70 per cent of the cornea is responsible for the focusing power of the eye. Normal vision in the eye is usually rounded, but if the cornea is flat, steep or unevenly curved, vision becomes imperfect. The advantage of computed corneal topography is the ability to detect irregular conditions that are not detected while testing. Corneal topography provides a detailed and visual description of the shape and power of the cornea. The corneal topography instruments used clinically are based on the Placido Reflective Image Analysis. Multiple light concentric rings are projected on the cornea and the reflected image is shown on a CCD camera. The computer software analyses the data in various formats thereafter. It also measures the deviation of reflected rings and calculates the curvature of the corneal surface in axial direction. The details can help provide the ophthalmologist with fine details of the cornea so that he can diagnose and treat the various eye problems.
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