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Dr. Sanjaya Mishra provides answers that are saved my life and helped me improve my health. U
Are you aware of colon cancer? This cancer is based in the large intestine or the colon, and the digestive system. Rectal cancer refers to the last few inches of the colon. These cancers are together known as colorectal cancers. Commonly, colon cancer starts as a small non-cancerous clump of cells known as adenomatous polyps. With time, some of these polyps may turn cancerous. The polyps are usually small and very few symptoms are observed.
In many cases, colon cancer strikes without showing any major symptoms. Hence, it is very important for you to have regular screenings called colorectal screenings for detecting early problems. However, in other cases there are several symptoms of colon cancer and bleeding is the first one of them. Tumours may bleed in small amounts and the evidence of bleeding in only found during chemical stool testing. When the tumours grow larger, other symptoms are slowly observed. They are as follows:
Change in Bowel Movements: Several symptoms such as diarrhoea, constipation and bowel incontinence are likely to be observed.
Blood in Stool: This is the most alarming symptom of colon cancer. However, the presence of blood in the stool does not always indicate cancer, as other problems such as haemorrhoids, ulcers and ulcerative colitis also cause bleeding in the digestive tract.
Unexplained Anemia: Anemia is the shortage of red blood cells, which help in carrying oxygen all over the body. In case you experience anemia, you will feel sluggish and tired. You will be exhausted in such a way that even rest will have no impact.
Other Symptoms: More symptoms such as vomiting, fatigue, unusual weight loss and unusual stomach or gas pain are also likely to be experienced which indicate colon cancer.
The Importance of Screening for the Prevention of Colon Cancer-
Colon cancer does not cause symptoms in an early stage and the major symptoms start appearing in the advanced stage. It is recommended for all people above the age of 50 to undertake regular colon cancer screenings. In case of people having a family history of colon cancer, and people with certain risk factors, screening should be undertaken at an early age after being approved by a doctor.
When diagnosed at an early stage, the five-year survival rate of colon cancer is around 90%. However, in the cases where colon cancer spreads outside the colon, the survival rates get reduced. It is important for you to consult a doctor on experiencing any symptoms of colon cancer.
If you are concerned about breast cancer, you should know about the steps you can take to prevent the condition. Breast cancer is a type of cancer developing from the breast tissue. Symptoms such as a lump in the breast, fluid flowing from the nipple, changes in the shape of the breast and occurrence of red scaly patches on the breast denote breast cancer.
You need to make certain lifestyle changes in order to prevent breast cancer. The ways you should adopt include the following:
Limit your alcohol intake: The more you consume alcohol, the more you put yourself at the risk of getting breast cancer. It is recommended for you not to drink more than one drink per day. Small amounts of alcohol increase the risk of breast cancer as well.
Abstain from smoking: There is a direct link between tobacco smoking and breast cancer, and the risk is even more in premenopausal women. You should quit smoking to reduce the risk of breast cancer along with many other conditions, which can develop because of the ill-effects of smoking.
Control your weight: Obese women are more prone to breast cancer when compared with women with a healthy weight. This is especially true when obesity occurs at a later stage in life, after menopause.
Keep physically active: Regular physical activity is essential for you to maintain a healthy weight, which is important for preventing breast cancer. 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercises or 75 minutes of vigorous exercises are recommended along with strength training.
Breastfeed: Breastfeeding plays an important role in preventing breast cancer. The more you breastfeed your baby, the more protected you are from breast cancer.
Limit the dosage and duration of hormone therapy: If you undertake combination hormone therapy for more than three to five years, you are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer. In case you are taking hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms, you should talk to your doctor about alternative options such as non-hormonal therapy and medications. If you still require hormonal therapy, you must use the lowest dose that will be effective.
Avoid exposure to radiation and pollution: Certain medical imaging procedures like computerized tomography involves radiation of high doses. There is a link between breast cancer and radiation exposure. Thus, you should abstain from getting exposed to radiation and avoid taking such tests if it is not very urgent.
Maintaining a healthy diet also helps in reducing your risk of developing breast cancer. You should include food items which are plant based in your regular diet, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains and legumes. Also, consume healthy fats such as olive oil instead of red meat and butter. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an oncologist.
If you are undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment, it is likely for you to experience and feel its ill effects on your body. Chemotherapy refers to the use of several medicines and drugs which are used in cancer treatment. Although chemotherapy is considered to be effective for improving cancer, it is associated with fatal side effects on the body. There are certain practices to follow in order to get through and survive chemotherapy, thereby inflicting less harm to your body. They are as follows:
Drink fluids: You need to drink large amounts of fluids at a rate which you think is beyond your body’s capacity. This helps in flushing out toxins from your system quickly, which will make you feel better. If you have a hard time drinking water, you should opt for fluids such as popsicles, broth, fruit juice and ginger ale.
Consume bland food: During chemotherapy, your craving for food and your appetite reduces. However, you can make a difference by eating. You should try eating bland and mushy food items, such as pudding, oatmeal, white potatoes, white bread and yoghurt. Do not eat fruits for the first few days after chemotherapy.
Find an outlet for your pain: You should find out vents or outlets for the pain and misery you are going through. Some people like to write about their emotions and feelings in the form of online blogs. By doing so, they get to share their feelings with other people online, which is a good form of support.
Dress comfortably: It is sometimes difficult for you to accept that you are a patient. You may want to avoid looking like a sick patient and want to get dressed up. However, this is kind of ridiculous and you should try to dress comfortably instead of trying to cover up your condition. Bring a blanket to the chemotherapy room and wear socks.
Exercise: Although you will not feel like working out and straining yourself because of weakness, exercise is very important for you. It helps in making you feel better as your blood circulation gets regulated properly, which results in the faster elimination of toxins from the body. You should try yoga or at least walk for 30 minutes regularly.
It is also very important for you to take your medicines properly. This will help you get back your strength and energy. You should be gentle with yourself and believe that you will be able to survive what you are going through. Give your body the time to heal.
If you are concerned about liver cancer, you should know that most people do not experience signs and symptoms of the cancer in the early stages. Liver cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cells of the liver. There are various types of cancer which can develop in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer which begins in the hepatocyte, which is the main liver cell.
Usually there are no specific primary stage symptoms of liver cancer. Some symptoms which may develop include the following:
Unusual weight loss is observed
Loss of appetite and developing food aversion
Pain in the upper abdomen
Nausea followed by vomiting
General weakness with intense fatigue
Swelling in the abdomen
The skin may become yellow
White and chalky stools are likely
In most cases, the causes of liver cancer cannot be clearly determined. In some cases, the cause is known, such as chronic infection with the hepatitis virus, which may lead to liver cancer. Liver cancer occurs when the liver cells undergo changes or mutations in their DNA structure. DNA mutations lead to changes in instructions of chemical processes taking place in the body. The cells may grow out of control and develop into a cancerous tumour.
There are several factors which enhance the risk of liver cancer. They are as follows:
Chronic infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C increases the risk of liver cancer.
A progressive and irreversible condition known as cirrhosis leads to scar tissue formation in the liver, increasing the risk of liver cancer.
Certain inherited liver diseases such as Wilson’s disease and hemochromatosis also increase the chances of liver cancer.
People with diabetes are also at a greater risk of having liver cancer.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the accumulation of fat in the liver, also increases the chances of getting this condition.
Excessive alcohol consumption is another factor which causes irreversible damage to the liver and the chances of getting liver cancer get boosted.
Exposure to aflatoxins, which are poisons produced by molds growing on poorly stored crops, make you more likely to get liver cancer.
Several tests and procedures are carried out for the diagnosis of liver cancer. These include blood tests for diagnosing liver function problems, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan and MRI scan.
Blood cancer is a broad term. Firstly, there can be an attack of cancerous formation of any organic physiological system, which occurs in different aspects of the circulatory system, and is broadly termed as blood cancer. There are mainly three types of blood cancer, but each type may have numerous variations:
Leukaemia: In this case, the multiplying cancer cells attack either the red blood cells or the bone marrow. The circulatory system becomes severely impaired and the production of red blood cells decreases rapidly, thereby causing the count of red blood cells to decrease every day along with a higher white blood cell count.
Symptoms: Anaemia, extreme weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath in regular activities, and vulnerability to the slightest of infections. Certain kinds of leukaemia are associated with symptoms like coughing, fatigue, itching, nausea, and aversion towards food.
Lymphoma: In this case the cancerous cells affect the lymphocytes, commonly known as the white blood cells, thereby causing the white blood cell count to decrease and hence causing the body immune system to crash. Even the slightest of infections become the biggest dangers.
Symptoms: Swollen lymph nodes (usually painless), acute weight loss, appetite loss, fever, sudden chills and sweating at night.
Myeloma: In this case, the plasma is affected by the multiplying cancerous cells, again causing severe impairment to the body immune system.
Symptoms: Initially, there are no symptoms but gradual prognosis symptoms like fatigue, extreme back pain, vulnerability towards infections, chest pain, and kidney problems arise.
Cures and Survival Rates-
With enormous research and amazing medical breakthroughs, blood cancer has become treatable and has been overcome by many. In a recent research, a curative alternative has been found which tries to block the release of the enzymes causing metastasis, thereby causing the enlargement of the cancerous cells to get blocked. There are numerous more alternative treatments like herbal treatments using herbs like xanthones and Garcinia mangostana, which have proven to be effective in treating even second and third levels of blood cancer.
According to the Leukaemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS), 2011 had 1,012,533 people recover from various stages of blood cancer. In the 1960s, the five-year relative survival rates were only 14%. In the 1970s, the rate increased to 34.5% and from 2005–2011, the rates improved till 61.7%. This estimate includes both the population of cancer survivors in the following categories:
Those who are totally cured of cancer.
Those who have just recovered.
- Those who are still recovering.
Bone cancer is a cancerous tumour in the bone, destroying the normal bone tissues. Tumours on bone tissues are not always cancerous or malignant, they are mostly benign. Primary bone cancer is when the malignant tumour begins to form in the tissues of the bones, but when these cancerous cells spread to other body parts like breasts, prostate or lungs, it is called metastatic cancer. Primary bone cancer is less common than metastatic cancer.
Bone cancer can be of three different types:
Osteosarcoma: In this case, the malignant tumour arises from the osteoid bone tissue. This occurs mainly in the upper arm and knee areas.
Chondrosarcoma: In this case the cancerous cells form in the cartilaginous tissues, causing a lot of pain. This occurs mostly in the pelvic area.
The Ewing sarcoma generally arises in the bone but it can also form in the soft tissues. Other kinds of soft tissues affecting cancerous cells are known as soft tissue sarcomas.
There aren’t many clear defined causes; however, several factors have been identified by researchers.
Osteosarcoma is seen to occur more frequently in people who have been through a high external radiation therapy dose.
In people who have frequently been treated with anticancer medications, children tend to be most affected.
Heredity may be an adding cause, although the percentage of hereditary transfer of cancer cells is very low.
People with hereditary bone defects or implants have a higher chance of acquiring bone cancer.
The most common and saddening symptom of bone cancer is painful, although not all bone cancers cause pain. Unusual or persistent swelling or pain around a bone maybe a red flag for bone cancer. In case of a situation like this, immediate doctor’s opinion is required.
Usually, diagnosis of a bone cancer can be made using X-rays; for example, a bone scan, a computed tomography scan, a magnetic imaging procedure—positron emission tomography, and an angiogram. Biopsy and blood tests are also helpful in bone cancer diagnosis.
The size, location and stage of cancer, age, and health of the person decide the kind of treatment that should be given to the patient. Various treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and cryosurgery.
The combined survival rate of all sorts of bone cancers is 70%. This percentage may vary with the type of bone cancer and also its stage.
The fallopian tubes are a couple of thin tubes that act as a vehicle in transporting a woman’s eggs (ova) from her ovaries (where they are housed) to her uterus (otherwise known as the ‘womb’) where they are either fertilized by the male sperm or disposed off during menstruation. Fallopian tube cancer, otherwise known as tubal cancer, forms in the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries and the uterus.
It is hard to see a tumour or growth developing within a tube. This makes fallopian tube cancer hard to diagnose and complicated to manage as well.
If you do have fallopian tube cancer, it is vital to get a quick diagnosis as promptly as possible. This will help you to get effective treatment. However, diagnosing fallopian tube cancer can be challenging because of the following:
It is an uncommon kind of cancer.
The indications are vague and like those of different other conditions.
Discovering a tumour inside the Fallopian tube is troublesome.
In case you have symptoms that may point at fallopian tube cancer, your specialist will conduct a thorough physical examination and get some information about your lifestyle and your family history. A pelvic examination will be done to examine your uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina. If a tumour is found, your specialist will do some more tests.
At least one of the accompanying tests might be utilised to see whether you have fallopian tube cancer and if it has spread. These tests additionally might be used to see whether the treatment is working. These diagnostic tests may include the following:
Ultrasound of the Pelvis: This test is helpful. However, in case that your specialist still suspects fallopian tube cancer, he or she will arrange a transvaginal ultrasound. During this test, a probe will be put into the vagina to deliver a photo of the inner organs. A transvaginal ultrasound is the best method for imaging the fallopian tubes.
CT or CAT (computed axial tomography) scan
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
Biopsy: A sample of cells is removed from the fallopian tube and examined closely, under a microscope. This is the best way to know for sure whether you have fallopian tube cancer. This will require surgery to extract the sample cells.
CA125 test: This blood test checks the levels of CA125, a known tumour marker for gynecologic cancers. An abnormal state of CA125 may mean you need to have more tests. However, it does not necessarily mean you have fallopian tube cancer. Serum levels of a marker called CA-125 can be unusually high in patients with gynecologic infections in cancer and non-cancer sorts, that is, pelvic inflammatory infection, endometriosis and early pregnancy. CA-125 can be non-specific and might be elevated because of numerous issues that are not cancer related.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Ovarian cancer tends to occur in the cells of an ovary. The ovaries are the two glands which are responsible for female reproduction. They produce ova or eggs and also create the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer begins when abnormal cells in the ovary start to multiply rapidly and grow out of control to form a tumour.
Generally, it was believed that ovarian cancer does not deliver any specific side effects until the tumour has spread to a later stage and early indications of ovarian cancer were not recognizable.
Nonetheless, in some of the cases, ovarian cancer may bring about early indications. The most widely recognized symptoms of ovarian cancer are as follows:
- Constant bloating
- Ache in your gut or pelvis
- Inconvenience eating
- Feeling full instantly
- Urinary issues, for example, an urgent need to urinate or urinating more frequently than expected
In case that you have at least one of these side effects and it happens every day for more than two or three weeks, try to consult a doctor or a specialist.
These symptoms are basic for a few women. They may not imply that you have ovarian cancer. It is very important for women to understand that these symptoms do not necessarily imply that they have ovarian cancer. The same number of other common and harmless conditions can bring about the same indications. Additionally, different reasons for these symptoms are significantly more common than ovarian cancer. These may include irritable bowel syndrome and urinary tract infections (UTIs). In any case, the early indications of ovarian cancer tend to follow a pattern, which is as follows:
They begin abruptly.
They do not feel the same as your typical stomach-related or menstrual issues.
They happen almost consistently and do not leave.
Different signs and symptoms that affect a few women with ovarian cancer include the following:
However, these side effects are also common in a few women who do not have ovarian cancer. Most of the ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed at a later stage after the tumours have spread. Fortunately, around 20% of women are diagnosed early, when the infection might be generally treatable. There is no complete screening test for early ovarian cancer. General pelvic examinations now and then, followed by ultrasound examinations or blood tests for cancer-related markers, have been routinely used for ovarian cancer screening. However, none of these tests are particularly effective when it comes to identifying ovarian cancer.
In case some of these symptoms start to manifest in your body, one should go for a general check-up. This is so because cancers are usually diagnosed at later stages where treatment is very difficult. Hence, the sooner one knows, the better it is.
Testicular cancer is mostly witnessed among young adults in the age range of 24–35. It results from the growth of abnormal cells in the testes. It is not the most common type of cancer found in the body, but can pose a serious threat to an individual if not treated early. The cure rate is one of the highest among all kinds of cancer found in the body. This being said, the rate of cure is totally dependent on the stage of detection.
Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer
The historical trend of testicular cancer suggests that white men are prone to this type of cancer than their African, Asian and Latino counterparts. A person with a family history of testicular cancer of HIV is at higher risk of getting this disease. Some other risk factors include Klinefelter’s syndrome and cryptorchidism.
Protection from Testicular Cancer
There is no hard and fast rule of protection. It is suggested that the testicles get evaluated while routine medical check-up. A person with a family history of testicular cancer should opt for a periodic checkup after every three months. In case a patient has already recovered from testicular cancer, routine medical tests are a must to ensure non-recurrence.
Symptoms of Testicular Cancer
The common symptom is a swelling in the testicle. It feels like a thickening of the testicle and is mostly painless. Minor discomfort in the swelling region is often reported. Some other symptoms include back pain, ache in the scrotum and groin, change in the size of the testicle, bloating of the lower abdomen and heavy sensation of the scrotum. There is a rare form of this cancer, which produces a female hormone called estrogen in a man’s body. This disease results in a lack of sexual desire, lump in the affected area, etc. Even less serious testicular cancer might show these symptoms. An oncologist should be immediately consulted if one or more of these symptoms surfaces.
What are the treatment options?
Testicular cancer is mostly cured with the help of a surgery. A follow-up radiation and chemotherapy is suggested by doctors to destroy the surrounding cells. It is done to ensure that the cancer cells do not spread easily and the chance of recurrence is minimal. The rate of cure depends on early detection.
Does testicular cancer affect sexuality?
In most of the cases, testicular cancer is detected in one testicle. If this is the case, the other testicle produces all the hormones needed for sexual drive. It also does not affect sex drive, beard and muscularity. There is also a large section of patients who reported of a difficult sexual life after the surgery. There can be some discomfort in the scrotum as well.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a specilized oncologist and ask a free question.
My fathers age is 59 and his prostrate gland is increased to 66gms. Its very pain. What are the remedies.
Dear doctor, my aunt is suffering from breast cancer .treatment is going on. Is it possible to remove her breast so that she can escape from cancer?
My cousin is having cancer on base of tongue nd doctor told chemotherapy nd radiotherapy bcoz tongue ke piece hai so operate nd surgery nhi ho skte toh what should we do.
Diagnosed with Breast cancer. FNAC done. No other tests done. Suggested surgery. Do I get other tests done or go for surgery immediately. The result of other tests will take another 12 days.
My sister has colon cancer she is taking ayurvedic med for it from last 4 years. Now she got tested for she has become anemic. They found she has internal bleeding. What can be done what r her options.
I smoke 1 time in a day it is good for me I now that smoking will cause cancer but I smoke 1 ciggrate in a day.
I am 59 years old, I am diabetic hyper tension is there from last 1 year I am loosing weight my family history is there having stomach cancer now days I don't hve appetite I don't feel like eating, I am very much worried please suggest me wht all test I should under go I am diabetic from last 19 years super is under control B p is normal.
Radiotherapy is a kind of treatment that kills the cancer cells by using high energy beams. Specialists use radiotherapy to treat a wide range of lung cancer. For early stage lung cancer, the radiotherapy may get rid of the cancer totally. For the small cell lung cancer you may have radiotherapy only. Then again you may have it with another treatment, for example, chemotherapy or surgery.
For small cell lung cancer, radiotherapy is used with or after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy makes the tumor in the lung shrink. You may have radiotherapy to your cerebrum, which tackles any cancer cells that may have spread to the brain. This is called prophylactic cranial illumination (PCI). In case of advanced lung cancer, the treatment contracts the tumor and controls it for a while. It additionally decreases symptoms like shortness of breath.
The types of radiotherapy used for the lungs include:
Outer radiotherapy: This kind of radiotherapy comes from a machine and is administered to the body through an external source. It depends on the kind of cancer and the progression of the same. You may have three radiotherapy sittings every day for around 12 days. This sort of radiotherapy is known as CHART ceaseless hyperfractionated quickened radiotherapy. A few people with small cell lung cancer may have treatment twice a day. If you are getting radiotherapy to control the side effects of lung cancer, you may have a single treatment or day by day medications for up to 3 weeks.
Inner radiotherapy: This is called brachytherapy or endobronchial treatment. This will be administered during a bronchoscopy. The radiation is given through a thin tube that the specialist puts inside your aviation route for a few of minutes. Specialists use this sort of treatment to shrink a tumor that is blocking or pushing your breathing track and making breathing troublesome for you.
These are some of the procedures that take place while you are having lung cancer radiotherapy:
- Radiotherapy machines are enormous. The machines are fixed in one position or are sometimes ready to go around your body to give treatment from various angles.
- Prior to your first treatment, your radiographers will clarify what you will hear and see. The treatment room normally have docks for you to connect to music players. So you can listen to your own choice of music.
- You cannot feel radiotherapy when you really have the treatment. It takes anything from one second to a few minutes. It is essential to lie similarly situated every time, so the radiographers may take a short time to get you prepared.
- Once you are in the right position, the staff will allow you to sit in the space for a couple of minutes. They watch you constantly on a closed circuit TV screen. They may request that you hold your breath or take shallow breaths during the treatment.
Oral cancer is the uncontrollable growth of cells called tumors that invade and damage the tissues surrounding it is in or around the mouth. Oral cancer, like all other types of cancer, is life threatening if not diagnosed and treated in the early stages. There are eight types of oral cancer namely cancer in the throat, sinuses, hard and soft palate, floor of the mouth, gums, cheeks, tongue and lips. Dentists are usually the first ones to notice and detect the signs and symptoms of oral cancer. This condition is also known as oral cavity cancer. The risk factors and symptoms of oral cancer are mentioned below.
The symptoms of oral cancer, especially in the first stages, seem non-threatening and similar to common oral problems. However, visiting the doctor is mandatory to rule out cancer as an option. If you suffer from one or more of the following symptoms, visit your dentist immediately.
- Thickenings and swellings, lumps or bumps, crusts, eroded areas or rough spots on the lips, gums or surrounding regions inside or around the mouth.
- Bleeding in the mouth that is unexplainable.
- Persistent sores near and around the mouth or throat that bleed easily and may take more than two weeks to heal.
- Unexplained numbness or pain and tenderness in the mouth, throat or face.
- Development of patches, which are usually speckled, red or white in the mouth.
- Sudden weight loss.
- Excruciating pain in your ear.
- Loose teeth.
- Difficulty in swallowing.
- Lumps in your neck.
- Stiffness or pain in your jaw.
- Pain in your tongue.
- Dentures that fit poorly.
Men above 50 years of age face the greatest risk of developing oral cancer. Women are at a much lower risk of developing oral cancer than men. The following factors increase your risk of developing oral cancer:
- Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes
- Snuff, dips or chewing tobacco
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- History of oral or other types of cancer in the family
- Chronic sun exposure, especially facial exposure
- Sexually transmitted virus such as HPV
- Diagnosed of oral cancer previously.