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Customer service is provided by a highly trained, professional staff who look after your comfort and care and are considerate of your time. Their focus is you....more
Customer service is provided by a highly trained, professional staff who look after your comfort and care and are considerate of your time. Their focus is you.

Timings

MON-SUN
09:00 AM - 11:00 PM

Location

No.18, Kila Gate Road, Vikas Nagar, Near Sai Baba Mandir
Vikas Nagar Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh - 474002
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Doctors in Apollo Spectra Hospitals - Gwalior

Dr. Navdeep Chavan

MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, MS - General Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon
17 Years experience
1000 at clinic
₹400 online
Available today
09:00 AM - 06:00 PM

Dr. Vivek Jain

MBBS, DM - Neurology
Neurologist
17 Years experience
650 at clinic
Available today
09:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Dr M K Srivastava

General Physician
500 at clinic
Available today
09:00 AM - 06:00 PM
500 at clinic
Available today
09:00 AM - 06:00 PM
500 at clinic
Available today
09:00 AM - 06:00 PM
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View All

Specialities

Neurology

Neurology

Offers specialized healthcare to patients suffering from disorders of the nervous system
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgery

Cosmetic/Plastic Surgery

Offers various surgical and non-surgical procedures to patients willing to enhance their appearance
General Physician

General Physician

Aims to provide best quality care to patients with acute and chronic problems
Pediatrics

Pediatrics

Aim to offer the best form of childcare to infants and children up to 18 years
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Back Pain - Is Homeopathy Effective In It?

Back Pain - Is Homeopathy Effective In It?

Homeopathy world has currently brought unique solutions for reducing unbearable back pain. You can get speedy recovery, and on the other hand, your back muscles will also become much more flexible than ever. 

Top 5 homeopathic medicines for curing back pain

- Arnica: Injured back often leads to severe back pain, and it can be well treated by this homeopathic medicine. Both recent and past back-injuries can be treated using this medicine. This medicine is absolutely safe, and thus you will not face any side-effects at all. Unwanted back stiffness and soreness within back muscles can also be minimized to a great extent with the consistent application of this medicine. Back motions can be made much more flexible by curtailing restlessness.

- Rus Tox: If you want to stop chronic condition of your back pain, then nothing can be the best option other than this medicine. Most of the homeopathic practitioners are now strongly recommending this medicine for severe cases. Only limited dosage of this medicine taken in a consistent manner can offer you more relief from your back pain, and you can get greater relaxation. 

- Mag Phos: This medicine is very much useful for alleviating all kinds of back pains, and this medicine can be accompanied by external heat. Cramping muscle pains are simply unbearable and thus cannot be gotten rid of at times. In such a condition, there is no other safest alternative other than this medicine.

- Bryonia: There are some prominent symptoms of back pain, and they can be easily and efficiently alleviated by this medicine. If you have become pretty tired of applying homemade therapies, then you can try out this solution. This medicine can reduce your pain and inflammation within a few hours, and you can get back to your daily activities with great energy. Apart from taking this medicine, you have to take enough rest so that your back can get relaxed. Your back motion can be smoothened and made flexible by taking the concerned medicine. 

- Kali carb: This medicine is the best back-pain solution for females. Those females who have severe back pain immediately after delivery can get greater relief from this medicine. In this case, back muscles often develop cramping pains and these pains are very much irritating, and thus you might feel disturbed. This is the reason doctors often recommend taking this medicine to fix the problem.

Ear Drum Perforations - How To Handle Them?

Ear Drum Perforations - How To Handle Them?

Eardrum perforation is a condition that is more common in young children, though it can affect people across all age groups. A rupture or a hole in the thin membrane separating the ear canal from the middle ear results in eardrum perforation.

Here is a brief account that will help you further understand the symptoms so as to seek treatment at the right time before the condition causes any complication.

Signs and symptoms:
A person with a perforated eardrum may have symptoms that include,

  1. Sharp pain that subsides quickly
  2. Ear fluid release
  3. Ringing sound in the ear (tinnitus)
  4. Partial or complete hearing loss
  5. Occasionally, fever

Causes of Eardrum Perforation:
The causes of eardrum hole may stem from an infection, injury or chronic disorders related to Eustachian tube. A perforated eardrum from trauma may occur when there is a skull fracture or after a sudden explosion or if the ear is struck directly. In patients with chronic problems with Eustachian tube, the eardrum can become weak and open up. Eardrum perforations may also be caused due to rapid pressure changes such as during air travel.

Treating Eardrum Perforations:
A perforated eardrum caused by infections or pressure changes usually cures in weeks without treatment, however, when the condition does not improve for a significant period of time, medical intervention is required.
Before attempting to correct any eardrum perforation, a hearing test is required to be performed. Then the treatment process would be initiated to close the perforation. This is done due to the advantages it provides including preventing water from entering the middle ear while taking a bath or swimming or showering and also improved hearing. It also prevents the development of cholesteatoma which may cause chronic infection as well as the destruction of the internal ear structures.

When the perforation is too small, a patient may be advised to observe the problem and check whether it is healing on its own. The hearing is generally improved with the closure of the eardrum. An ENT specialist may determine whether a paper patch will be able to provide an adequate closure of the hole in the eardrum and in case it doesn't help, surgery may be required to help the condition.

There are many treatment options, but most of them involve placement of the new patch across the perforation for allowing it to heal. This process is medically termed as tympanoplasty, and the surgery is quite useful in repairing the perforation which helps in bringing back the lost sense of hearing.

Eardrum perforation is a serious health condition that needs to be treated without further delay. It is essential to consult with an ENT specialist to get it treated before any complications arise.

Headache - Know Forms Of It!

Headache - Know Forms Of It!

One of the most common neurological conditions men and women suffer from is a headache. Headaches usually vary in terms of location, intensity and duration and may be treated with simple home remedies or over the counter medications. One of the most renowned types of headache is known as a migraine. Other common types of headaches include sinus headaches and tension headaches.

  1. Migraines: Migraines are very painful headaches that may be accompanied by a feeling of nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light and a pounding pain in the head. They are caused by a change in concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain which in turn make blood vessels expand thereby bringing on a migraine.
  2. Tension headaches: The pain of a tension headache is considered mild or moderate in comparison to migraines. This type of headache is characterised by throbbing pain on both sides of the head and pain in the neck and behind the eyes. Tension headaches are caused by the contraction of muscles in the head and neck.
  3. Cluster headaches: Cluster headaches are characterised by a series of short yet intense headaches that may occur every day or several weeks or months. In most cases, they recur on a seasonal basis i.e., people tend to get them at the same time of the year. The pain caused by cluster headaches may be more severe than that of a migraine but these headaches do not last as long. They are caused by the activation of a specific nerve pathway that is responsible for facial sensations. Cluster headaches are the most uncommon type of headaches.
  4. Rebound headaches: In most cases, a headache can be cured with over the counter remedies. However, excessive or incorrect use of these medications can cause a rebound headache. These medications may trigger another headache when their effect wears off. This makes the person retake the medicine leading to a vicious cycle. Rebound headaches are most often caused by medicines that contain caffeine.
  5. Secondary headaches: While the above types of headaches are categorised as primary headaches, a headache that is caused by another condition is known as a secondary headache. Secondary headaches are commonly caused by severe hypertension, sinusitis, pharyngitis and other types of head trauma. Tumours, subdural hematoma or other conditions that take up space in the head can also cause secondary headaches. Secondary headaches are a greater cause for concern than primary headaches and should not be ignored.

Piles - How Can Homeopathy Treat It?

Piles - How Can Homeopathy Treat It?

Homeopathy is the best alternative to avoid surgery specially, in the cases of piles, fissurefistula. There are many cases that were recommended operation but with homeopathy not only they were treated successfully but the surgery was also not done.

Piles or haemorrhoids cause severe bleeding in the anal region due to an abnormal enlargement of the rectal veins. The bleeding occurs as a result of a sudden increase in pressure in the rectal area. The haemorrhoids which tend to grow in the exterior part of the anus tends to be severe painful as compared to the internal haemorrhoids (which are invisible and grows in the interior portion of the rectal area).

The major causes of haemorrhoids are genetic factors, pelvic tumours, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, lack of regular physical exercise, undiagnosed and chronic gastric disorders like dysenterydiarrhoea or constipation and a significant increase in the weight of the uterus during pregnancy.

The sign of piles might include intense pain and irritation in the rectal area along with the presence of blood in the faeces and abnormal swelling of the affected area. If taken in a prescribed dosage, homeopathy can be very effective in curing piles. The most beneficial homeopathic preparations for piles are:

  1. Nux vomica: This homeopathic preparation is useful in curing piles which display symptoms of extreme aggressiveness and intolerance to cold weather. If piles are caused due to excessive intake of spicy foods and alcohol or cigarettes, this homeopathic preparation can work as an effective cure.
  2. Hamamelis: This preparation is useful to cure piles which show symptoms of blood in the faeces along with a sensation of discomfort and contusion.
  3. Ratanhia: This preparation provides a remedy for severely painful hemorrhoids (which causes complications during excretion). Symptoms include severe pain which stays for several hours after excretion along with a burning sensation. It may be relieved with the help of cold water.
  4. Graphites: If you suffer from the symptoms of chronic constipation, frequent skin eruptions and recurrent instances of menstrual anomalies in females along with piles, this homeopathic medication can provide effective cure to you.
  5. Aesculus Hippocastanum: This homeopathic preparation provides an effective remedy for non-bleeding hemorrhoids along with the symptoms of severe back pain and pain in the anal regions.
  6. Arsenic Album: This homeopathic preparation can prove effective in curing piles with the symptoms of a burning sensation during any forms of physical movement. If the hemorrhoids bleed extensively and are bluish in color, this homeopathic preparation can be beneficial in such cases.

4 Reasons Behind Lower Back Pain!

4 Reasons Behind Lower Back Pain!

According to medical research, it has been found that almost 80 percent of people in this world suffer from lower back pain in their middle ages. In fact, those in the distinct field of orthopaedics or researching with spinal cord and associated problems have time and again said that lower back pain is caused due to various reasons, but no particular reason is usually found. Lower back pain on its own can be caused due to injury or muscle pull. But often it is a symptom of an accompanying health issue.

There are several reasons why a person can suffer from lower back pain. Some of these reasons are explained below.

  1. Body weight: Whenever you stand or sit, the entire body weight is pushed down towards your lower back. This makes your lower back withstand excessive pressure. The accurate amount of pressure would depend on the weight of the body of an individual. Hence, with so much weight concentrated in one area of the human body, it is bound to pain at times.
  2. Exercise: Exercise must be done under supervision. Not all exercises are perfect for every individual. Thus the trainer often customises several exercises depending upon your needs. However, if you try to practice it on your own in the absence of a trainer, then a minute mistake can cause pains in the body like lower back pains.
  3. Injury: Every time you play sports, you are asked to stand or sit in a proper posture to eliminate chances of getting hurt. However, at times, you still get hurt or get involved in an unfortunate accident. In such times, the lower back comes under critical condition and pains are bound to accompany it.
  4. Arthritis: If you suffer from arthritis, then your bones are weak enough to support your body weight. Due to this, the lower back is no longer able to support your body weight the way it used to in the past. This, along with the pain caused by the weakening of the bones, together cause lower back pain in your body. At times they are mild, but at certain times, they can be chronic as well.

These are some of the very common beliefs of why people suffer from lower back pain at least once in their lifetime. If you happen to experience such pains, then it is recommended that you consult your medical practitioner immediately to get it treated. Prolonged pain and negligence towards it can be fatal for your health.
 

Tummy Tuck Surgery - Know Forms Of It!

Tummy Tuck Surgery - Know Forms Of It!

A Tummy tuck surgery is also called Abdominoplasty. This cosmetic surgical procedure helps to improve the abdomen appearance. People having excess or flabby skin on the abdomen that does not improve with exercise or diet undergo Tummy Tuck or Abdominoplasty.

In this type of surgery, the extra skin and fat are removed to flattens the abdomen. After the removal of fat, doctors tighten the muscles and connective tissues with the help of sutures.

A Tummy Tuck surgery is one of the best suitable surgical procedures for those who have excess skin or fat around the belly button and a weak lower abdominal wall. This surgery will boost the overall image of the body. It is major surgery for contouring the body.

Most people think that Tummy Tuck surgery is similar to Liposuction. However, both are different. Although, one can also get Liposuction along with Tummy Tuck for better results and benefits.

Why Is Tummy Tuck Surgery Done?

Flabby skin of the abdomen is not just caused by deposition of fat, but also by excess skin, the elasticity of the skin, or stretching of abdominal muscles and connective tissues. The inner griddle of connective tissues (abdominal fascia) is responsible for holding the internal organs and appearance of the abdomen.

When the abdominal fascia and muscles get stretched, the abdomen is prone to swell. This generally occurs after pregnancy or weight changes. A Tummy Tuck is done to remove the excess, loose, and flabby skin and tightens the weak abdominal wall as well. A Tummy Tuck surgery is also beneficial for minimizing the effect of stretch marks on the lower abdominal part.

Who Is Eligible For Tummy Tuck Surgery?

Both men and women having good health are eligible for Tummy Tuck. This surgery is suitable for:

  1. Women who have had multiple pregnancies may go for Tummy Tuck surgery for tightening and removing the extra skin of the abdomen.

  2. Obese people in removing the extra fat that deposits around the belly.

  3. People having a weak lower abdominal wall.

  4. Cases, where Liposuction did not help in improving the appearance of the abdomen significantly.

  5. Women who have had C-section previously and want to remove the scar.

Who Is Not Eligible For Tummy Tuck Surgery?

Tummy Tuck surgery is very useful. However, it is not for everyone. Here are some of the scenario, where the doctors advise to avoid Tummy Tuck:

  1. People who plan to lose significant weight. Tummy Tuck is applicable when all the other options fail. It is not an alternative option for Weight Loss.

  2. Women who might consider future pregnancy. In Tummy Tuck, the muscles get tight, but future pregnancy can minimize its effect as it will separate the muscles.

  3. People having chronic conditions like Diabetes, Heart Problems, or Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

  4. People Having a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30.

Types of Tummy Tuck Surgery (Abdominoplasty):

There are two types of Tummy Tuck surgery or Abdominoplasty doctors advise and perform depending upon the condition and need of the patient. They are:

  1. Complete Abdominoplasty: In this type of surgery, the surgeons will cut the abdomen from hipbone to hipbone contouring the tissue, skin, and muscles as required. The surgeon will move the belly button in this surgery and a person requires a drainage tube for some days.

  2. Partial Abdominoplasty: It is also known as Mini-Abdominoplasty and can perform on people whose fat deposits below the navel. In this type of surgery, the surgeon will not move the belly button and take only a few hours depending upon the amount of deposition of the fat.

Precaution For Tummy Tuck Surgery:

Before going for Tummy Tuck surgery people should follow instructions such as:

  1. Stop or quit smoking as it can affect blood circulation and lower the healing process.

  2. Avoid medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, and herbal supplements as these will increase the bleeding.

  3. Maintain a stable weight for at least 12 months.

  4. Take medication like anticoagulant to prevent complications.

  5. Have someone to help during the procedure. An experience one is recommended to understand the situation well.

Procedure of Tummy Tuck:

Before going for the surgery, the doctor will review the medical history of a person by asking a few questions. Based on medical history, he will perform a physical examination. If the results are positive, a surgical team will do a Tummy Tuck operation under anesthesia.

The surgeons will make a small incision on the abdomen to remove the excess fat and skin and pubic hair in elliptical or horizontal oval shape.

After the removal, the abdominal fascia lies on the muscles of the abdomen will be tightened with the help of sutures. The plastic surgeon will then reposition the remaining skin around the belly button. The incision will also be stitched in such a way to appear as the natural crease of the bikini line. A person may also be given an antibiotic to lower the risk of complications and infections.

This procedure will generally take up to three hours. 

Take Away:

Most people love the after effect of Tummy Tuck Surgery. However, it is important to follow the instructions prescribed by the surgeon or doctor for better results. It is always advisable to at least take care for six weeks after Tummy Tuck surgery. One may also maintain a healthy lifestyle for proper recovery.

Joint Replacement Surgery - Everything You Should Be Knowing!

Joint Replacement Surgery - Everything You Should Be Knowing!

Joint Replacement Surgery is a procedure where the damaged surface of the advanced arthritic joints are removed and replaced with artificial joints, such as metallic, plastic and ceramic joints. These surfaces closely replicate the original anatomy.

When do you need a knee replacement?

When you suffer from severe pain or deformity in the joint (knee in this case), the pain or stiffness and deformity makes it difficult to perform simple tasks. Severe grade IV osteoarthritic knees of people over 50 years when having pain, swelling and deformity fail to respond to medicines, physiotherapy, injections and rest.

Aim of the surgery:

  1. Correct the deformity: Relieve the pain and give near full movements almost immediately after the procedure. Details including techniques and safety, it is a safe, rewarding surgery with a success rate of as high as 99.5% when done by an able and experienced professional.
  2. Anaesthesia: Usually it is the spinal cord epidural where one is rendered numb for 3 to 4 hours waist down. Sometimes a general anaesthesia is given. A 4 to 5 inches cut is made in front of the knee and all the damaged cartilages, bones, loose bodies are removed from the lower end of the thigh, upper end of the tibia (usually of few millimetres) and the surface re-crafted to match the size and shape of the artificial joint (it is usually imported). They are fixed with bone cement. The ligaments and muscles are reattached and the parts closed.
  3. Recovery: Stand up and walk a few steps with a walker the day after the procedure i.e. in 24 hours. Physiotherapy in hospital for 5 to 7 days and/or walking, progressively longer walks and exercises over the following 15 days. Stitches are removed in 15 days. The patient can return back to normal activity in 4 to 8 weeks the surgery.
  4. Activities: Normal walks of 3 to 5 km per day Climbing stairs, cycling, swimming, and driving can be performed with the new implant(s) now.
  5. Avoid: Squatting/kneeling Prohibited: contact sports like football, cricket, tennis; jumping; adventure sports Longevity of joints: 15-35 years depending on the materials used.

Uterine Fibroids - Know The Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Uterine Fibroids - Know The Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Uterine fibroids are referred to as benign, abnormal growths which tend to develop in the uterine walls of a woman. The size of such growths can range from a few centimeters to even excess of a few inches. As such, they can cause the uterus to increase to the size of a five month pregnancy.

Although, the symptoms of fibroids are not always apparent, they often cause heavy bleeding and pain in women. A recent research concluded that around 60 to 75 percent women contract such fibroids by the age of 50, at least once in their life.

Depending on the site of formation, uterine fibroids are distinguished into different types. Intramural fibroids in the lining of the uterus and subserosal fibroids which develop outside the uterus are the most commonly observed fibroids.

What causes Uterine Fibroids?

Although, the exact reason for the formation of fibroids are obscure, medical professionals have determined certain factors that may affect their formation. Some of them are:

1) Hormones: Progesterone and estrogen, produced by the ovaries regenerate the uterine lining during each menstrual cycle and trigger the growth of fibroids.
2) Family history: If you have had a family history of uterine fibroids, then you're likely to develop the condition yourself as well.
3) Pregnancy: The production of progesterone and estrogen increases during pregnancy which increases the likelihood of fibroids.

What are the signs of the condition?

Depending on the location and size of the tumors, symptoms of such fibroids include:

1) Heavy bleeding and blood clots during periods
2) Pain in the pelvis
3) Frequent menstrual cramps
4) Pressure and pain in the lower abdomen
5) Swelling in the abdomen
6) Pain while intercourse

What is the procedure of the treatment?

Ultrasound and pelvic MRI are common diagnostic procedures to check for uterine fibroids. After diagnosis, depending on your age, size of the fibroid and your comprehensive health, the doctor would prescribe you with appropriate medications. Only after medications prove futile, doctors opt for minimally invasive surgeries.

Eardrum Rupture - Everything You Should Know About It!

Eardrum Rupture - Everything You Should Know About It!

Tympanic Membrane, commonly known as eardrum, divides external parts of the ear (consisting of Pinna or Auricle and External Auditory Cavity) and the middle ear (Tympanic cavity).  The function of the Tympanic Membrane is to transmit the sound of air via ossicles of the middle ear to the oval window in the cochlea. It converts and amplifies vibration in air to the vibration in fluid.

An eardrum rupture is a small hole or tear in the thin tissue which divides the external ear canal and middle ear. A person with a ruptured eardrum may feel a clap of thunder or earache. This may also lead to hearing loss. An eardrum rupture is also known as a perforated eardrum or punctured eardrum.

Causes of Rupture Eardrum:

There are many causes of ruptured eardrums, and some of the most common causes are listed below:

Ear Infection:

Infections are one of the most common causes of ruptured eardrums. During an ear infection, the fluid accumulates in the ear, which builds pressure causing a tear of Tympanic Membrane.

Change in Pressure:

Activities that cause pressure changes in the ear may lead to a rupture in the eardrum. It is called  Barotrauma. This mainly happens when the pressure of the external ear is drastically different from the inner ear.

Activities which may cause Barotrauma are:

  1. Flying in an airplane

  2. Scuba diving

  3. Shock waves

  4. Driving at high altitudes

  5. Forceful  and direct impact to the ear

Ear Injury:

Ear injuries may also perforate the eardrums. Any ear injury or head injury on the side of the ear may break the Tympanic Membrane and lead to ruptured eardrums. Injuries that may harm eardrums are:

  1. Getting hit in the ear

  2. Injuries in which a person falls on his/her ears

  3. Ear injuries during sports

  4. Car accidents

Acoustic Trauma:

Damage to the ear due to noise or loud sounds can also rupture the eardrum. However,  the evidence of this is yet to be found.

Other causes include skull fractures, foreign objects, and severe head trauma.

Symptoms of Rupture Eardrum:

  1. Earache

  2. Pus or blood released from the ear

  3. Tinnitus

  4. Vertigo

  5. Nausea

  6. Hearing loss

  7. Vomiting or dizziness

Diagnosis for Eardrum Rupture:

Diagnosis entails:

  1. Fluid Sample Test: If an eardrum rupture is caused by infection, doctors perform fluid tests. In this type of test, doctors take a sample of fluid that leaks from the ear and send it to the laboratory.

  2. Otoscope Exam: In this type of examination, doctors use specialised instruments with light to see the ear canal.

  3. Audiology Exam: In this type of examination, doctors test the hearing range and capacity of the person.

  4. Tympanometry: In this type of test, doctors insert a tympanometer into the eardrum to check the ear responses on pressure change.

Treatment of  Rupture Eardrum:

There are many treatment options available for rupture eardrum. Doctors advise these treatments depending upon the severity and condition to provide relief from pain, eliminate infection, and prevent hearing loss in future. Some of the treatments are listed below:

Antibiotics:

If the condition is not critical, doctors usually prescribe medicines to the patient. These medicines help to clear up the infection and protect a person from developing a perforated eardrum. Doctors may also prescribe some ear drops along with medication.

Patching:

In this type of treatment, doctors place a medicated patch on the eardrum. This patch encourages tears to heal and grow back together.

Surgery:

Ruptured eardrum can be easily cured with these two methods of treatment. However, in rare cases, doctors recommend surgery to patch the tear. This type of surgery is known as Tympanoplasty. In this method, the surgeon takes a part of tissue and grafts it over the tear of the eardrum.

Conclusion:

Above are some of the common methods of treating ruptured eardrums. However, it is always advisable to consult a doctor before reaching any conclusion. Also, taking some preventive measures like keeping ears dry, clean, infection free, etc. can help a person protect his/her ears from being punctured or ruptured. Do not insert anything inside the ear canal in an attempt to clean ear wax.

Osteoarthritis Of Knee Joint - Must Know Facts About It!

Osteoarthritis Of Knee Joint - Must Know Facts About It!

In medical terms, Osteoarthritis is referred to a disease of the joints. It mostly affects the cartilage or the slippery tissue, which helps to cover the ends of bones in a joint. A proper cartilage helps in gliding of the bones one over the other. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage’s top layer gets damaged or breaks down. This leads to rubbing of the bones and swellingpain or loss of motion. As the time passes by, the joint may lose its shape. There is also a possibility of developing bone spurs from the edges of the joint. This causes pain and damage.

People suffering from osteoarthritis often complain of joint pain and experience reduced motion. Unlike the other kinds of arthritis, this affects only the joints and does not interfere with the working of internal organs. It is the most common form of arthritis. It mainly occurs in older people. In younger ones, osteoarthritis may occur due to joint injuries.

What Causes Osteoarthritis?
It is caused due to ageing. But there are certain other risk factors that have to be kept in mind. This include:

  1. Excess body weight or obesity
  2. Old age
  3. Joint injury
  4. Improper formation of joints
  5. Defective genes
  6. Stress on the joints

What are the symptoms?
It can develop in any joint in the body. But it mainly occurs in the hands, knees, hips, and spine. The symptoms that indicate towards its occurrence are as follows:

  1. Stiffness in a joint, especially as you get out of bed or sit for a long period of time
  2. Swelling or tenderness in the joints
  3. A crunching feeling
  4. Sound of bone rubbing

Diagnosis
It cannot be diagnosed by a single test. It takes several methods to detect its symptoms. Therefore, a combination of tests are conducted, including physical examination, X-rays, blood tests or examination of the fluid in the joints.

How Is It Treated?
It requires a combination of treatments to meet a patient's needs, as per his or her lifestyle, and health. The treatment has four main goals:

  1. To improve function of the joints
  2. Maintain a healthy body weight
  3. It is important to control the pain
  4. Efforts to achieve a healthy lifestyle

The treatment plan or sketch will involve focus on the following things:

  1. Exercise
  2. Weight control
  3. Rest and joint care
  4. Techniques to get relief from pain without the use of drugs
  5. Medications
  6. Therapies
  7. Surgery