Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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A majority of women around the world suffer from ovarian cysts at some point in their life or the other. Thus, being diagnosed with a cyst in the ovaries is usually not something to worry about. In most cases, this cyst will disintegrate on its own within a few months. However, if you’re planning a family and trying to conceive, then it is wise to not ignore an ovarian cyst ,but get it checked out by a gynecologist at the earliest.
The connection between cysts and fertility depends on the type of cyst. Ovarian cysts can be categorized into 5 groups.
- Functional Cysts: Functional cysts are the most common type of cyst women suffer from. This can be seen as a sac on the surface of the ovaries and is formed during or after ovulation. Most of these cysts are harmless and fade away on their own. These cysts do not affect a woman’s chances of conceiving a child or pose any risk to a pregnant woman and her unborn child.
- Cysts formed as a result of polycystic ovary syndrome: Women suffering from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) often have small cysts found in their ovaries. Irregular menstrual cycles and fluctuating hormone levels are also associated with PCOS. Irregular menstrual cycles indicate irregular ovulation which can cause fertility problems and make it difficult for a woman to conceive.
- Endometriomas: Cysts formed by the growth of endometrial tissue inside the ovaries are known as Endometriomas. Endometriomas are benign cysts, but are associated with fertility problems. Surgical removal of these cysts can help improve fertility.
- Cystadenomas: These cysts can be described as growth on the surface of the ovaries. They can be benign or malignant and hence should not be ignored. However, they do not create any fertility problems.
- Dermoid cysts: Dermoid cysts are solid cysts that contain tissues, such as skin or hair in place of fluids. These growths are not associated with infertility.
- CA 125 Levels: CA 125 levels should also be done as it is increased in ovarian cancers.
The development of cysts when pregnant is not uncommon. Small cysts are usually placed under observance and left until after the delivery, but cysts that are bigger than 7cm may need to be removed. Large cysts can cause pain to the mother and create difficulties at the time of delivery. Laparoscopic surgery is the preferred form of surgery to remove ovarian cysts. This surgery can be performed at any point in the pregnancy and does not pose any risk to the fetus.
Becoming pregnant is indeed the most special experience for any woman and should be enjoyed. However, at this point you’re not looking only after yourself but also an unborn baby. Hence complications that occur during pregnancy affect both the health of the mother and the baby if not addressed and treated in time.
Here are a few health conditions that are commonly experienced by pregnant women.
- Anemia: A drop in hemoglobin levels or red blood cells count is termed as anemia. In most cases, this is triggered by iron deficiency. You may also feel excessively tired, look pale and experience shortness of breath. Taking iron and folic acid supplements can stabilize iron levels and treat anemia.
- Gestational diabetes: Blood sugar levels often fluctuate during pregnancy. The body’s inability of processing sugars and starch is known as gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can be diagnosed with a glucose screening test and an oral glucose tolerance test. If untreated, this can lead to a number of complications during delivery and preeclampsia. Eating a healthy, balanced diet and getting regular exercise can help stabilize blood sugar levels and prevent this condition.
- Depression: For some women, the joy of being pregnant can be overshadowed by extreme sadness. This could be a result of hormonal changes, stress or changes in the brain chemistry. Depression can harm both you and your baby by not motivating you to take care of yourself at this time. To deal with this, avoid alcohol and tobacco smoke both first hand and second hand. Build a support system and if need be consult a mental health professional as well.
- Preeclampsia: This is a condition that can begin around the 20th week of pregnancy. It causes blurred vision, high blood pressure, abdominal pain, dizziness, headaches and swelling of the hands. In some cases, it also causes seizures. Preeclampsia can result in premature delivery as well as trigger a number of other maternal and fetal risks. It can be managed with oral or intravenous medication but only delivery can cure the condition. A regular antenatal checkup should be done.
- Urinary tract infections: Fluctuation in hormone levels can lead to changes in the urinary tract thus, increasing the risk of catching a urinary tract infection. In addition to this, the growing baby in the uterus puts pressure on the bladder and does not allow the bladder to be completely emptied. This stagnant urine is another leading cause of urinary tract infections. Along with kidney infections, it can also cause premature delivery and low birth weight of the baby.
While the rest of the world congratulates you, your back may not let you celebrate your pregnancy as much as you’d like. One of the most common complaints of pregnant women is a backache. This is because the excess weight that you carry for 9 months shifts your centre of gravity. In addition to this, hormones also relax the ligaments in your pelvic joints. However, this back pain can be treated to make you more comfortable. Here are a few ways to ease back pain during pregnancy.
- Wear the right shoes: High heels are a complete ‘NO’ when pregnant as they can shift your balance and make you trip. At the same time, do not wear flats either. Instead look for shoes that distribute your body weight over a large area and provide shock absorption such as low heeled rubber doled wedges. If you must wear flats, wear them with insoles or arch supports.
- Hot and cold therapy: As with any other muscle pain, ice packs and heat packs can be used to ease back pain. Ice packs can ease swelling while heat packs can enhance circulation and ease persistent backaches. Alternate between hot and cold packs and do not use either for longer than 20 minutes at a stretch.
- Yoga and exercise: Strengthening the back muscles can help ease back pain. This can be done with the help of a number of yoga asanas and back stretching exercises. Physical therapy can also help manipulate joints and nerve pressure points to ease the pain. Swimming is a great exercise for pregnant women as it takes pressure off the spine and decompresses the spine.
- Sleep support: Pregnancy often makes women sleep on their sides and in a position that makes the back bone dip at the waist. This can put additional pressure on the spine and worsen back aches. To get a good night’s sleep, support your spine at the waist with a rolled up towel or pillow. Studies also show that sleeping on a hard mattress rather than a soft mattress can help ease back aches.
- The right posture: Pay attention to the way you bend and lift things. Instead of bending at the waist, squat and lower yourself to the ground to lift things off the floor. Also pay attention to your posture when standing and sitting and try maintaining an erect spine. Elevating your feet when sitting or lying down can also help in reducing back pain.
All the exercises should be done after consultation with your treating gynaecologist. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
While genital infections are an uneasy topic to discuss and seek treatment for, ignoring them leads to severe complications like infertility and even death. Most of these can be treated with a regular course of antibiotics and some topical treatment when identified early. Genital infections can be broadly classified into sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted. Read on to know some more common infections in both the categories.
Sexually transmitted diseases:
- Chlamydia: Caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, it is the most common STD (sexually transmitted disease) and affects about 10% of 20 to 30 year olds. It is often asymptomatic, but in few cases, there could be increased vaginal discharge. Left undetected, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and subsequently infertility.
- Gonorrhea: The bacteria Neisseria gonorrhea causes this STD, which is very common. There could be some irritation or discharge, but is mostly asymptomatic. Like Chlamydia, if not treated, it can lead to PID and infertility.
- HIV: The most dangerous of all, it causes AIDS, with immunosuppression as a major effect and affecting overall health. The women affected by HIV are more prone to candida and other genital infections.
- Genital warts: This viral infection is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) and manifests as multiple warts on the vulva, vagina, and cervix and can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (precancerous).
- Genital herpes: This virus again causes multiple small vesicles and ulcers around the vagina, painful urination, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Caused by type 1 herpes virus more commonly than type 2, it has a high chance of recurrence.
- Trichomonas: This STD manifests with very few symptoms and can go undetected for a long time. It can lead to PID and infertility.
- Syphilis: Caused by Treponema pallidum, there are 3 stages. The primary stage presents with an ulcer. The secondary presents with a rash, multiple genital warts, and oral warts/ulcers. It then goes into a latent phase and may subside without progression. In some cases, it reaches the tertiary stage and can affect various body organs including the liver, heart, or brain.
Non-sexually transmitted diseases: There two major genital infections not transmitted by sex are bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis.
- Bacterial vaginosis (BV): Constant change in the bacteria mix present in the genital area produces an imbalance and leads to altered pH and therefore BV. Pregnancy, intrauterine device, and frequent douching are proven risk factors for developing BV.
- Candidiasis: The genital tract usually has yeasts, and Candida vaginalis is present in the vagina. An overgrowth of this leads to infection. This can be caused by use of antibiotics (which destroy the good bacteria), diabetes, pregnancy, and birth control pills.
Early diagnosis and intervention of these infections can prevent severe symptoms in most cases. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Most medications are used because of their one particular therapeutic effect. However, invariably, they affect other organs or systems and produce some good and some adverse effects. The same happens with birth control pills (BCPs), which are the most commonly used method of contraception. It is also the most effective method. It contains the female hormones estrogen and progesterone in various combinations and these have an effect on various body functions, so it should come as a surprise that regular use of BCPs leads to a number of side effects.
Read on to know more
- Intermenstrual bleeding: This is the most common side effect and occurs in about 90% of the women, but usually subsides within 3 months. They experience bleeding between their regular periods. While mere spotting can be ignored, bleeding for more than 4 to 5 days needs a visit to the doctor.
- Missed period: It is very essential to take the pill at the same time daily. Sometimes, a period might be missed or may be very light and this should be reported.
- Effect on libido: While some report a decrease in libido, there are others who experience an increased sex drive. This depends on the individual and not consistent.
- Vaginal discharge: The amount and type of discharge can change when on the pill. Decreased lubrication may lead to a reduced sex drive, as it might be painful. If the discharge is foul-smelling or looks suspicious for an infection, then a doctor should be consulted.
- Mood changes: Changes in mood and prominent mood swings are very common in women using contraceptives, with many feeling depressed often.
- Effects on breasts: While it is not yet proven if they increase the risk of breast cancer, most women experience breast enlargement, tenderness, and sometimes pain. This is more common in between their periods.
- Headaches and migraine: BCPs are also proven to have worsening effects on migraine and headaches.
- Circulatory effects: Oral contraceptives increase the chances of heart attack and stroke, especially in women who are over 35 and are smokers. Most women experience a slight increase in blood pressure and are more prone to form blood clots. It is essential that contraceptives are used under medical guidance only.
- Digestive effects: Oral contraceptives can cause loss of appetite, changes in body weight, diarrhea, and nausea. The weight gain is also attributed to increased fluid retention, especially in the hip and breast areas.
- Skin: Some women may experience skin rashes and acne and sometimes hair loss due to the increased level of hormones in circulation.
It is very important that the pill is taken at the same time for best results. Any suspicious symptom should be immediately reported to the doctor.