Hello, my name is Dr Smita Vats and I am a consultant Gynaecologist in Gurgaon. Cancer of the cervix is the second most communist cancer of a woman in India every year almost one hundred and twenty thousand women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and out of these almost 67477 women eventually succumb to the disease. So that indicates almost of the mortality of 50% because by the time the diseases diagnosed, it has usually progress to an advance stage. Ironically it is also one of the Cancer for which we have very good screening test available as well as we do have a vaccine available which protect against the development of cervical cancer in most women. The causes of cervical cancer can be many and the most often it is caused by early onset of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, repeated pelvic infection smoking alcohol but by large the most communist cause of development of cervical cancer is infection with human papillomavirus which is responsible for almost 70% of the cases of cervical cancer. The virus is available in almost is present in almost 100 types of strains and of these almost 15 to 16 types of strains are high risk strains, that is infection with these 16 types of strains will develop will lead to development of cervical cancer in most women who have been infected with these types of strains. The virus is transmitted by sexual activity and as India becomes more and more liberated sexually the younger girls and young women are at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer because they are more vulnerable to the infection with human papillomavirus. The good news is that there is a good vaccine available against the infection from human papillomavirus and it is usually given to young girls between the age of 9 to 15 years of age in the form of two doses even as intramuscular injections 6 months apart. And if the vaccination can also be extended to women up to the age of 26 years in which case, it may be given in the form of 3 doses 0, 1 and 6 months apart and similarly for immuner compromise women the vaccination is also recommended. Beyond the age of 26 years ideally their best method to protect against the cervical cancer is regular screening with Pap smear at maybe 3 yearly interval and if it all it is combined with HPV DNA testing it can done once in 5 years. If the facility for Pap smear or HPV DNA testing is not available then regular periodic examination of the cervix in the form of visual examination by an experienced doctor, also helps in early detection of the disease and prevention of a development of an advanced Cancer. India contributes to almost 25% of the cases of cervical cancer in the world and developed countries like US and UK have been successful in reducing the insolence of cervical Cancer significantly with the development of vaccine and the development of protocols for regular screening by Pap smear and visual examination also. So there is no reason why we in India cannot decrease the incidence of cervical cancer if you follow the regular protocols. So for protection against cervical cancer following basic practices are required to follow safe sexual practices to take early treatment for any kind of vaginal discharge, irregular bleeding or bleeding after intercourse or any kind of abnormal menstrual bleeding. Please visit a gynaecologist on time and a part from these regular Pap smears and HPV DNA testing should be recommended to most women who are sexually active and for any further information you can discuss in details with your gynaecologist or you can send your queries to me through lybrate.com.
Hello, I’m Dr Smita Vats and I’m a practising gynaecologist in Gurgaon from over a decade now. Today, we will be talking about the prevention of fractures and bone health protection in women.
Women form the axis of the basic framework of the society and they are the basic pillars of strength of the healthcare network of the family and the society. Yet they tend to neglect their own health in their daily responsibilities of workplace, and the household duties. It is important to know and understand that bone health is to critical to the day to day quality of life as well as the overall health of the individual. There are certain basic differences between the bone metabolism of men and women and it is important to understand those so that you can take proper care of your bones. This is because after puberty the rate of bone deposition and bone strengthening is faster in men as compared to women and the peak bone mass attained at the age of 25 years is more in men as compared to women. Thereafter, the bone’s mass stays constant in men whereas in women, the additional challenges of pregnancy and breast feeding put an added demand of calcium. If proper calcium supplement does not happen during pregnancy and breast feeding, then the extra demands of calcium of the baby are met through the calcium of the body of the mother and that leads to weakening of the bones, ligaments, and joints, later on in life. Moreover, after the age of fifty, after menopause, the rate of bone resorption and development of osteoporosis in women is much faster as compared to men. So all these factors along with certain lifestyle factors which include physical activity, dietary factors, and the other lifestyle modifications like smoking, alcohol intake etc. does hamper the bone health of an individual and should be looked after.
That brings us to the question as to how to look after the bone health of a woman properly?
First and foremost is the dietary and nutritional factor. Calcium and Vitamin D are the most important nutrients which are responsible for the proper bone strength of the body. Calcium intake, at least one thousand to twelve hundred milligrams per day is recommended. It can be achieved through dietary elements like milk and milk products – yogurt, cheese, curd etc. Apart from egg, meat, mutton, chicken, and other vegetarian products like wheat, raggi, soya bean and fruits and vegetables like black grapes, cauliflower, cabbage, beetroot, pistachio, almonds, all are great sources of calcium. It is important to remember that if the dietary factors do not meet eh regular demands of the body for calcium then one should be taking calcium supplements as prescribed by the doctor, especially during pregnancy and breast feeding women should not neglect the intake of calcium during those times. Apart from calcium, the other important aspect is the Vitamin D intake. The daily requirement of Vitamin D is about two hundred to four hundred international units in a day. The main source of Vitamin D is sunlight and as a result, in the urban population when people are not moving around too much in the sun or whenever they go out they are fully covered or using sunscreen. There is a high incidence of Vitamin D deficiency in this population. Apart from this, people who live in higher altitudes, have a dark skin colour, or are obese also have a risk of Vitamin D deficiency. Hence, such people should be taking Vitamin D supplements as subscribed by the doctor and especially vegetarians because the only dietary source of Vitamin D is through cog liver oil, fish, liver so that leaves very few options for the normal vegetarian population to attain Vitamin D through dietary intake.
Then the other aspect which is very important is the physical activity and regular physical exercise. At least half an hour to forty-five minutes of regular physical exercise is a must. To improve blood circulation and bone health and muscle health in the body. This is also important to improve the overall tone and balance of the body so as to prevent falls and fractures and the risks of injury which may hamper the quality of life in her later age groups. Apart from this, smoking, intake of alcohol etc. can also accelerate bone resorption and also deteriorates your bone health. Hence, it is important to look after all these factors.
For any further queries or any further details, you can send me queries through Lybrate or can meet me personally at my clinic in GNS Hospital or The Gynae Point near South City 2.
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Hello, I am Dr.Smita Vats and I am a practicing gynecologist at Gurgaon. My areas of specific interest are laparoscopic surgery and dealing with various gynae disorders like Uterine fibroids, Ovarian cysts, Endometriosis, Infertility and high rest pregnancy. So today we will be dealing with a very important disorder which is commonly found in urban population that is the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). It is a complex disorder which is characterized by the presence of tiny fluid filled cysts in the ovaries which may be present in the one or both the ovaries and is also associated with irregularity of the periods or disturbance in the periods and also the presence of hypergonadism that is the presence of excess of man hormones in the body leading to more of male characters like excess of facial hair , more chest hair, hair on abdomen, thighs, buttocks etc. along with the presence of acne and may be scalp hair loss and this may be associated weight gain also and in the long term later on it may cause also pregnancy complications.
It may cause difficulty in conceiving a pregnancy, it may lead to loss of pregnancies, early abortions and development of diabetes and hyper blood pressure etc., and other complications in the pregnancy, so that it brings to the question that what causes Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Well the exact cause of PCOS is not really well known. There is a genetic predisposition for it and the genetic inheritance has been proven. But that does not mean that anybody who does not have genetic predispositions cannot have this disease. So it is a primarily a lifestyle disorder wherein even if you have genetic predispositions the disease usually manifests the signs and symptoms usually appear only when your lifestyle become sedentary. So it is primarily a problem seen in the urban population now-a-days because their lifestyle is sedentary and there is minimal physical activity involved. Now-a-days you spend 8-10 hours sitting in the office on the desk.
Apart from that there is hardly any physical activity. So in order to deal with that, obviously then we have to address the lifestyles also which is the most important factor and sometimes in a few patients a part from lifestyle modifications a few medications may be required which may be decided upon depending on if at all there is a hormonal imbalance or if at all there is any other disorder associated with it which needs to be treated medically. So in the lifestyle modification what you can do is you can include at least half an hour or 45min of rigorous physical activity every day in your routine and if not every day then you can include at least 4-5 days in a week. So include at least 45min of may be walking, jogging or dance, swimming, yoga, or whatever kind of exercise you enjoy. Include at least half an hour or 45min of that kind of physical activity in your daily routine.
Apart from that control your diet, avoid junk food that is avoid chips, burgers, fries, pizzas, high calorie diets and primarily refined foods, white breads and rice and all these things which give you a sudden burst of high calories and which may lead to hormonal imbalance also. Focus more on fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, curds, rice, and milk products whatever low fat milk products. Eat a healthy well balanced diet. A part from that PCOS patients mostly are obese and even a fight person of weight loss whatever their body weight is may lead to improvement of symptoms and help them deal with the disorder and if at all nothing else works then physical managements is required.
If you need any further information or further guidance regarding treatment of PCOS you can contact me on my clinic or online through Lybrate.read more
Dr. Smita Vats talking about managing pregnancy
Hello I am Dr. Smita Vats and I am a practicing gynecologist at Gurgaon. So my areas of specific interest are gynae- laparoscopic surgeries, treatment of gynae disorders like uterine fibroids, Ovariances, Endometriosis, infertility and high risk pregnancy. So today I will be giving a few suggestions to how to keep cool in summers while you are pregnant. So summers in India can be very hot and bother some time for most people and this version during pregnancy because during pregnancy the basal body temperature is already high and the increased heat and humidity outside can even make you more uncomfortable. Hence it becomes important to take a few steps to maintain your hydration and to keep your well-being during summers.
The first and the foremost thing which is the most important is that you can do to deal with hot weather is to maintain a good amount of liquid intake that is take at least 8-10 glasses of water every day. If it is difficult for you to consume plain water you can maybe add a little bit of mint or lime or slice of orange or whatever you like, whatever kind of flavor that you like to it. And take at least one glass of water for every hour that you are outside in the sun. So whenever you are going out carry a water bottle with you and make sure that you consume at least a glass of water every one hour or so and also minimize your intake of tea, coffee, and other caffeinated drinks because they make your body lose a lot of water as well as salt and electrolytes which can make you dehydrated and make you feel really sick.
Apart from drinking the right things, it is also important to eat right in pregnancy and you should be taking frequent small meals. Avoid very heavy, spicy, and oily food and instead of taking three large meals make sure that you eat a little amount everyone in the half to two hours so that you are not over-eating also and you are comfortable also. Apart from that to deal with heat of the summers make sure that you eat a lot of fruits and vegetables. Juicy fruits watermelon, melon, coconut etcetera, cucumber and all these things which contain a lot of water are a good suggestion for intake during the summer months and just avoid a lot of oily and spicy foods.
Then, when you are going out in the sun make sure that you don’t go out during the very hot part of the day that is between 12 to 4 pm. So plan your outside activities either in the early mornings or in the late evenings. If at all you need to go out in the sun between 12 to 4 pm make sure you keep drinking a lot of water in between and whenever you fell exhausted or you feel dehydrated or you are feeling nauseous or giddy or have any kind of discomfort make sure that you get back into the home, lie down for a while and consume a glass of water or any other liquid and maybe keep a wet cloth on your forehead or something just to make you feel better. If all these things don’t make you feel better than it is the time to contact your doctor and take a proper treatment for that.
For any other regarding pregnancy care, you can contact me at my clinic or at this main online query at the lybrate.com.
Doctor in The Gynae Point
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
It's been more than a year now, and I have noticed considerable change in myself. I thought that post treatment it won't happen again, but then after sometime, the symptoms re appeared. The delay periods problem was increasing day by day. She never gets frustrated, even when I ask a number of queries. Whatever tests the Smita Vats prescribed, were very correct and the gave they gave us an exact idea about my condition. Finally with hertreatment, I am completely cured from the problem. The Med Harbour Family Clinic (dr Smita Vats) was equipped with various facilities.
I was having very bad thoughts regarding my pregnancy. I consulted many doctors but was not able to conceive. By chance, I approached Dr Smita for second opinion and thank god, i did because, she treated me without any surgery and all. She told the reason and how the treatment will be done. I am so thankful to him for the treatment. I must say she is the best gynaecologist in the city.
My previous experiences were not so good, but Smita Vats has completely changed my opinion as she is very helpful and humble. Smita Vats has so much knowledge that for everything i take her reference. I was panicked, because I never thought I will suffer from infertility like this. Hygiene is very important, and I must Med Harbour Family Clinic (Dr Smita Vats) was extremely clean.
Due to my polycystic ovary synDrome my daily activities were suffering. I found the Med Harbour Clinic itself quite pleasant. Even in case of emergency, the staff is always willing to help. One of my cousin's referred to Dr Smita Vats. Never once that I felt that she is getting impatient, rather she has always responded to my each and every doubt with immense patience.
I was suffering from stomach pain. Dr Smita is really like God send person. So many doctors I consulted, but her treatment was the best. Her treatment suited me the best and now I am fine. Whatever tests she prescribed, were very correct and the gave they gave us an exact idea about my condition.The overall atmosphere in the Med Harbour Clinic is very soothing.
I was in too much pain because of no periods, but even after consulting a number of doctors, I was not getting any relief. She is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. I had lost hope, but the no periods treatment given by Smita Vats has helped me regain my confidence. The overall atmosphere in the Med Harbour Clinic is very soothing.
Dr. Smita Vats provides answers that are very helpful. Mam maine meri wife ke sath 7.6.17 ko un safe sex kiya tha ji or unke periods 18 ko suru hote h hmne pregnancy test bhi kiya 4 bar result hmesa negative aaya h ji or 28.6.17 ko unko periods suru ho gye ji kya vo pregnant h ya nhi mam please help me
I read about Dr Vats on one of the social media platform. The irregular periods treatment has helped me greatly and now I am perfectly fine. The best thing about her is that she prescribes limited no. of medicines. Even though there was a long queue, still the staff was very pleasant.
I visited The Gynae Point in Gurgaon to consult dr Smita Vats for my abortion. She guided me well and I found no problems in the treatment she gave me. She is a great doctor.
She is very nice Dr.
PCOS is a disorder characterized by enlarged ovaries and the formation of tiny cysts on the outer sides of the ovaries. Polycystic Ovary is a hormonal condition that stimulates surplus production of androgen in women. Androgen being a “male hormone,” causes development of muscle mass and hair in men, and it has similar effects on women as well when present in high amount. They trigger acne and excessive growth of body hair in women accompanied by irregular or lack of ovulation in the form of absent or erratic menstrual cycle. Hence, owing to troubles in ovulation (release of ovum from the ovary), one may experience difficulties in getting pregnant.
Many women suffering from PCOS are unaffected by the influence of the hormone ‘insulin’, which indicates, that it requires a larger amount of insulin to sustain a normal blood sugar level. High levels of insulin as a result of insulin resistance, in turn drastically boosts androgen production.
Irregular Menstrual Cycle. Women with PCOS may miss periods or have fewer periods (fewer than eight in a year). Or, their periods may come every 21 days or more often. Some women with PCOS stop having menstrual periods.
Excessive hair. Excessive hair on the face, chin, or parts of the body where men usually have hair. This is called "hirsutism." Hirsutism affects up to 70% of women with PCOS.3
Acne. Acne on the face, chest, and upper back
Weight Gain. Weight gain or difficulty losing weight
Skin Darkening. Darkening of skin, particularly along neck creases, in the groin, and underneath breasts
Skin tags. Skin tags, which are small excess flaps of skin in the armpits or neck area
Treatment for PCOS:
The treatment of PCOS is tailored according to an individual's specific problems. Women who desire pregnancy are advised to alter their lifestyle and work towards weight control, dietary regulation and exercise. Some women may require medications to induce ovulation and assisted reproductive techniques in order to conceive. Others may need medications to control their blood sugar or insulin levels. The lifestyle changes of incorporating regular exercise, diet control and weight control need to be continued to reduce the longterm risks of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and endometrial carcinoma in these women. It is mainly a lifestyle induced disorder and hence the therapy aims at correcting the basic pathology.
PMS is often treated as a joke but for many women, it is a monthly nightmare. Muscle cramps, headaches, bloating, breast tenderness, anxiety and depression are common symptoms of PMS. Though there is no set cure for PMS here are a few tips that will help you deal with it.
Set yourself an exercise routine
Exercising not only helps you maintain weight but also helps dealing with PMS. All you need are 30 minutes a day set aside to go for a brisk walk, jog, swim or even dance. Aerobic exercises like this improve blood circulation, ease stress and help the brain release more happy hormones.
Change your diet
If you are feeling bloated and depressed, cut back on simple carbohydrates like sugar and fat and increase your consumption of complex carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Do not attempt a low carb diet to lose weight if you suffer from PMS. Reducing the simple carbohydrates in the body and increasing the complex carbohydrates keeps you body feeling full for longer and increases the serotonin levels in the body.
Quit alcohol and caffeine
Drinking a glass of wine of a cup of coffee may give you temporary relief from PMS symptoms but in the long run they aggravate your PMS symptoms such as headaches, breast tenderness and mood swings. Alcohol may also contribute towards lowering the magnesium levels in your body and thereby make you feel bloated.
One of the effects of PMs is to make you feel anxious and tense. The easiest way to address this is by learning to relax. Try meditation or yoga for half an hour every morning. This will improve your overall health as well as soothe muscle pains.
Take a few supplements
Research says that certain fatty acids like omega 3 and linoleic acid can lower irritability and body aches associated with PMS. Calcium is also known to help ease PMS symptoms. Getting these nutrients in the required levels may not be possible only through your daily meals. Hence, you can also consider supplements to ease your pains.
Use Birth control pills
Birth control pills with the drospirenone hormone can help ease symptoms of severe PMS. Menstruation is often accompanied by a drop in estrogen levels that can lead to migraines. Regular of birth control pills also regulates your hormones and hence avoids these fluctuations. It also keeps your ovaries from releasing eggs every month and hence reduces the intensity of the associated cramps.
Talk to people
You are not alone when it comes to PMS. Instead of keeping quiet about your discomfort, talk to people who may be experiencing something similar. Sharing your problems will introduce you to new ways of dealing with it. You could also get online support though various discussion groups.
Vaginal Vault Prolapse is the condition where the upper portion of vagina may lose its normal shape and drop or sag down into the vaginal canal or maybe even outside the vagina. This may occur after a hysterectomy or even simultaneously with uterine prolapse.
The treatment of vaginal vault prolapse varies with the severity and extremity of your symptoms. Your health care provider may suggest medications and physical therapy to treat your condition if you feel that the prolapse is not bothersome. However, you might have to undergo surgery later if your symptoms worsen and the prolapse affects your quality of life and hinders functional ability. You must keep in mind that usually more than one area is affected by weakness in your pelvic floor.
The symptoms of Vaginal Vault Prolapse include- backache, pelvic heaviness, bulging mass into or sometimes outside your vagina that hinders normal activities such as walking and sitting, vaginal bleeding and releasing urine involuntarily.
Most of the women with this condition usually go through menopause around the same time. Since the estrogen levels are severely lowered during menopause, it causes vaginal dryness. Discussing about estrogen therapy with your health care provider is a must if you wish to remedy your vaginal dryness. Not every woman should take estrogen so it is imperative to talk to a medical expert first. Usually women are treated with estrogens before they go into surgery.
2. Physical Therapy
Most health care experts recommend pelvic floor exercises as physical therapy using biofeedback so as to strengthen the specific muscles of your pelvic floor. Biofeedback is the usage of monitoring devices that contain sensors and are placed either in your rectum, vagina or on your skin. Biofeedback is very important because it tells you the strength of each muscle you are squeezing i.e. contractions, and if you are squeezing the right muscles in order to perform the exercise correctly. Long term usage of biofeedback in physical therapy leads to strengthening of your muscles and a reduction in your symptoms.
Corrective surgery may be performed on you by the surgeon either through the abdomen or vagina. If the surgeon is performing the corrective surgery through the vagina, he will use the ligaments which support the uterus to solve the problem.
Sometimes getting pregnant is not a very easy task, and may end up taking a long time. But once you’ve decided to start a family of your own, it becomes harder to wait for it to happen. Here are 5 things you can do increase your chances of getting pregnant.
1. Fertile Period & timed intercourse
A woman's fertility is maximum around the time of ovulation which usually happens about 2 weeks prior to the expected date of the next period. In women who have a regular cycle of 28 to 30 days, this ovulation may happen at around the 14th to 16 th day of the menstrual cycle and hence the 11th to 18th day may be the most fertile period in such women. However, in many women the periods may be irregular and unpredictable with the ovulation date varying accordingly. For such couples, it is better to have regular intercourse every 2nd or 3rd day of the month to maximise the chances of conception. Besides, the pregnancy rate in a single cycle is only about 15% - 20 % in a given month. Hence the chances of pregnancy increase cumulatively over subsequent months and there are about 80-84% chances of pregnancy in a couple over a span of one year provided all the other factors governing the male & female fertility are normal. Thus it is advisable to try unprotected regular intercourse to maximise the chances of conception before initiating any investigation for fertility treatment in a young & healthy couple.
2. Keeping track of the ovulation period
Even though regular sex throughout the month is advised, it is certainly more fruitful to know your cycle. You can only get pregnant when the sperm meets the egg, and the egg is only released around the 14th day in your cycle. This egg lives only for a day or two, so you have a limited window when you can actually get pregnant. Typically this window is approximately of 6 days, so it’s best to have sex in this period. But it’s important not get obsessive and put too much pressure to have sex on these days as the stress can reduce sperm quality. So be mindful of it and still enjoy the activity rather than being obsessive. There are several free apps that you can download to help you track your cycle.
3. Ensuring the sperm health
Cutting down on coffee, cigarettes and alcohol and maintaining an ideal weight as well as increasing the consumption of folic acid are necessary steps to ensure healthy and fertile sperm quality. Alcohol reduces sperm production, smoking causes low sperm count and slow-moving sperm, while being overweight can affect a man’s libido and performance. The same goes for caffeine or drinks that contain a high amount of soda. Besides, prolonged exposure to heat on the testicular area should also be avoided to ensure that the man’s sperm is healthy. So avoid keeping laptops on your lap, saunas and jacuzzis, hot baths, steam rooms, long drives or wearing tight underwear.
4. Try de-stressing
Psychological preparedness is as important as physical preparedness to maximise your chances of getting pregnant. These days couples lead very hectic and stressful lifestyles in which trying to get pregnant can only add to their stress levels. Increased stress lowers egg passage in women. Besides, trying too hard to get pregnant and the stress that it creates is the reason behind 30% of all infertility problems. In such cases, destressing by exercising, yoga, meditation or acupuncture is a good idea.
5. Don’t put off having a baby for too long
Women are at their peak fertile period in their early twenties, but these days many women opt for starting a family at a later age. Having a baby post the age of 30 can pose problems as fertility levels tend to drop. Post the age of 31 fertility in women drops by 3% per year and continues at the same rate till 35. After the age of 35 the rate of decline accelerates.
Menopause is characterized by the absence of menstrual periods for 12 months. It is the time in a woman’s life when the ovaries stop functioning. The periods then stop forever. The normal period of menopause is 51 years of age, however, menopause may happen as ahead of schedule as the 30s or as late as the 60s. There is no solid lab test to determine when a lady will encounter menopause. Early menopause usually starts between the ages of 40 and 45. Untimely menopause begins significantly earlier, before the age of 40. Nevertheless, premature or early menopause is not that common with only about one percent of the women going through early menopause before the age of 40.
The signs and symptoms of early menopause are like the usual menopause. Some basic side effects include:
- Irregular periods (amenorrhea)
- Hot flashes
- Night sweats
- Vaginal dryness
- Mood shifts
- Diminished sex drive
Your specialist will suggest a treatment depending on your individual circumstances. Some common ways to deal with premature or early menopause are as follows:
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Supplements containing estrogen and progestin can help and replace some of your reproductive hormones in the body that can no longer make it all alone. They are frequently taken until the normal period of menopause (around 50) to help avoid bone loss. This treatment is not suggested for all ladies since it expands the danger of:
Supplemental Calcium and Vitamin D
Supplementary calcium and vitamin D can help in preventing osteoporosis in case you are not getting enough of these supplements from your normal diet. Women between ages 19 to 50 need to consume 1,000 milligrams of calcium for each day through food or supplements. Ladies over age 51 need to consume 1,200 milligrams for each day. A prescribed day-to-day measure of vitamin D has not yet been built up. For grown-up females, most specialists prescribe 600 to 800 global units through food or supplements. One should get a prescription from a doctor before ingesting the medication.
Numerous ladies discover that having a conversation with a therapist can be supportive to adapt to their anxiety. It helps them release their pent up emotions and gives the clarity and satisfaction about their problems. Talk therapies like cognitive behavioral therapy are always beneficial since they help in addressing the symptoms and side effects that a woman may be going through emotionally when it comes to early menopause. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Laparoscopy is one of the most common procedures for diagnosing and removing endometriosis. Instead of giving a big incision, this procedure of surgery uses lightweight instrument through a small hole or incision. There could be one or more incisions based on the number of instruments that require access inside the body. This procedure involves the use of a camera to ascertain endometriosis as well as treat it in the same sitting. This brings drastic improvement in infertility as well as pain associated with the endometriosis. If a cyst is found in the ovary, laparoscopic surgeon removes it very delicately without causing any harm to the normal ovary, as a part of the Laparoscopic Surgery for Endometriosis.
How does the procedure go?
Eating and drinking should be suspended before 8 hours of the laparoscopic surgery. The doctor takes a call on whether to give a general or local anesthesia. Mostly, General anaesthesia is given during such procedures. A person specialised in Gynecological Endoscopy ( Gynaec Laparoscopic Surgeon) is the best to perform such a procedure.
How is the procedure performed?
The abdomen is first inflated with gas with the help of a needle. It pushes the abdominal wall from the organs to give a clear visibility to a surgeon. The laparoscopic Camera is then pushed through an incision or a set of incisions to examine the internal organ. If the scar tissue or endometriosis needs to be removed, a doctor can use one of the several laparoscopic techniques such as electrocautery, excision etc. Post the surgery, the incision is closed with stitches. The whole procedure usually takes 30-60 minutes depending upon the severity of endometriosis.
Why is laparoscopy done?
- If the endometriosis pain has returned after a hormone therapy
- If there is a growing endometriotic cyst
- If the scar tissue found on the pelvic wall poses a threat on fertility
- If the endometriosis interferes with other organs such as the bladder etc.
- If the pain during menses ( dysmenorrhoea) refuses to subside
Duration of hospital stay:
Operations such as these are usually conducted at the outpatient facility owing to their less risky nature. A patient need not spent more than a day in the hospital. Rarely in severe cases of endometriosis overnight hospitalisation may also be required. One can successfully return to normal work within 1 week of the surgery.
Post-surgical recovery: Once the laparoscopy is done, the next steps of treatment are decided based on the patient's age and severity of endometriosis. Few hormonal medicines are advised according to the desire for fertility etc. If a patient is over and above 35 years of age, the risk of miscarriages double. Since the quality of egg declines by the year, it makes sense to undergo infertility treatment such as the in vitro fertilization, intake of fertility drugs, insemination etc. If, however, the patient is below 35 years of age, makes sense to conceive naturally first and consult a doctor simultaneously. A routine check-up post-laparoscopic surgery on alternate six months for a year will keep any risks at bay.
Almost every woman suffers from a gynecological problem at some point or the other. In most cases these disorders are mild and easily treatable, but some gynecological problems can have serious implications and affect their fertility and quality of life.
Here are the five most common gynecological problems faced by women.
- Dysmenorrhoea: Abdominal cramps and back aches are common side effects of menstruation but some women can suffer from excruciating pain during their menstrual cycles. This is known as Dysmenorrhoea. This is caused by a decreased supply of oxygen to the uterus due to strong contractions in the uterus. These cramps become less painful as a woman ages and in most cases is resolved by childbirth. Symptoms of this disorder include excruciating abdominal pain, pain in the lower back, inner thighs and hips, nausea and loose stools.
- Ovarian Cysts: Ovarian cysts can be big or small and many women live with cysts without being aware of it. These cysts can be described as fluid filled sac like structures that develop around and on the ovary which vary in terms of size and type. Ovarian cysts may or may not be tumors. Cysts can be a result of the growth of a follicle or the breaking down of tissue within the ovaries. In most cases, these cysts dissolve on their own but they should be monitored carefully.
- Endometriosis: This is a condition where the uterine tissue grows outside the walls of the uterus. This occurs commonly on the ovaries and fallopian tubes but can also develop on the cervix, bladder, bowel or rectum. The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown. Some theories suggest that it is triggered by retrograde menstruation or the backward flow of menstrual blood into the fallopian tubes. The symptoms of this condition include abdominal cramps, pain during intercourse and bowel movements, bleeding between periods and digestive problems.
- Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD): PCOD is a condition where the ovaries produce follicles that develop into cysts instead of eggs. This leads to a lack of viable eggs and thus affects a woman’s fertility. This can also cause mood swings and depression. PCOD is triggered by hormone changes and exhibits symptoms such as irregular periods, acne, hair loss and breathing problems while sleeping.
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): UTIs are usually caused by bacterial infections and can be triggered by pregnancy, frequent intercourse, diabetes and as a side effect of certain types of medication. The symptoms of this condition include stinging and burning sensations while urinating, abdominal cramps, painful intercourse and an increased urge to urinate frequently.
Women who face any of the above problems should meet a Gynaecologist for proper diagnosis and guidance regarding treatment. Some of these may be treated by Lifestyle modifications while medical intervention & appropriate treatment may be required in others. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Almost every woman wants to lead a healthy life with their loved ones and experience the joy of motherhood when the right time comes. However, as much as you detest it, the last decade or two has seen a steady rise in gynecological problems. While some of the gynecological conditions are minor and can be easily treated and taken care of, others may give you a hard time. From PCOS to Endometriosis, left untreated, some of these problems may trigger infertility, complicating things further.
Open surgeries have long been the only surgical option to deal with such critical problems. However, the advent of Laparoscopy has brought about a much-needed relief benefitting millions of women with gynecological problems worldwide. Based on latest technology and being minimally invasive, laparoscopy comes with a lot of benefits. In addition to surgically treating a condition, laparoscopy also ensures an accurate and better diagnosis. In this article, we will discuss the laparoscopic surgeries to deal with infertility and other related gynecological issues.
Infertility and Laparoscopic surgery
Identifying the underlying factor(s) responsible for infertility can go a long way to treat the condition successfully. Some of the factors that contribute towards infertility include
- PCOS: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a medical condition whereby formation of a cyst(s) take place in one or both the ovaries. These cysts affect the ovulation process as the eggs either do not mature or the ovary fails to release the mature eggs. To deal with this situation, a surgeon often performs the Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling or Ovarian Diathermy.
- Here, the surgeon makes small cuts in the abdomen (belly button).
- To inflate the abdomen, the surgeon inserts carbon dioxide gas inside the stomach.
- The Laparoscope along with the surgical instruments are next inserted inside through the incisions.
- Parts of the ovary that are being affected are destroyed using Electrocautery.
- Ovarian Diathermy plays a significant role in normalizing the ovulation process, which was affected by PCOS.
- A blocked fallopian tube can also trigger infertility. In this case, Laparoscopic Fimbrioplasty (performed when there is a scar or a blockage in the part of the fallopian tube that is adjacent to the ovary) comes in handy. It is a laparoscopic reconstructive procedure that helps to open the tubal blockage, thereby restoring the fimbriae (finger-like projections located at the tube ends that aids in the transportation of the matured eggs from the ovary into the uterus).
- Endometriosis: This is a medical term used to define a condition whereby the endometrial cells grow outside the uterus, often in the ovary or the fallopian tube resulting in pain and infertility. Here also, laparoscopy comes as a savior, getting rid of any scarred tissues, endometrial implants or endometrioma (endometriosis cyst that forms in the ovary), thereby improving the condition.
- Laparoscopy can also be used to treat ovarian cancer, removal of fibroids (uterine myomas or uterine tumors), hysterectomy (uterus removal).
- Laparoscopy plays a significant role in reversing the tubal ligation (closure of the fallopian tube to prevent pregnancy).
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
When the reproductive glands produce scant to no hormones like oestrogen or testosterone, then it is known as hypogonadism. These hormones are important for controlling secondary sex characteristics like development of breasts in women and testes in men and growth in pubic hair. Sex hormones are also required for the roles they play in menstrual cycle in women and sperm production in men.
Hypogonadism is curable with the right medicines.
Types of Hypogonadism
1. Primary hypogonadism: In this type, there are not enough sex hormones in your body because of a problem in your gonads (testis or ovary). In primary hypogonadism, the gonads do receive the message from the brain to produce sex hormones but cannot produce them.
2. Central/Secondary hypogonadism: In this type, the brain is wherein the problem lies. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus located in the brain do not work properly.
What causes Hypogonadism
The causes of hypogonadism can be classified according to their types.
In primary hypogonadism, the causes are:
2. Autoimmune disorders
4. Kidney and liver disease
In central hypogonadism, the causes are:
1. Anorexia nervosa
3. Bleeding in the pituitary area
5. Taking certain medicines (for example, glucocorticoids and opiates)
6. Anabolic steroids (alternatives to human testosterone)
8. Genetic problems (example: Kallmann syndrome- unable to start or complete puberty)
Symptoms associated with Hypogonadism
Symptoms of hypogonadism in females include
1. Lack of menstruation
2. Changes in mood and energy
3. Body hair loss
4. Lack of sex drive
5. Milky discharge from breasts
Symptoms of male hypogonadism include
1. Body hair loss
2. Loss in muscles
3. Abnormal growth in breasts
4. Low libido
A cervical smear test is often known as a Pap test and is done to establish the changes that might have occurred in cells of the cervix. A small sample of cells is taken from the surface of the cervix and is tested for any abnormalities. The sample is spread on a slide or in some cases mixed with a liquid fixative and studied under a microscope. It is one of the most popular methods to test the abnormalities in your cells and can pinpoint point cervical cancers.
About the test
A typical cervical smear or Pap test is done to identify the changes that have happened to the cells of the cervix. Diagnosing them early can be beneficial in many ways and can lower your chance of cervical cancer. PAP smear or a cervical smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. For other cases, once the results of the cell growth are identified it is safe to seek other tests and medical options for diagnosis.
The procedure of typical Pap smear
The test is mostly recommended when you do not have the periods as the blood can interfere with the results. Also, before taking the test discuss with your doctor about the medications you are taking and in case you are under any birth control pills. No other special preparations are needed for the Pap test. Feel free to discuss with your doctor about the impact the test will have on you or on the pain levels, etc.The test is done by inserting a speculum into the vagina, which spreads it further. Later, a brush is used to get the samples of cells from your cervix. The cells from the vagina are also collected in some cases and tested accordingly.
The risks involved
There no chances of risks when you go for such tests. You might feel a bit of pressure in your vaginal region and may experience a small bleeding after the testing. However, this is extremely normal. Also, there is no pain involved. If you experience heavy period and blood loss, you might experience minor discomfort when the test is being done.
The final result
Once the test is done, the results would be available usually within a week. The results can be categorized into normal and abnormal. If your cells are normal and no abnormality is found then the condition is termed as a normal result. In the case of abnormality in the cell structure, then it requires further evaluation and diagnosis to rule out cancer.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!