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Alopecia areata is a kind of hair loss or male pattern baldness that happens when your immune system starts attacking the hair follicles, which is where the hair growth starts. This is therefore an autoimmune disease. The damage and harm caused to the follicle is usually not permanent. Specialists are still not aware as to why the immune system attacks the follicles.
Alopecia areata generally begins when chunks of hair start falling out, forming thoroughly smooth, round bare patches on the scalp or different regions of the body. Now and again the hair might become thinner without any noticeable bald spots, or it might develop and shed off, leaving small patches. This can lead to permanent balding and may also be a sudden evolution.
The condition takes place when the cells in the hair follicles are attacked by white blood cells, making them contract and drastically slows down the hair growth. It is unknown as to precisely what causes the immune system to attack the hair follicles in such a manner.
However, there are a few ways due to which people can get alopecia areata. They are as follows:
Since the exact cause of the condition is unknown, it regularly happens in individuals who have a family history of other immune system diseases, for example, type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid joint pain.
A few researchers presume that hereditary qualities may add to the advancement of alopecia areata. They additionally believe that specific factors are expected to trigger alopecia areata in individuals who are hereditarily inclined to the disease.
Around 10% of individuals with this condition may never regrow hair. You will probably have irreversible and permanent balding if you have the following:
A family history of the condition.
The condition appears at a young age (before adolescence) or for longer than a year.
Suffering from any other immune system infection
Inclined to hypersensitivities (atopy)
Have extensive hair loss.
Have unusual colour, shape, surface, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails.
In a few people with alopecia areata, the fingernails and toenails start becoming hollowed, that is they look as though a stick had made numerous small dents in them. They may likewise look like sandpaper. People with this condition might suffer from psychological and morale issues as well. Hence, getting tensed about it can aggravate the problem further, causing more hair loss.
Alopecia areata cannot be cured yet. The vast majorities of people who have had one episode might have more episodes of balding. Hence, whenever you feel like you might be showing certain symptoms of hair loss, do get it diagnosed by a specialist, since hair loss is not something that should be ignored, as it may be a symptom of greater lifestyle diseases. If symptoms recur after treatment, go for regular check-ups. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
Lybrate | Dr C M Guri speaks on IMPORTANCE OF TREATING ACNE EARLY
Melasma is a skin condition resulting into discoloured and dark patches on the skin. It also goes by the name of chloasma. It is frequently observed in pregnant women. As per the report of the American Academy of Dermatology, it is found that 90 percent of the overall cases of Melasma are found among women.
What are the symptoms?
The main symptom of this skin condition is discoloration patches that are darker than the skin colour. Mostly visible in the face, Melasma occurs in a symmetrical fashion with equal effect on either side of the face. This being said, other body areas which often get exposed to sun also runs the risk of developing Melasma. While brownish patches are visible in body parts such as chin, cheeks, forehead and nose bridge, their presence can also be felt in the forearm and the neck. Skin coloration in no way is a threat to the body, it however, can make a person self-conscious about himself.
Common causes of Melasma
The exact cause of Melasma is not known. It is estimated that people with dark skin are more prone to developing Melasma than their white skinned counterpart. At t times the progesterone and the oestrogen sensitivity of a person is also linked with this skin condition. This essentially means that hormone therapy, birth control drugs and pregnancy are all associated with Melasma. Doctors have also identified thyroid and stress to be a potential cause of Melasma. Above all the ultraviolet rays of the sun are by far the bigger threat of Melasma than any other factors.
How the condition is diagnosed?
Melasma is usually diagnosed with one visual exam. However, a doctor might perform different tests to rule out other skin condition. One popular test that is often conducted by the doctor is known as Wood’s lamp examination. This is a special light which can penetrate through skin and help a doctor identify the number of layers Melasma has infected of the skin. Furthermore, in case of any doubt, the doctor might take a sample of the affected area and send the same to the lab to rule out the possibility of cancer and other critical skin diseases.
How is Melasma treated?
If Melasma is caused due to pregnancy, it often disappears suddenly much like the way it came. No specific treatment is required. If, however, the condition refuses to heal, a doctor might prescribe topical steroids and creams to lighten the skin. If it fails, other possible avenues, such as microdermabrasion, chemical peels and dermabrasion are explored. Treatments such as these are capable of stripping the top layer of the skin and lighten the patches. However, no treatment can guarantee a non-recurrence of Melasma.
Scabies is a type of skin conditions that causes itching and rashes. This dermatological condition is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, a microscopic mite. It is a contagious condition, which can spread through physical contact. An estimate shows that scabies infects over 300 million people worldwide per year.
This eight legged microscopic mite creates a tunnel in the human skin and lays eggs in it. These larvae move under the surface of the skin and spread across the whole body, once hatched. Dogs, cats, and mice can also be affected by this disease. It usually takes 2-6 weeks for the symptoms to develop. Signs and symptoms of scabies involve itching, rashes, sores and thick crusts on the surface of the skin.
Some of the risk factors of scabies are:
- Scabies spreads through direct, prolonged skin-to-skin contact with a person who has mites.
- An infected person can easily pass scabies in his/her household or sexual partners. Scabies in adults is usually sexually acquired.
- The likelihood of scabies increases easily under crowded conditions, which involve close body and skin contact. Nursing homes, prisons, and several types of care facilities are sites of scabies outbreaks.
- Immunocompromised, elderly and disabled people also suffer from an increased likelihood of contracting this skin condition.
Complications of scabies include:
- Persistent and vigorous scratching can break the surface of your skin, which can lead to secondary bacterial infections. Impetigo, a superficial infection, is a quite common occurrence in such cases.
- Crusted scabies, the most severe form of scabies, can be common in certain groups. People suffering from diseases such as HIV or leukemia who have weakened immune systems as well as severely ill people have high risks of contracting this condition. This condition, also known as Norwegian scabies, is very contagious and also hard to cure.
Cradle cap is a slick, yellow scaling or crusting on a child's scalp. It is regular in children and can be effortlessly treated. Cradle cap is not a part of any ailment and does not indicate poor care of the child. It is the usual development of sticky skin oils, scales, and sloughed skin cells. It is not harmful to your child and generally leaves by an infant's first birthday. Some of the recommended ways to treat cradle cap are listed below:
Baby shampoo: Shampoo might be the absolute best approach to treat cradle caps in babies. Regular shampooing can get rid of a flakey scalp and make it a smooth one. Abstain from getting the shampoo in your child's eyes. In case you are uncertain about using it, ask a doctor or specialist for guidance. Do not utilize shampoos that contain groundnut oil or shelled nut oil on children under five years of age.
Olive oil: Olive or almond oil is regularly used to heal cradle cap. Try rubbing it on the infant’s hair and give it a chance to sit for some time, then delicately rub with a soft toothbrush.
Coconut oil: Every mother uses coconut oil for many reasons. It is the most effective treatment. It smells astounding as well. Put a little on your child's head every evening and wash it over the next morning with an infant brush.
Vaseline: A considerable number of mothers use Vaseline. Apply it on the hair around evening time and by morning, the cradle cap will be a little improved.
Fine-toothed comb: This is a lice brush and is very useful. However, with a little oil, this is most likely one of the least demanding and quickest approaches to evacuate those flakes.
Shea butter: Applying Shea butter on the scalp is a great approach. Rub it on the hair, then brush it off gradually. It brings about the ideal result, as indicated by a few mothers.
Home treatment is normally all that is required for support. Here is how one needs to do it:
An hour prior to shampooing, rub your child's scalp with infant oil petroleum gel to lift the coverings and flakey scales.
Before applying the shampoo, first get the scalp wet, then tenderly rub the scalp with a delicate swarm brush (a delicate toothbrush would work too) for a couple of minutes to remove the scales. You can attempt to tenderly remove the flakes with extreme attention to detail.
At that point, wash the scalp with baby shampoo, flush well, and tenderly towel dry.
In case that your child's cradle cap gets to be swollen or infected, a course of anti-infection agents or an antifungal cream or cleanser such as ketoconazole might be recommended by a specialist. A gentle steroid cream such as hydrocortisone may likewise be suggested for an irritant rash.
Hello doctor I am using MELAGLOW for skin whitening which was prescribed by dermatologist. Now I need a better cream or medicine for my skin. I need to be fair or need white color. Hope some doctors will help me to get a fair face. Thank you.
I have an black face and I want to make my skin white so what should I have to do to get the white face.
Often when I go out in sun, my face gets tanned very badly and now I see my skin tone look uneven and also I got white patches. I use sunscreen and moisturizer daily. So I request you to suggest me what should be done?
Prickly heat rashes, otherwise called miliaria rubra, is a rash comprising little, raised red spots that causes a stinging or prickling sensation and irritation on the skin. These rashes can grow at any place on the body, yet it normally shows up all over, neck, back, abdomen or thighs, a couple days after one is exposed to high temperatures.
The rash results in minor spots or knocks that are surrounded by a territory of red skin. The spots, once in awhile, look like modest blisters and can bring about:
A stinging or extreme prickling sensation
Prickly heat rashes, more often than not, occur when a person sweats more than expected. For example, during hot or damp climate. However, it is more likely to get prickly heat in the winter.
The condition is brought about when the body's sweat glands tend to get blocked. Extreme sweating leads to sweat getting trapped under your skin. The trapped sweat causes skin disturbance and results in different types of heat rashes.
Prickly heat rashes are not an extreme condition and usually require a particular treatment. The rash typically vanishes after a couple of days. However, there are a few things you can do to treat your symptoms. The best ways to cure prickly heat rashes are:
Stay away from excessive warmth and humidity in case you have to go outside. Try to stay in the shade or take a small fan with you. Being exposed to the warmth will make you sweat increasingly and may exacerbate your rash to a great degree thus, leading to pain and even sores. Drink a lot of liquid to stay away from lack of hydration, particularly in hot climate.
Wear free flowing and loose cotton clothes and abstain from wearing synthetic clothes. For instance, polyester and nylon trap heat faster than regular filaments, so it is better to avoid them.
Keep your skin cool. A shower will cool you off, relieve your skin and reduce excessive sweating. Staying in a ventilated space for a couple of hours a day will likewise be of significant help. Under extreme conditions, you can utilize an ice pack, however do not keep it on the skin for longer than 20 minutes.
Utilize calamine cream. It is available at most drug stores and will relieve you from sore and disturbed skin.
Apply hydrocortisone cream. Low-quality hydrocortisone cream is available at drug stores and is adept at treating exceptionally aggravated areas of the skin. In any case, abstain from utilizing it all over and follow the directions of a skin specialist.
- Antihistamine tablets may control tingling and itching. Do consult a specialist or a doctor before using them, considering the side-effects they might have on you.
Vitiligo is a disease that causes the loss of skin shading and colour in patches. The degree and rate of colour loss from vitiligo cannot be determined. It can influence any part of the skin on your body. It might also influence one’s hair, inside of the mouth and even the eyes.
Ordinarily, the shade of one’s hair, skin and eyes is measured by melanin. Vitiligo happens when the cells that create melanin quit working or die. Vitiligo influences individuals of all skin types; however, it might be more common in individuals with a darker skin. The condition is not contagious or life threatening.
Numerous medicines may be used to restore the skin shading or level out the skin tone. A few medicines might have some serious side effects on some people. So your specialist may propose that you first try to improve your skin by applying self-tanning products or make-up. Here are some of the top ways to treat vitiligo:
Creams that control aggravation: A topical corticosteroid may cause the skin to return to its natural shade (repigment), especially if you begin utilising it right at the start of the disease.
A type of vitamin D: Topical calcipotriene (Dovonex) is a cream that can be used with corticosteroids. Possible reactions include dry skin, rash and itching.
Medicines that influence the immune system: Treatments containing tacrolimus or pimecrolimus (calcineurin inhibitors) might be compelling for individuals with little ranges of depigmentation, particularly on the face and neck.
Light therapy: This uses a narrow band of UVB light. You may get treatment in a specialist’s office up to three times each week.
Laser treatment: This technique brings the shading back to the patches of light skin by treating them with an excimer laser, which utilises a particular wavelength of UVB light.
Depigmentation: A solution with monobenzone is connected to the unaffected zones of the skin. This progressively lightens the skin so that it blends with the affected areas.
Skin grafting: In this system, your specialist removes little segments of your ordinary, pigmented skin and joins them to regions that have lost colour.
Rankle grafting: In this system, your specialist makes blisters on your pigmented skin with suction. He or she then removes the highest points of the blisters and transplants them to a range of stained skin.
Micropigmentation: In this method, your specialist utilises an extraordinary surgical instrument to embed colour into your skin.
Shield your skin from the sun and UV light. In case that you have vitiligo, especially in case you have light skin, use a wide range of waterproof sunscreen with an SPF of not less than 30.
Abstain from tattoos that are not associated with treating your vitiligo.
- Make-up concealers may enhance the appearance of the skin and help you feel better about yourself, particularly if your vitiligo patches are on uncovered skin. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Hi doctor, I am using aloevera on face from past 3 months and due to which my skin get fairer a little bt I did not apply it on eyes which make my eyes to look dark as compared to my cheeks. What should I do to remove blackness from eyes also. Is it safe to apply aloevera or besan pack on eyes also.
I have so many blackheads and whiteheads on my face and pimple marks also. I have gone through various medical treatments for the same. But as soon I leave the medication I start having these again. Please suggest some home remedies for permanently removing them.
I have hairfall issue my hair's are short but still it falls too much. Now my scalp is also seems from outside. Please help me and recommend me what should I do.
I have too much dark circles around my eye and pores had covered my face. Please suggest me what to do.
Hello Im facing hairfall since few months n hav tried using oil n diff shampoos bt its of no use. Its getting worst n most of all the oil which I apply will not get absorbed.
My skin is black nd I used momate cream for brightness bt my skin is goin through redness. Should I stop it? Will that redness will be gone out?
Facial pigmentation is being observed in patients after subsiding fever in chikungunya. Is is usually being confused with melasma. So we should take proper sun protection to avoid its development.