Treatment of Epilepsy
Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Treatment of Stroke
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
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Iron deficiency is a common condition in children. It occurs when there is a scarcity of iron in the child's system due to malnutrition. Iron is an extremely important mineral that is required for growth and development in young ones. It is used in transporting oxygen through the bloodstream and is essential for the functioning of the muscles. If the child's diet lacks iron then the condition might worsen and turn into anemia.
Children need different levels of iron intake at different ages for proper development of all mental and physical faculties. As the child gets older and reaches the age of puberty, the requirement of iron and other minerals also increases. Deficiencies can lead to various nutritional disorders that may cause severe complications.
The primary cause of iron deficiency in children is an improper diet which leads to a lack of nourishment. There are a number of other causes of the problem, some of which are as follows:
- Low birth weight
- Excessive intake of cow's milk at less than 2 years of age
- Feeding exclusively on breastmilk beyond 6 months of age
- Lead poisoning
- Insufficient intake of lean meat
- Pure vegetarian diet
- Gastrointestinal disease or infection
- Improper diet of the mother during pregnancy
- Chronic diarrhea
- Infestation of parasites in the digestive system.
If the problem arises due to dietary deficiency, it can be easily solved by making simple modifications to the child's diet plan. If the condition stems from other factors or diseases, the child must be taken to a doctor immediately for a medical diagnosis and remedial treatment.
Related Tip: Permanent Cure for Anemia - Only Through Homeopathy
Epilepsy is defined as a neurological disorder, which affects people of all age groups. However, the cases of seizures are found more in young children (likely to occur in as many as 4% of children) than in adults. It is still not known as to why a developing brain is more prone to seizures than a mature brain. A child is said to be suffering from epilepsy when they occur frequently.
As parents your responsibilities are compounded if your child has epilepsy. You not only have to pay heed towards the normal concerns of his/her upbringing but also have to look into your child's emotional aspects, while dealing with the disorder in your day to day life.
You can help your child deal with the condition in the following ways:
1. It is quite likely that your child may feel resentful and develop emotional issues, such as depression or low self-esteem. Help your child cultivates positive attitude towards life and his/her disease.
2. Try to make your child come to terms with reality by helping him/her to understand that even though he/she may be different, he/she shouldn't look upon the condition as something that is abnormal. It is best to help your child concentrate on his/her strengths at such times.
3. Help your child participate in activities of his/her choice to instill positivity in life.
4. Make sure your other children understand their sibling's ailment and if he/she feels neglected try and spend more time with him/her. If need be, seek family counselling to make everyone understand how to deal with your child's illness.
5. Learn about your child's medication schedule thoroughly and also find out what he/she needs to do in case a dose of medication is missed.
6. Develop an environment where he/she feels comfortable and can easily share a concern or anxieties.
Drink plenty of water
Some exercise or yoga
Please do not put anything in child's mouth, not even syp of water, spoon, finger, etc. It can be very dangerous.
2. Ensure the head is protected
3. Release any tight clothing
4. Move away from a dangerous position.
5. Use intranasal midazolam (insed or midsip nasal spray as advised by your doctor) as first-line treatment.
Your child needs complete care whether it is emotional, psychological or physical. A thorough evaluation of your child’s body and mind is vital at nascent stages. Especially if you observed any complaints by your little one that may require medical help, such as:
1. Frequent headaches
Much like adults, children too can experience headaches that last from 30 minutes to 3 hours. A range of primary or secondary headaches like, migraine, meningitis, sinusitis or tension may affect children due to neurological issues.
2. Blurry vision
If you observe either a vision developmental delay or near-sightedness and farsightedness in your child, it might be related to neurological issues.
3. Slurred Speech
If your child is 7-8 months and is not responding to sounds or cannot babble non-sense words, it calls for a neurological check-up.
4. Motor and Co-ordination Delay
Sometimes babies are unable to perform motor skill activities like crawling, walking or using fingers to grip or hold, such delay requires attention of the parent.
Check if your kid has become lazy and decreased his physical activities due to fatigue and tiredness suddenly of late.
6. Abnormal Movements
Common involuntary movements or tics like eye blinking, twitching of nose, grimacing or making sounds is in some cases overlooked. Tourette syndrome is an example of such a tic, which has been evaluated as a neurological issue.
7. Tremors or Seizures
Children are prone to febrile seizures (fits) or tremors along with fever that occur between 6 months and 5 years. These are signs of neurological issues that require an immediate check-up.
8. Numbness in Limbs
Neurological complications in your child’s infancy may also cause joint pain and numbness of arms and legs.
9. Behavioural disorders
A change in behaviour or attitude in your child is noticed if he/she is suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, school problems, sleep issues, intellectual disability or other neural conditions.
This symptom is tricky in children, as it may be confused with general tiredness by your human eye. It may be unheard of but many children face trouble in performing easy tasks. A neurological exam may identify the source for treatments.
An underlying problem to the nervous system can cause harm or impairment in the normal growth and development of your kid. Early diagnosis helps in correct care, recovery and prevention of long-term problems. You can opt for a routine neurological examination if you find such symptoms in your child. These exams check the functioning of your child’s brain, spinal cord, nerves that come from the brain and spinal cord and offers accurate diagnosis.
Get your child the best treatment and care to rule out neurological issues!
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder that affects 3-5 percent of all American children. It interferes with a person's ability to stay on a task and to exercise age-appropriate inhibition (cognitive alone or both cognitive and behavioral). Some of the warning signs of ADHD include failure to listen to instructions, inability to organize oneself and school work, fidgeting with hands and feet, talking too much, leaving projects, chores and homework unfinished, and having trouble paying attention to and responding to details. ADHD is usually diagnosed in childhood, although the condition can continue into the adult years.
How common is ADHD?
• ADHD is very common. On average, it affects 5% of school-aged children around the world, or about one in every 20 children. This means that in many countries, there may be one or two children with ADHD in every classroom.
How do we diagnose ADHD?
A child's teacher may be the first person to suspect that a child has ADHD, especially if he is hyperactive and often disrupts class. However, parents may notice signs of ADHD before the child begins school, such as problems with social skills and disruptive behaviour. Alternatively, parents may realize that their child is having problems if she does poorly at school. If you or your child’s teacher suspects your child might have ADHD, your child should be assessed by a doctor.
A doctor will consider ADHD when they see a child who:
• is failing at school
• disrupts class
• cannot sit still or is hyperactive
• acts without thinking
• does not pay attention or does not seem to listen
• cannot concentrate
• has problems with friendships and other social relationships
• has low self-esteem
What happens if you do not diagnose or treat the ADHD?
• School failure
• Depression and anxiety
• Problems with relationships
• Substance abuse
• Risk for accidental injuries
• Job failure
Children with ADHD are at higher risk for:
• Other behaviral problems
• Autistic spectrum disorder
Is there any treatment?
The usual course of treatment may include medications, which are stimulants that decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity and increase attention. Most experts agree that treatment for ADHD should address multiple aspects of the individual's functioning and should not be limited to the use of medications alone. Treatment should include structured classroom management, parent education (to address discipline and limit-setting), and tutoring and/or behavioral therapy for the child.
What is the prognosis?
Children with the disorder seldom outgrow it; however, some may find adaptive ways to accommodate the ADHD as they mature.
Dr R K Jain
MBBS, DCH, MRCPCH, CCT - British Board Certification (Oxford), FRCPCH (UK)
Fellowship, Paediatric Neurology, GOSH, London.
Sr Consultant, Paediatric Neurologist, Fortis Hospital, Gurgaon.
2. Abrupt, repetitive, involuntary movements. Could be simple motor or vocal. If both, makes it complex tic disorder.
3. Asymptomatic during sleep
4. Worsen by anxiety, boredom, stress, fatigue, etc.
5. Important point- urge and suppression phenomenon i. E child can suppress them at will, but has an urge to release them. This can be explored on history.
6. Usually self resolving
7. If last for more than 1-2 years with behavioural problem, makes it tourette syndrome needing therapy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of complex neurodevelopment disorders, characterized by social impairments, communication difficulties, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour. Males are four times more likely to have an ASD than females. A recent study in US found 1 in 68 children suffering from autism.
What are some common signs of autism?
The hall feature of ASD is impaired social interaction. As early as infancy, a baby with ASD may be unresponsive to people or focus intently on one item to the exclusion of others for long periods of time. A child with ASD may appear to develop normally and then withdraw and become indifferent to social engagement.
Children with an ASD may fail to respond to their names and often avoid eye contact with other people. They have difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling because they can’t understand social cues, such as tone of voice or facial expressions, and don’t watch other people’s faces for clues about appropriate behaviour. They lack empathy.
Many children with an ASD engage in repetitive movements such as rocking, or self-abusive behaviour such as biting or head-banging. They also tend to start speaking later than other children. Children with an ASD don’t know how to play interactively with other children. Some speak in a sing-song voice about a narrow range of favourite topics, with little regard for the interests of the person to whom they are speaking.
Children with characteristics of an ASD may have co-occurring conditions, including Fragile X syndrome (which causes mental retardation), tuberous sclerosis, epileptic seizures, Tourette syndrome, learning disabilities, and attention deficit disorder. About 20 to 30 percent of children with an ASD develop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood.
How is autism diagnosed?
Very early indicators that require evaluation by an expert include:
• no babbling or pointing by age 1
• no single words by 16 months or two-word phrases by age 2
• no response to name
• loss of language or social skills
• poor eye contact
• excessive lining up of toys or objects
• No smiling or social responsiveness.
If you find any of these features in your child, please consult the local pediatrician or child neurologist if available who can assess your child in detail. There is no single blood test to diagnose autism. However, the doctor needs to look into certain disorders in which children have similar features or having features of autism in addition to other signs of that disorder. E.g. Tuber sclerosis, Landau-kleffner syndrome (a form of Epilpesy), other childhood epilepsies, some metabolic and genetic disease. So your doctor may do some blood test, hearing assessment, EEG, etc. depending upon the presenting features and assessment.
What role does inheritance play?
Twin and family studies strongly suggest that some people have a genetic predisposition to autism. Identical twin studies show that if one twin is affected, there is up to a 90 percent chance the other twin will be affected. In families with one child with ASD, the risk of having a second child with the disorder is approximately 5 percent, or one in 20. This is greater than the risk for the general population.
Do symptoms of autism change over time?
For many children, symptoms improve with treatment and with age. Children whose language skills regress early in life (before the age of 3) appear to have a higher than normal risk of developing epilepsy or seizure-like brain activity. During adolescence, some children with an ASD may become depressed or experience behavioural problems, and their treatment may need some modification as they transition to adulthood. People with an ASD usually continue to need services and supports as they get older, but many are able to work successfully and live independently or within a supportive environment.
How is autism managed?
There is no cure for ASDs. However, it is important to diagnose it early and look for associated conditions like ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactive disorder), Epilepsy, sleep disorders, etc. Earlier is intervention, better is the outcome. Therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement. The ideal treatment plan coordinates therapies and interventions that meet the specific needs of individual children.
Educational/behavioural interventions: Therapists use highly structured and intensive skill-oriented training sessions to help children develop social and language skills, such as Applied Behavioural Analysis. Family counselling for the parents and siblings of children with an ASD often helps families cope with the particular challenges of living with a child with an ASD.
Medications: Doctors may prescribe medications for treatment of specific autism-related symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antipsychotic medications are used to treat severe behavioural problems. Seizures can be treated with one or more anticonvulsant drugs. Medication used to treat people with attention deficit disorder can be used effectively to help decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity.
Other therapies: There are a number of controversial therapies or interventions available, but few, if any, are supported by scientific studies. Parents should use caution before adopting any unproven treatments. Although dietary interventions have been helpful in some children, parents should be careful that their child’s nutritional status is carefully followed.
Conclusion: Autism is seen commonly now a day. The main features are delayed speech, poor eye contact and social interaction and restricted interest with repetitive behaviour. Parents and physician should aware of its early symptoms so that early intervention can be started.