Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Your uterus is held in place by ligaments, tissues and pelvic muscles. The prolapse occurs when the ligaments or muscles weaken, and thus they can no longer support the uterus. The uterus slips or sags from its usual position into the birth canal (vagina).
Uterine prolapse could be complete or incomplete:
- If the uterus partly sags into the vagina, the prolapse is incomplete.
- If the uterus falls, and tissues are found to be resting in the vagina's exterior, the prolapse is termed 'complete'
Type of Prolapse:
- Cystocele: It is characterized by the herniation (bulging) of the vaginal wall caused by the bladder; it leads to urination problems
- Enterocele: It is characterized by the bulging on the vaginal wall caused by the bowel; it leads to backache
- Rectocele: If the rectum pushes into the vaginal wall, it makes movement in bowels difficult
Uterine prolapse can be caused by any of the following factors:
- Normal childbirth through the vagina weakens muscles
- Pelvic muscles weaken with age
- Tissues weaken after menopause and oestrogen loss
- Chronic cough, constipation, pelvic tumours or abdominal fluid accumulation puts a lot of pressure on the abdomen leading to prolapse
- Pelvic muscles are stressed if you are obese or overweight
- Major pelvic (or areas around it) surgery leads to loss of muscular support
- Excessive weight lifting causes weakening of muscles
Symptoms of uterine prolapse depend on its severity. There are no symptoms or signs if you have mild uterine prolapse. But if you have moderate to severe uterine prolapse, you might experience the following symptoms:
- Sensation of pulling or heaviness in the pelvis
- Tissue bulges out of your vagina
- Urinary problems like urine retention or urine leakage
- Bowel movement difficulties
- Pain in lower back
- Sexual problems such as vaginal tissues feeling loose
Symptoms might feel less distressing during the morning, but they worsen at night. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Involuntary and sudden urine loss in women is termed as urinary incontinence. Some of the contributory factors to urinary incontinence are menopause, pregnancy and childbirth.
There are seven types of urinary incontinence.
- Stress incontinence: If normal physical movements like sneezing, coughing and exercising cause small amounts of urine to leak out, it is called 'stress incontinence'.
- Urge incontinence: If large amounts of urine leak out during unexpected and at odd times, like during sleeping, it is called 'urge incontinence'.
- Overactive Bladder: This is characterized by frequent and urgent urination, along with urge incontinence or not.
- Functional incontinence: If external deterrents or physical disabilities like not being able to find a toilet, leads to sudden leakage of urine, it is called 'functional incontinence'.
- Overflow incontinence: A full bladder, at times, leads to unexpected leakage. This is called 'overflow incontinence'.
- Mixed incontinence: Whenever urge and stress incontinence occur together, it is categorized as 'mixed incontinence'.
- Transient incontinence: When urine leakage occurs due to temporary situations like infections or new medications, it is called 'transient incontinence'.
Urinary incontinence is not a disease; it is a symptom. Infections, diabetes, or other medical conditions can cause incontinence. If incontinence is temporary, the causes might be any or all of the following:
- Urinary tract infection
- Over consumption of alcohol
- Too much caffeine intake
- Consuming carbonated drinks
- Decaffeinated coffee and tea
- Use of artificial sweeteners
- Foods which are too spicy, acidic or sugary
- Corn syrup
- Being on sedatives, muscle relaxants, blood pressure and heart medications
- High doses of vitamin B and vitamin C
However, if incontinence is persistent, the symptoms might be different:
- Pregnancy: During pregnancy, hormonal changes and weight gain in the body can cause incontinence.
- Childbirth: Normal vaginal delivery weakens muscles that control the bladder, thus leading to incontinence.
- Age: The bladder muscles weaken with age which, in turn, affects the bladder urine holding capacity.
- Menopause: The levels of "oestrogen" hormone drop with the onset of menopause. Oestrogen keeps the lining of the urethra and bladder healthy. The gradual damage of the bladder tissues leads to incontinence.
- Hysterectomy: The bladder and uterus are supported by the same ligaments and muscles. Surgery deteriorates the pelvic floor muscles, thus removing the uterus can lead to incontinence.
- Obstruction: Tumours in the urinary tract can block the normal urine flow. This causes overflow incontinence.
- Neurological disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumours, strokes or spinal injury can cause incontinence.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a specilized gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Most of us are affected by diseases, which spread through physical contact, but most of us do not consider it important to get them checked, due to which they turn into major ailments. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections, which are transmitted through any kind of sexual contact. The organism that causes the disease is transmitted from one person to the other during sex intercourse. Sometimes STDs can be asymptomatic (no symptoms or signs)
Here are some STDs that you should be informed about:
1. Gonorrhoea: Genital infection caused by bacteria is called gonorrhoea, its symptoms include
- Bloody vaginal discharge
- Painful urination
- Heavy period bleeding
- Anal itching
2. Chlamydia: Bacterial infection in the genital tract is called chlamydia. Chlamydia is usually difficult to diagnose, its symptoms include
- Pain during urination
- Pain in lower abdomen
- Vaginal discharge
- Painful intercourse
- Bleeding between menstrual cycles
3. Syphilis: The bacterium Treponema pallidum causes syphilis, its symptoms include
- Sores in the mouth, anus or vagina
- In later stages, it causes nerve and organ damage
4. Genital Herpes: The herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes herpes. Signs and symptoms include-
- Small red bumps or ulcers in the anal, genital and other areas
- Itching or pain around the genital area, thighs and buttocks
5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Genital warts are caused by HPV. It infects the genital tract. HPV has been linked to cervical cancer, its symptoms include
- Small swellings in the genital area
- Bleeding during sex
6. Chancroid: Chancroid is a bacterial infection. The bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, its symptoms include
- Development of red bumps on the skin folds covering the genitals
- Pain during urination
- Burning sensation during bowel movement
7. Ectoparasitic Infections: Ectoparasitic infections are caused by small parasitic bugs like mites or lice. The parasites usually affect the hair or skin. Scabies and crabs are common parasites that cause such infections. They both cause intense itching and visible rashes.
8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): The virus that causes AIDS is called HIV. It can spread through blood, vaginal fluids, semen and breast milk. Unprotected sex or sharing needles with an infected person is how the disease spreads. It includes symptoms, such as
- Slight fever
- Muscle aches
- Weight loss
I'm 18. I had i-pill on 4 th may and my periods ended on 3 rd may.in June my periods was in time it was normal and lasted for 4 days. But in July I've no periods yet. Few days ago when I again had sex it bleed a little for a while during sex and no more blood was seen after few minutes. I also had history of pcos and came over my delayed periods with medication few months ago. What might be the reason for my delayed periods now? Why did it bleed that way during sex? What should I do?
During pregnancy, flu (influenza) can impose serious health implications for both the mother and the child. Due to pregnancy, the risk of developing complications like pneumonia are very high, which can pose as a problem during childbirth. Miscarriage, low birth weight, premature birth are some of the major issues, which might develop if the mother has suffered from flu during her pregnancy. Although flu vaccination during pregnancy has certain risks, it has been observed that in most cases the benefits of inactivated influenza vaccine outweigh the risks. However, Live attenuated influenza vaccine is not recommended at all during pregnancy.
Recommendations across the world suggest that prevention of influenza by administration of inactivated influenza vaccine is the best intervention in pregnancy. The vaccine for Flu should be administered before the onset of flu season. RANZCOG, NHS UK, RCOG, FOGSI recommends inactivated flu vaccine for all the pregnant women unless there are any contraindications.
Taking inactivated influenza vaccine can be beneficial in multiple ways:
- Prevents maternal complications: During pregnancy, the heart and lungs go through extra stress. Pregnancy can also severely impact your immune system. Opting for a inactivated flu vaccine can decrease significantly, the chance of falling severely ill due to flu.
- Prevents pregnancy problems due to flu: Getting infected by flu during pregnancy can increase the chance of miscarriage during childbirth. Administering inactivated flu shots can prevent miscarriage as well as premature birth and low birth weight.
- Protects the baby after birth: Infants have a huge risk of getting infected with flu after birth. But as vaccines cannot be administered to them until they are 6 months old, it is the best recourse to opt for inactivated flu shots during pregnancy as the antibodies pass onto the child from the mother via placenta. The child can hence be protected from such diseases.
Often, one fear about the vaccine, is the development of Gullain Barre syndrome. This is very rare and the risk of GBS are higher following influenza like illness. Also, if the patient is allergic to eggs they are advised to consult a physician. Flu vaccines have traces of egg protein in it. Certain precautions are taken after studying the patient's medical history. The doctor may keep the patient under observation. Or in certain instances the physician might suggest alternative flu vaccine, which do not contain egg protein. Physicians decide it after studying any prior allergic reaction.
As per the WHO SAGE position paper, from 1990 to 2009 the vaccine adverse event reporting system database in USA reported only 20 serious adverse events following administration of trivalent influenza vaccine to an estimated 11.8 million pregnant women.
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage when it is easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread.
Cervix is the lower, narrow end of uterus. Cervical cancer usally develops slowly over time. It takes 10-20 years for cervical cancer to develop. Before cancer appears in cervix, the cells of cervix go through changes in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. These cells can be detected with pap smear test.
There are two types of tests used for cervical cancer screening:
1) pap smear- this is commonly used to screen for cervical cancer. A pap test is a procedure to collect cells from the surface of cervix. This test can find early cell changes and treat them before they become cancer. The pap test can also find cervical cancer early, when it is easier to treat.
2) the hpv test- the most important risk factor for cervical cancer is infection with human papilloma virus (hpv). At least 80% of the women are exposed to hpv virus during their life time. Most of the times the body's immune system gets rid of the virus before it does harm. Hpv test is done for women after the age of 30 years along with pap smear test or for high risk cases.
According to american cancer society
-all women should begin cervical cancer screening at 21 years of age
- women between age 21 and 29 should have a pap test every three years
- women between age 30-65 years should have both pap+ hpv test every 5 years (preffered approach) or a pap test alone every 3 years
It is important to remember that your Dr. Does not necessarily think you have cancer if she suggests a screening test. Screening tests are done when you have no cancer symptoms. If screening test result is abnormal, you may need to have diagnostic tests done to find out if you have cancer.