Quad Screening Treatment
Treatment of Newborn Jaundice
Management of Postnatal Care
Treatment of Menstrual Disorders In Adolescent Gir
Treatment for Congenital Diseases
Treatment for Congenital Disorders
Management of New Born Care
Lower/Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment
CSF Rhinorrhea Surgery
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Treatment of Limping Child
Treatment Of Fractures And Other Injuries In Child
Treatment Of Childhood Diabetes
Adolescent Disorders Treatment
Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Patient Review Highlights
The ability of the human body to move is because of the wonderful and smooth coordination between the various muscles and joints in the body. Of the muscles, there are some muscles which we can control, known as voluntary. The limbs and hands for instance, can be controlled by us. On the other hand, the muscles of the stomach, heart and other internal organs cannot be controlled by us. These are known as involuntary muscles. When there is an abnormality in the muscle growth, the condition is known as muscular dystrophy (MD). There are multiple types of MD, and most of these are due to genetic abnormalities and are inherited from the mother. It is caused due to lack of a protein named dystrophin.
It is mostly seen in boys at a young age, and it can progress with age. In some people, the onset is late, and even smooth muscles like the heart can be affected. The most common presentation is muscle wasting with gradual loss of muscle mass and loss of strength in the muscles. This leads to waddling gait, muscular pain and stiffness, difficulty sitting and standing, frequent falls, and other learning disabilities. As the disease progresses, there is a further limitation of movement with shortened muscles and tendons, increasingly curved spine, cardiac issues, difficulty swallowing and breathing problems. These symptoms are due to the smooth muscles being affected.
Though there are multiple varieties of it, the most common ones are Duchenne and Bekcer’s. In Duchenne, the symptoms begin to manifest at about 3 years of age and by the age of 20, the child usually dies of respiratory failure. While there is no specific treatment for MD yet, there are a lot of supportive measures including drugs and physiotherapy to improve function and restore quality of life to the extent possible.
- Corticosteroids are useful in improving muscle mass and reduce the pace of disease progression. Heart medications like beta blockers and ACE inhibitors are useful where the heart function is affected.
- Mobility aids like canes, walkers, and wheelchairs may be used depending on the severity of symptoms.
- Patients are asked to perform general exercise to improve overall body movement and reduce rigidity. Walking, swimming, jogging are useful in keeping the muscles agile.
- Braces may be useful to keep the muscles in tension.
- If the lungs are affected, breathing assistance may be required to ensure there is sufficient oxygenation. A ventilator may be required in some people.
Though not proven yet, there are drugs being tested to delay muscle wasting, altering the damaged dystrophin, and other advanced techniques to treat MD. Currently, however, drugs and physiotherapy are the only methods available.
Several factors can affect a child’s normal body temperature (98.6°f), including time of day, age and activity level. While slight variations can be normal, any body temperature above 100 °f is considered a fever.
- Higher-than-normal body temperature
- Hot, dry skin
- Sweating, shivering and/or chills
- General weakness
- Muscle aches
- Loss of appetite
As a parent, you may feel distressed when your child has an abnormally high body temperature. In most cases, however, a fever alone does not pose a serious health threat to an otherwise healthy child. Most often, a fever signals that your child’s body is fighting off an infection — the most common cause of fevers. It is also normal for your child’s temperature to rise at night. This natural increase, combined with the higher temperature associated with a fever, can cause additional discomfort during the night. To check your child’s temperature, you can use digital or infrared thermometers.
Treatment may vary depending on your child’s age and body temperature, but in most cases, parents should begin by addressing their child’s heat-related discomfort. Dress the child lightly and avoid tight clothing and heavy blankets. Make sure that the child is drinking plenty of clear liquids, such as water. For comfort, you can also give your child a lukewarm bath or place a cold washcloth on his/her body. If your child is older than 3 months of age with a temperature above 100°f, you may give him/her acetaminophen (paracetamol). Children older than 6 months of age may take ibuprofen under supervision of pediatrician. In most cases, the fever will self-resolve within three days and your child can return to school or daycare after being fever-free for 24 hours.
My 5 years daughter is suffering from scabies as diagnosed by dermatologist, tried with gamma benzene hexachloride & centromere lotions as directed by doctors even after 15 days the symptoms have worsen kindly help.
Hi my one year and one month old daughter is having some serious rashes on and around her urinal parts. Please suggest some precautions or Medicare.
My sister son, age is 5 years and he is suffering with ITP, DOCTOR TOLD BLOOD platelets got decreased. Actually doctor told to admit in hospital, is this any thing problem and how to cure it permanently .Please help.
A child’s tantrums, especially during teens, are quite common. However, there could be some children who could be exhibiting an extreme version of these symptoms. This is known as oppositional defiant disorder.
Children with this disorder become easily irritable, angry, argumentative, defiant and feel vindictive against most elders (parents, teachers, and others). While this is something very common and can be ignored to be a part of teenage tantrums, the issue is when these symptoms do not seem to end. If they persist for beyond 6 months, it is time to worry. These may then begin to interfere with their daily activities including schooling, where they may not be easy for the teacher to manage.
Diagnosis of ODD: With the changing behaviour of teenagers, it is often difficult to pinpoint and say there is ODD. However, some guidelines for diagnosis are listed below. Angry/irritable, argumentative, defiant and vindictive. If these symptoms are seen for more than 6 months with no inducing reason, happens with non-siblings, and is affecting learning and playing, it is highly likely the child has ODD.
These symptoms can occur at home, at school, or in other settings – seen respectively in one, two, or more settings. Some of the symptoms are listed below.
- Repeated temper tantrums
- Anger bursts, swearing, using obscene language
- Extremely argumentative, especially with people in authority (teachers, parents, etc.)
- Annoying others and getting annoyed easily
- Noncompliance to rules and regulations at school and institutions
- Defending one’s mistakes and blaming others for it
- These result in poor academic performance, antisocial behavior, substance abuse, and higher suicidal tendencies.
Treatment depends on the presenting symptoms, the age of the child, and supportive care available. The child should be able to actively take part in psychotherapy to reap good benefits. It would otherwise be a task with no results.
- Psychotherapy will help the child improve its cope and express and control anger. This also improves problem-solving skills.
- Cognitive-behavioural therapy tries to mould the behaviour.
- If required, the parents also would be involved to improve family’s involvement in the treatment. Caretakers are given special training if required so that they can support in long-term medical care.
- The child also needs to be trained for appropriate behaviour under different circumstances.
- Rewards for positive behaviour and punishments for negative behaviour are useful ways.
Prevention: Early identification can help in minimizing distress to the family and help in the early arrest of the disease. The family is also taught basic and simple steps which can help in supporting therapy. Early rejection at school and loss of learning, can happen which can be managed with early intervention. A nurturing and supportive family can help manage the child very well. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.