Doctor in Max Super Speciality Hospital
Treatment of Acidity
Treatment of Abdominal Pain
Treatment of Jaundice
Treatment of Ulcer
Treatment of Blood in Stools
Treatment Of Alcoholic Liver Disease
Treatment of Peptic Ulcers
Treatment of Gastric Trouble
Treatment of GERD
Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Treatment of Hepatitis B Infection
Treatment of Digestive Disorders
Treatment of Burning Sensation in Stomach
Treatment of Stomach Cramps
Treatment of Liver Disease
Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis
Treatment of Gastritis
Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis
Treatment of Amoebiasis
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A polyp is a cauliflower-like growth on the skin or the mucosal surface. Colon is the medical term for the larger intestine and the rectum. A growth on the mucosal surface of this part of the intestine is known as a colon polyp. Although not visible, colon polyps is present with symptoms, which can lead to their diagnosis. The main cause for concern is that some colon polyps can turn into colorectal cancer, which is the third largest cancer in America.
Types: There are two main types of polyps
- Hyperplastic or inflammatory: These are benign growths and do not carry the risk of developing into cancer.
- Adenomas: These carry the risk of turning into cancer, and so early detection and intervention is essential.
Though not all polyps develop into tumors, yet all tumors develop from a polyp. There is a strong genetic component, which makes it worse. Someone with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease is also at a higher risk of mucosal inflammation, which can induce dysplasia and then polyps.
- Family history
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Diet rich in processed meat and red meat
- Lack of physical activity
- Type 2 diabetes
- Being male, being African American
Symptoms: Though often silent, some symptoms which also appear only after the polyp has grown considerably include:
- Bleeding with stools – often small amounts intermittently, which is occult bleeding, not visible though
- Altered bowel habits (constipation, diarrhea)
- Abdominal pain and discomfort
- Unexplained weight loss
- Anemia (due to blood loss)
Diagnosis: If a person is at risk from medical history and has the above symptoms, then the following are done:
- Sigmoidoscopy – Viewing the colon and rectum to see if there are any polyps. A biopsy may also be taken to confirm cancerous growth.
- Colonoscopy – The entire colon is viewed to rule out polyps in other areas of the colon.
- CT scan of the abdomen which is non-invasive and can be used as the first step.
- If a polyp is diagnosed, then it needs to be removed.
- If it turns out cancerous, then detailed evaluation should be done to rule out spread to other areas. Additionally, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be required to completely eliminate the tumor and contain it.
- The surgical removal of the tumor would be planned depending on the stage of the tumor.
- Adapting a healthy lifestyle is very essential to managing polyps and preventing cancer. Quitting smoking, managing weight, eating healthy, and being physically active are some ways to prevent colorectal cancer.
- Repeat colonoscopy needs to be done to ensure these are not recurrent.
The stomach has a smooth mucosal lining, which also provides a protective layer for the stomach tissue. There are various acids and chemicals that flow through the stomach, and this protective layer provides the stomach tissue adequate protection. However, due to various conditions, this lining can develop ulcers or sores or breaks which disrupts the continuity of the mucosal lining. This can allow the acids and chemicals access to further degrade the mucosal lining.
Some of common causes include -
- Infection with Helicobacter pylori.
- Prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen.
The stomach ulcers can be symptomless in the initial stages but over a period of time, they can cause the following:
- Constant, nagging pain which is relieved with eating and antacids.
- Weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- The feeling of fullness in the stomach.
- Constant burping
- Bleeding which can cause bloody vomiting or dark, tarry stools.
These symptoms could point to the presence of a stomach ulcer. This can lead to further investigations as below to confirm the diagnosis:
- H. pylori infection via a breath, blood, or stool test.
- Barium swallow followed by x-ray of the stomach.
- Endoscopy of the stomach lining to identify ulcers (location, size, shape, etc.). This is used when multiple ulcers are suspected.
- Biopsy of the mucosal lining.
Treatment: If identified early on, non-surgical treatment would suffice.
- Stop the use of NSAIDs like aspirin.
- Antibiotics may be prescribed if H. pylori infection is present.
- Proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor blockers: These control the production of acid so that further mucosal lining breakdown is prevented.
- Bismuth supplements.
- Probiotics which are believed to control H. pylori infection.
- Surgical treatment as a last resort may be required to treat ulcers which continue to return and do not heal. This could range from removal of a single ulcer to removal of a part of the stomach which is prone for ulcers. Lining from another part of the intestine is usually then patched to cover the removed part.
In addition to the above treatment, diet and lifestyle changes also help in managing ulcers.
- Foods like broccoli, cabbage, spinach, apples, yogurt, berries, olive oil, etc. help in fighting H. pylori infection.
- Honey, glutamine, and probiotics are considered good for people with stomach ulcer.
- Smoking worsens ulcers, so quitting smoking is suggested.
- Food needs to be cooked after thoroughly cleaning the ingredients as the bacteria get into the system often via food.
- NSAIDs should be used only when absolutely necessary.
- Do not ignore regular acidity attacks, as they could be the first symptom of underlying ulcers.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The liver is the second largest organ in the human body. Everything that is consumed goes through the liver and gets metabolized. Generally the liver consists of fat accumulation, in the range of 2%, but when it reaches close to 10%, the condition is termed as fatty liver. Progression of fatty liver can lead to cirrhosis and eventually liver failure. The liver has an amazing ability to regenerate itself if a part of it is damaged.
However, if the damage is cumulative, then the repair becomes difficult. Another point to note is that the liver can be resected in parts to ensure that the non-affected liver continues to be available to take care of the metabolism.
Causes: There are two main types of fatty liver:
- Alcoholic fatty liver: This is the most common type and is seen in heavy drinkers.
- Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): The causes for this type are not clear, but obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are some causes for NASH.
Symptoms: Fatty liver develops over years, and the symptoms are both vague and appear randomly. These can be attributed to any general illness, and so diagnosis is often delayed.
- Unexplained weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- General malaise
- Dull pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen
- Overall physical weakness
- Ascites or fluid accumulation in the abdomen
- Increased tendency to bleed
- Abnormal liver enzyme levels
Diagnosis: If suspected of fatty liver, the following are done to confirm the diagnosis.
- Blood tests to check for liver enzyme levels.
- Imaging studies including x-ray, CT and/or MRI scan
- Biopsy to confirm the diagnosis
Treatment: Fatty liver is a completely reversible condition. If a person with alcoholic fatty liver quits drinking for about 8 to 10 weeks, the damage can be totally reversed.
If there is no history of alcoholism but obesity, then switching to a non-fatty diet with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, multigrain, dairy products, etc., can help in controlling fat accumulation and use the stored fat. Increasing the levels of physical activity also helps in burning stored fat.
As noted, the liver is capable of self-repair and self-regeneration, so if further triggers are stopped, it can heal itself.
If fatty liver is not controlled, it can develop into cirrhosis and liver failure. If it reaches liver failure, then survival rates and prognosis look very gloomy.
Prevention: Fatty liver disease can be prevented by controlling alcohol intake, adopting a healthy lifestyle, eating non-fatty and non-sugary products, and maintaining an active and healthy lifestyle.
Monitor health periodically to check on liver function, diabetes, and cholesterol levels. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The liver is the center of metabolism, which is involved in removing various toxins from the body. Alcohol is one of the toxins that gets eliminated via the liver, and when a liver is exposed repeatedly to alcohol, it gets inflamed, scarred, and results in reduced functionality. This is known as an alcoholic liver disease and affects about 40% of all heavy drinkers. The affected age group is often 40 to 60, males more than females, though females who are heavy drinkers tend to have severe alcoholic liver disease.
Heavy drinking is when a person has more than 5 drinks within a few hours at least 5 times a month. For women, it is more than 4 drinks within a few hours at least 5 times a month.
Symptoms: Alcoholic liver disease is a chronic condition, and there are no overnight symptoms. However, over a period of time, the person will present with the following:
- Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes)
- Unexplained weight loss
- Fluid build-up in the abdomen
- Itching of the skin
- Gastrointestinal bleeding
- Black, tarry stools.
Diagnosis: When a person presents with these symptoms, the doctor can get suspicious and the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease is confirmed by:
- A detailed medical history with focus on history of alcohol consumption.
- Liver enzyme testing, which often shows elevated liver enzymes.
- Liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.
Complications: If left untreated, the liver can continue to undergo inflammation, further affecting its function. Overall metabolism is severely affected. The fluid build-up in the abdomen (ascites) could be dangerous. Jaundice can reach lethal levels, and so intervention is very essential.
Treatment: The point to note is that if identified early on, the condition can be reversed if some key steps are taken:
- A person can be made to quit drinking, and this can stop further damage. In many cases, this also helps reverse the damage that is already done. This could require some psychological counseling and group therapy too. This needs to be sustained for the person to recover.
- Diet changes: Switch to a low-sodium diet, with less of packaged foods. Eat more of fresh fruits and vegetables. Include vitamin and mineral supplements to improve overall liver function.
- Steroids: The liver undergoes inflammation constantly, and so steroids can help fight this inflammation. They are often given in small doses at a regular frequency.
- Antibiotics: If the liver is infected (alcoholic hepatitis), then antibiotics may be required.
- Ascites is treated with drainage of the fluid.
Periodic monitoring is essential to prevent relapse and complete recovery.
Cancer is one of the most widespread and incurable diseases that mankind has been combating with till date. We still have to go long for treating this deadly disease, regardless the progress man has made in medicine and medical sciences. Cancer continues to take the life of millions of people every year. In this article, we are going to talk about Esophageal Cancer, what it is, its symptoms and causes. Let us have a look.
What is Esophageal Cancer?
Esophagus is the long hollow tube that starts from your throat and ends up in the stomach. The esophagus helps us to move the food down when we swallow it. So, cancer which affects the esophagus tract is known as Esophageal cancer. It generally affects the cells that line the inner walls of the esophagus. It is the 6th most common form of cancer that takes thousands of lives every year. Let us have a look at the symptoms of esophageal cancer.
Symptoms: Esophageal cancer can be easily identified when it attacks a patient. There are some important symptoms that are prominent and clearly points towards the type of cancer.The patient faces difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) because the esophageal tract starts to get narrow because of the excessive growth of abnormal cells inside its walls. Therefore food cannot be swallowed easily by the victim. Weight loss without the will of trying is also a symptom. This is because the patient cannot eat and drink properly anymore because of the unhealthy inflammation of the tract. The patient can suffer from abnormal chest pain, high pressure or burning sensations. These are followed by pukish feelings as well. Failure to digest properly or heartburn is very common and usually makes the patient weak and mentally irritated because of the problems in the digestive system.
How to prevent Esophageal cancer?
Actually, no one can definitely say that a set of the solution will keep someone away from cancer. It is not possible as cancer can affect anyone. But we can surely follow some steps at least to prevent it from happening in the first place. One needs to quit smoking and drinking alcohol. Tobacco is very harmful to each and every part of your body, therefore, it is absolutely not recommended to smoke and quit it completely. Same goes for alcohol intake. Even if you drink alcohol, drink it in moderation and not always. Eating more fruits and vegetables is one of the most important elements that can help your metabolism grow much stronger and help them to fight with any kind of foreign cells. Maintain a healthy weight and keep exercising daily for better body structure and functions.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is also called as acid reflux. It is a long-term digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter, the ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach which causes the stomach contents to come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is mild acid reflux that occurs at least twice a week or moderate-to-severe acid reflux which occurs at least once a week.
In western populations, GERD affects approximately 10% to 20% of the population and 0.4% newly develop the condition. In developed nations, the prevalence rate of GERD is associated with age; with adults aged 60 to 70 being the most commonly affected.
Signs and Symptoms
Esophageal symptoms include:
- Regurgitation of food or sour liquid
- Sensation of a lump in the throat
Extraesophageal symptoms include:
- Coughing and/or wheezing
- Hoarseness, sore throat, or
- Otitis media
- Noncardiac chest pain
- Enamel erosion or other dental manifestations
- New or worsening asthma
- Disrupted sleep
- Hiatus hernia
- Scleroderma and systemic sclerosis
- The use of medicines such as prednisolone
- Delayed stomach emptying Zollinger-Ellison syndrome which can show an increase in gastric acidity because of gastrin production
- A high blood calcium level which can increase gastrin production, leading to increased acidity
- Visceroptosis or Glénard syndrome, in which the stomach has sunk in the abdomen upsetting the motility and acid secretion of the stomach.
Factors that can increase acid reflux involve:
- Smoking habit
- Eating heavy meals or eating late at night
- Eating fatty or fried foods
- Drinking certain beverages, such as alcohol or coffee
- Medications, such as aspirin
- Tight clothes
- Increased intra-abdominal pressure
- Heart disease causing chest pain
- Laryngopharyngeal reflux OR extraesophageal reflux disease
- Peptic ulcer
- Esophageal spasm
- Narrowing of the esophagus (esophageal stricture): Stomach acid causes the formation of a scar tissue which narrows the food pathway.
- An open sore in the esophagus (esophageal ulcer): Acid causes an open sore which bleeds, causes pain, and makes swallowing difficult.
- Precancerous changes in the esophagus (Barrett's esophagus): Damage from acid can cause changes in the tissue lining the lower esophagus
How to arrive at the diagnosis?
- Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy/esophagogastroduodenoscopy
- Esophageal manometry
- Ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring
The goals of treatment are controlling symptoms, healing esophagitis, and prevention of recurrent esophagitis or other complications. Lifestyle modifications include the following:
- Losing weight (if overweight)
- Eating small and frequent meals instead of large meals
- Waiting 3 hours after a meal to lie down
- Elevating the head end of the bed by 8 inches
- Avoiding bending or stooping positions
- H2 receptor antagonists (ranitidine, cimetidine)
- Proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, pantoprazole)
- Prokinetic agents (aluminum hydroxide)
- Antacids (magnesium hydroxide)
- Transthoracic and transabdominal fundoplication
- Placement of a device to augment the lower esophageal sphincter
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!