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Treatment of Kidney Stones
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment of Penile Disorders
Treatment of Gallstones
Treatment of Bladder Stones
Treatment of H.I.V
Treatment of Kidney Failure
Treatment of Urine Stone
Treatment of Polycystic Kidney Disease
Hydrocele Treatment (Surgical)
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Treatment of Kidney Diseases
Urology Minimally Invasive Surgery
Kidney Transplant Treatment
Treatment of Bladder Cancer
Treatment of Penile Cancer
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Patient Review Highlights
Bladder cancer can be caused by a variety of factors which include genetic factors, inheritance, drugs, chemicals, environment-related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. Besides smoking other important environmental factors might be chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals from newspaper, dye, leather, paints industries.
Symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows:
Most often it occurs in people more than 50 years of age. It can present in different ways but common symptoms being :
- Painless hematuria - reddish or brownish colored urine with or without clots Increased frequency of urination Pain while passing urine .
- Difficulty in passing urine
The diagnosis requires a proper imaging workup including ultrasound, CT scan and urine examinations. Following the initial imaging, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease. This is done by cystoscopy under anesthesia.
Treatments for bladder cancer depend on the stage of cancer. Broadly bladder cancers can be categorised into Non-invasive and Invasive cancers.
- For non-invasive cancers: It requires recurrent cystoscopic surveillance and resection. For those with high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy might be required.
- For invasive cancers the various treatment choices are:
- Surgery: For localised tumor which are amenable to resection perhaps surgery is the best possible treatment. This is a major undertaking where in whole of bladder along with accessory organs is removed. The surgeon may offer choices for reconstruction between neobladder (refashioning bladder with patient's gut) or ileal conduit (fashioning a stoma over which bag can be worn to collect urine). Following surgery a regular follow up is required and the prognosis is good.
- Chemotherapy: This modality is reserved for patient's where surgery is not possible or they have metastatic disease (disease spread to other body parts).In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
- Radiation Therapy: This might be and option for patient's that are not suitable for surgery. Radiation therapy uses gamma rays to destroy cancer cells in the body The key to good prognosis in bladder cancers is early detection timely intervention and good follow up.
The kidneys filter the blood and eliminate the waste products through urine. The waste deposition is sometimes in the form of excessive calcium, uric acid and other undesirable contents. It causes the urine to get highly saturated. The solid depositions then turn into stone like formations, also termed as renal lithiasis or calculi. There are different kinds of kidney stones, which are differentiated based on its varied constituents. Kidney stones cause excruciating pain and uneasiness. Frequent urination and discomfort during urination, presence of blood in the urine, are some major signs of kidney stones.
Kidney stones can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet with sufficient nutrients:
- Calcium and oxalate-rich food should be consumed together. This leads to the binding of calcium and oxalate together in the stomach intestines, before they can be processed in the kidneys. This helps to control the formation of calcium and oxalate depositions in the kidneys.
- Do not cut down on calcium. Since most of the kidney stones are found to be calcium depositions, many people tend to cut down on their calcium intake. It is important to continue with food that is rich in calcium such as milk. However, it is necessary to reduce intake of other calcium supplements. Decrease in calcium can lead to degeneration and deformation in bones and muscles.
- Too much of red meat consumption and high fat dairy products can lead to the formation of stones in the kidneys. Animal protein is rich in purine that increases uric acid, saturating the urine and creating stones. It is important to balance your diet by including lots of green vegetables, whole grains, fibres, fruits and low-fat dairy products. Opt for non-animal protein such as lentils or legumes.
- Cut down on sugary and aerated drinks. They contribute to the formation of depositions due to their high and unhealthy levels of fructose and preservatives.
- Reduce or abstain from alcohol. Alcohol is known for its multiple disadvantages to the human body. It has also been found to increase the levels of uric acid in blood.
- Keep your body hydrated. Drink adequate quantity of water throughout the day, preferably 3 litres or more depending on your physical activities. It prevents the solidification of the depositions and helps to eliminate wastes smoothly.
- Increase the intake of anti-oxidants in the form of green tea, dark chocolates and fruits.
- Lower the intake of salt.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
If a survey is done for the most common male sexual problem, the outcome would be erectile dysfunction. Commonly referred to as ED, it is a major problem for the male but it can be treated in simple ways.
By definition, ED is the repeated inability of a male to achieve and/or maintain an erection for a healthy and satisfying sexual relationship. The key word here is “repeated” as a quicker erection or softer erection is very common in many men, which could be a one-off instance and caused by transient factors like stress or lack of sleep. When this happens repeatedly, then it needs attention.
Symptoms: Erectile dysfunction is when:
- Erection is too soft, not allowing for sufficient penetration and prolonged intercourse
- Erection duration is very short
- There is difficulty in arousal
Risk factors: ED has been noted to be commonly seen in people, who have following behaviours:
- Advanced age (>60 years)
- Excessive alcohol abuse
- Sedentary lifestyle with no exercise
- History of diabetes
- History of groin surgical procedures for prostate, bladder, etc.
Causes: ED has both physiological and psychological reasons.
- Most common psychological reasons are strained relationships, performance anxiety, and other life stressors.
- Physical causes include reduced hormone levels and other chronic medical conditions like obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.
Diagnosis: While ED is easy to diagnose medically, the truth is that not many would be forthcoming for a diagnosis. Given that this issue could be a jolt to the “manhood,” it is often not brought out in the open for discussion. Once that is done, the following steps can help in diagnosis.
- Medical history and specifically sexual history
- Check for genital abnormalities
- Blood testosterone levels
- Other vitals including blood pressure, sugar, and cholesterol levels to identify overall health
- Sexual counseling involving the couple. Once they open up and get comfortable, the problem vanishes. Performance anxiety which is a major cause is taken care of, and ED is no longer an issue. Aligning the couple’s expectations also is very essential.
- Hormone supplements, both locally applied and taken into the system, help to a great extent.
- Lifestyle changes like quitting smoking, moderating alcohol abuse, healthy eating habits, and moving away from sedentary lifestyle help treat ED.
- Medicines like Viagra are very useful for occasional cases of erectile dysfunction.
As a last resort, there are advanced options like pumps, vacuum devices, implants, and surgical options, and implants. These are often not required, as in most cases, sexual counseling and hormone therapy help in managing ED. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!