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Glucose (blood sugar) levels
Both low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) are of concern for patients who take insulin. It is important, therefore, to carefully monitor blood glucose levels. In general, patients with type 1 diabetes need to take readings four or more times a day. Patients should aim for the following measurements:
Pre-meal glucose levels of 90 - 130 mg/dl
Bedtime levels of 110 - 150 mg/dl
Different goals may be required for specific individuals, including pregnant women, very old and very young people, and those with accompanying serious medical conditions.
Finger-prick test. A typical blood sugar test includes the following:
A drop of blood is obtained by pricking the finger.
The blood is then applied to a chemically treated strip.
Monitors read and provide results.
Home monitors are about 10 - 15% less accurate than laboratory monitors, and many do not meet the standards of the american diabetes association. Most doctors believe, however, that they are accurate enough to indicate when blood sugar is too low.
To monitor the amount of glucose within the blood a person with diabetes should test their blood regularly. The procedure is quite simple and can often be done at home.
Some simple procedures may improve accuracy:
Testing the meter once a month.
Recalibrating it whenever a new packet of strips is used.
Using fresh strips; outdated strips may not provide accurate results.
Keeping the meter clean.
Periodically comparing the meter results with the results from a laboratory.
Supplementary monitoring devices. Other devices are available for monitoring blood glucose. These devices are used in addition to traditional fingerstick test kits, and glucose meters but do not replace them:
Continuous glucose monitoring systems (cgms) use a needle-like sensor inserted under the skin of the abdomen to monitor glucose levels every 5 minutes. In 2007, the sts-7 system was approved. Using a disposable sensor, the sts-7 measures glucose levels for up to a week. An alarm will sound if glucose levels are too high or low. The older minimed system measures glucose over a 72-hour period and has wireless communication between the monitor and an insulin pump.
Glucowatch is a battery-powered wristwatch-like device that measures glucose by sending tiny electric currents through the skin, a technique called reverse iontophoresis. It is painless and has a warning device when detecting high glucose levels. It takes 2 hours to warm up, and the sensor pads need to be changed every day. Glucowatch measures glucose levels three times per hour for up to 12 hours. About a quarter of the time, the results differ significantly from actual fingerstick tests, however.
Hemoglobin a1c (also called hba1c, ha1c, or a1c) is measured periodically every 2 - 3 months, or at least twice a year, to determine the average blood-sugar level over the lifespan of the red blood cell. While fingerprick self-testing provides information on blood glucose for that day, the hba1c test shows how well blood sugar has been controlled over the period of several months. For most people with well-controlled diabetes, hba1c levels should be below 7%. Home tests are available for measuring a1c but they tend not to be as accurate as the laboratory tests ordered by doctors.
Urine tests are useful for detecting the presence of ketones. These tests should always be performed during illness or stressful situations, when diabetes is likely to go out of control. The patient should also undergo yearly urine tests for microalbuminuria (small amounts of protein in the urine), a risk factor for future kidney disease.
Insulin like supplementary drugs for hyperglycemia
Pramlintide (symlin) is a new type of injectable drug that can help control postprandial hyperglycemia, the sudden increase in blood sugar after a meal. Pramlintide is injected before meals and can help lower blood sugar levels in the 3 hours after meals. Pramlintide is used in addition to insulin for patients who take insulin regularly but still need better blood sugar control. The fda approved this drug in 2005 for adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Pramlintide and insulin are the only two drugs approved for treatment of type 1 diabetes.
Pramlintide is a synthetic form of amylin, a hormone that is related to insulin. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, fatigue, and dizziness. Patients with type 1 diabetes have an increased risk of severe low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) that may occur within 3 hours following a pramlintide injection. This drug should not be used if patients have trouble knowing when their blood sugar is low or have slow stomach emptying (gastroparesis).
Insulin pumps. An insulin pump can improve blood glucose control and quality of life with fewer hypoglycemic episodes than multiple injections. The pumps correct for the “dawn phenomenon” (sudden rise of blood glucose in the morning) and allow quick reductions for specific situations, such as exercise. Many different brands are available.
The typical pump is about the size of a beeper and has a digital display. Some are worn externally and are programmed to deliver insulin through a catheter in the skin or the abdomen. They generally use rapid-acting insulin, the most predictable type. They work by administering a small amount of insulin continuously (the basal rate) and a higher dose (a bolus dose) when food is eaten.
Many adults, adolescents, and school children use insulin pumps. Studies indicate that even very young children (ages 2 - 7 years) can successfully use insulin pumps and that the pumps may help improve blood sugar control.
The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal fat of a person with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer, and the appropriate amount of insulin is then injected into the body in a calculated, controlled manner.
Learning to use the pump can be complicated, although over time most patients find the devices are fairly easy to use. To achieve good control, patients and parents of children must undergo some training. The patient and doctor must determine the amount of insulin used -- it is not automatically calculated. This requires an initial learning period, including understanding insulin needs over the course of the day and in different situations and knowledge of carbohydrate counting. Frequent blood testing is very important, particularly during the training period.
Insulin pumps are more expensive than insulin shots and occasionally have some complications, such as blockage in the device or skin irritation at the infusion site. In spite of early reports of a higher risk for ketoacidosis with pumps, more recent studies have found no higher risk.
Hi! My mom age is 40 years and weight is 95 kgs recently had sugar check up and thyroid check up. T3 &t4 are normal but TSH id 6.8uIU/ml doctor said she has thyroid what are the precaution and food should be taken? How to control? Also sugar test -Fasting blood sugar 120 mg/dL Post lunch blood sugar -129 mg/dl doctor said she has sugar what food should she take I am worried about her how to control sugar help me.
Hello I am from jabalpur, I am diagnosed with benign hepatic & bilateral renal cysts, my father had the same issue nd he died due to that, these cysts are spreading all over in kidney, lever and pancreas, I hv sonography reports and opinion letter of the laboratory. Cysts sizes are 11 mm to 28 mm. I want to knw. 1. Is that issue curable? 2. Can we go for surgery? 3.Is there any permanent cure available? 4. If treatment available than the cost and duration of it? 5. Is it terminal disease? please help me out for this.
Respected Dr. Today I had done with transvaginal scan and it is showing "Right ovary measures - 27 * 17 mm Left ovary measures - 35 * 19 mm Left ovary shows a small well defined cyst with fine internal echoes and measuring 16 * 15 mm. POD No free fluid Impression Small clear cyst in the right ovary. Well defined small cyst with fine internal echoes in left ovary -? Hemorrghic cyst/? Endometrioma. This is what the report is. Is there anything harmful?
I am 36 year old and I am suffering from Prosiais and diabetes. For diabetes I am taking Ozomet VG-2 and BGR-34 Tablets (1each) Day +Night and for Psoriasis I am Taking Megamost Capsule+Xevar Tablet+betnesol Forte Tablet one each at night. I want to know are they safe or OK to take or I have to change the medicines.
My mother's microalbuminuria of urine is 173.0, RBC OF URINE is 03-04. Haemoglobin is 9.8, hematocrit (HCT) is 29.6, MCH is 25.6 and RDW- CV is 15.6. ESR is 55. She is now taking medicine for high blood pressure, Gastric and for arthritis. She has no sugar problem as well as thyroid problem. Please prescribe the medicine after analyzing her urine and blood report. She is taking medicine for blood pressure Metosartan 25 in the morning and temsan 40 at night. She is taking Medicine for arthritis from last month. Her blood Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid report is normal.
I am 25 year old married woman. I am suffering from diabetes since last 15 years. Nd taking insulin. Which care I want to take for healthy life?
Sir, from past two years blood comes from anus, when it comes it will continues 3 to days and then stopped. After a month it will repeat. I am at 21 what's the problem sir?
I have dysentery and going loose motion so far (till 7 P.m) 3 times. I feel little vomiting sensation and haven't had lunch as I used to have regularly. Please let me know the medication ASAP. Thanks.
Fever comes in every night and in morning body temperature is become normal .It happening from at least a weak. What remedy can cure it.
I am suffering from fever from from 5 days. I feel coldness weakness and sever headache. I am taking paracetamol and oflox tablets but they are effectless. I have my exams starting from Monday. As I am residing in hostel I have no time to go outside the college. So what should I do to cure.
Dear Doctor, I am 64 years old male. For the last 10 Days, I am having loose motions, gastric problem and slight stomach ache. I have consulted a Physician (MD-General Medicine). As per his advice I have done Stool Examination for which shows the following results. Test Results: Gross Examination: Brown semi formed Stool with no mucus no frank blood seen Pus cells: Nil R.B.Cells: Nil Parasites-Ova/Cyst: Nil Macrophages: Nil Others: Food Debris present Occult Blood (Stool): Negative He prescribed me following medicines and taking the same for the last 8 days and continuing the same, as per his advice ,for another 2 days. He said after completing the 10 days treatment, if the problem continues suggested to meet a Gastroenterologist and go for a Colonoscopy. Is there any other alternative test for Colonoscopy, as I am scared to do that. What is the purpose of doing Colonoscopy? Kindly advice me future course of action, and the implications. Following are the Medicines which I am taking now: (1) Tablet Orni-O 1/2 -0 -1/2 (2) Capsule Pan-D 1- 0 -1 (before food) (3) Capsule Nutrolin B Plus 1-0-1 Expecting your reply Immediately. Thanking You, Ramakrishnan K.
Pain in the neck sleep in a straight position by spreading the arms sideways
Use a small pillow i.e. Not more than 3-4 inches thickness
Check for bike shock absorbers often and use smooth roads
Sit erect and use neck in erect posture in all your jobs
Take rest or move about once in 1-2 hours in case of working in a constant position
Rest your wrist on a table or the elbow on the chair while using the computer
Maintaingood posture while reading or working with computers
Always work comfortably while doing any job
Wear collar while traveling to avoid pain and deterioration
Wear warm scarf on cold days
Warm up slowly to relax the stiffness, if any
Do simple and gentle exercises
Take high fibre content diet like vegetables, fruits, etc.
Take zinc, selenium, omega3 fatty acids to have better healing or relief
Don’t put hands under the head while sleeping
Don’t lift any heavy weight or do any strenuous exercises
Don’t massage violently with analgesics, since it can aggravate the complaint
Don’t use traction or collar or painkillers or drugs continuously
Avoid cold exposures and cold bath
Avoid citrus fruits, egg, tomato, potato, since they can precipitate pain.
Hi, My wife is 32 weeks pregnant and recently she did test for fasting and non fasting sugar. Her fasting sugar is 88 mg/dl and non fasting after taking 75 gm of glucose 2 hrs before the sample collection is 143 mg/dl. We are concerned whether this number is too high? Will this affect the baby? Should she take some medicine or control diet and do exercise? Doctor has given her tablet but I don't want her to take any tablets. Doctor has prescribed her glyciphage 500. So we want to know whether through diet control and exercise she should try to maintain it, is this okay or she should take the tablet. Her weight current weight is 69 kg and baby's weight is 1367 g. She is approx. 5 feet tall.
Acne is a disorder of skin resulting due to blocking of pores of skin called pilosebaceous units (pilo- means related to hair and sebaceous- means related to sebum or oil). These pores contain hair follicles and oil secreating glands which lubricate the hairs and skin. When there is plugging of these pores, it leads to accumulation of sebum and bacteria begins to grow. Inflammation may set in in reponse to the bacterial growth
Causes of acne:
An increase of male sex hormone termed androgen in both boys and girls during puberty.
- Hormonal changes related to birth control pills, before a menstrual period, during pregnancy.
- Vitamin deficiency.
- Oily cosmetics.
- Pressure from sports helmet, backpacks, tight collars, etc
- Environmental irritants.
- Hard scrubbing of the skin.
- Chronic constipation
- Acne can run in families.
- Stress does not cause acne but can make it worse.
- symptoms of acne
Whiteheads: these appear when a pore is entirely blocked, trapping oil, bacteria, and dead skin cells causing a white appearance on the surface.
Blackheads: these materialize when a pore is only partially blocked, allowing the trapped oil, bacteria, and dead skin cells to slowly drain to the surface. The black color is not caused by dirt, but it a reaction of the skin’s own pigment, melanin reacting with the oxygen in the air.
Papules: these are small, inflamed, red, tender bumps with no head and are tender to touch. Pustules: this is similar to a whitehead, but is red-looking with white or yellow pus in the center.
Nodules: this is a severe kind of acne, in which the lesions are much larger, more painful, lodged deep within the skin and sometimes lasts for months, leaving scars.
Cysts: this is also a severe kind of acne and appears similar to a nodule, but larger than a pustule; the lesions are deep, pus filled, very painful and leave scars.
Homoeopathic treatment of hormones or lowered immunity or poor digestion or improper nutrition. Which attracts the bacterias and virus to cause skin lesions as immunity is low body is unable to defend itsself. So the homeopathic treatment aims to cure the internal turbulance or lower level of immune system and the cause behind the apparent disease. More often than not the external skin disease or any other visible disease is accompanied by a diseased state of mind e. G. Lack of confidence, timidity, anxietis, fears, depression etc. Mind and body are a part of one indivisible unit. The way our behavior, our temprament, emotional disturbances in life etc have a bearing on the physical being and leads to various ailments. A homeopathic remedy is selected considering the emotional state of the patient, the probable causative factors (physical or mental), general state of body and all the diseased symptoms like anaemia, lack of vitamins etc of the body. By rasing the immunity of the body same medicine is capable of eradicating various diseases present in the body at a time. Best thing is there is absolutely no side effect after treatment that why most of educated people prefer homoeopathy.
Tips to avoid acne:
- Take a warm shower to soften your skin.
- Clean skin very gently with a mild cleanser, avoid harsh scrubs.
- Use oil and alcohol free cosmetics and facial products.
- Clean all makeup at bedtime.
- Avoid irritating your facial skin by rubbing or touching it too much
- Men who have acne must shave vigilantly and gently.
- Avoid sunburn or suntan.
- Shampoo hair regularly.
- Do not squeeze, scratch or pick pimples, it may lead to infection or scarring.
- Eat a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Wash your pillowcase often and always use clean face towels to prevent bacterial re-infection.
- Shower immediately after a workout since sweat when combines with skin oils can trap bacteria in your pores.
- Use 2-3 tsp of dried basil leaves to 1 cup boiling water, let it cool and then apply to your skin. Let it dry and then clean with slightly warm water.
- Paste made from mashed papaya with slight honey when used as a facial mask, will heal acne lesions.
- Drink at least 64 ounces of water a day to detoxify your body.
Vitamin and trace element deficiencies
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin a (retinol)
• Found in dairy produce, eggs, fish oils, and liver.
• Deficiency causes night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia (corneal thickening) and follicular hyperkeratosis.
Vitamin d (cholecalciferol)
• Found in fish liver oils, dairy produce, and undergoes metabolism at the kidneys and the skin using uv light.
• Deficiency causes rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults). Proximal muscle weakness may be evident.
Vitamin e (alpha-tocopherol)
• Widely distributed, green vegetables, and vegetable oils.
• Deficiency causes hemolytic anemia (premature infants) and gross ataxia.
Vitamin k (k 1 = phylloquinine k 2 = menaquinone)
• Widely distributed but particularly in green vegetables. Synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
• Deficiency causes coagulation defects seen as easy bruising and hemorrhage.
Water soluble vitamins
Vitamin b 1 (thiamine)
• Found in cereals, peas, beans, yeast, and whole-wheat fl our. It is an essential factor in carbohydrate metabolism and transketolation reactions.
• Deficiency causes dry beri-beri (sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy), wet beri-beri (high output cardiac failure and edema), wernicke–korsakoff syndrome.
Vitamin b 2 (ribofl avin)
• Found in whole-wheat flour, meat, fish, and dairy produce. It is a coenzyme in reversible electron carriage in oxidation–reduction reactions.
• Deficiency gives angular stomatitis (fissuring and inflammation at the corners of the mouth), inflamed oral mucous membranes, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and peripheral neuropatmhy. Drugs (e. G, isoniazid, hydralazine, penicillamine) and is also seen in alcoholism and pregnancy.
Vitamin b 12 (cyanocobalamin)
• Causes of a deficiency are numerous and include partial or total gastrectomy, crohn’s disease, ileal resection, jejunal diverticulae, blind loop syndrome, and tapeworm.
• Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia, peripheral neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord depression, psychosis, and opticatrophy.
Vitamin b 9 (folic acid)
• Deficiency can be caused by poor diet, malabsorption states, coeliac disease, crohn’s disease, gastrectomy, drugs (e. G, methotrexate, phenytoin), excessive utilization (E.G, leukemia, malignancy, inflammatory disease).
• Consequences of deficiency include megaloblastic anemia, and glossitis.
Vitamin c (ascorbic acid)
Deficiency causes scurvy (perifoillicular haemorrhage, bleeding swollen gums, spontaneous bruising, corkscrew hair, failure of wound healing), anemia, and osteoporosis. Trace elements Copper
• Deficiency results in hypochromic and microcytic anemia, wilson’s disease, impaired bone mineralization, menks’ kinky hair syndrome (growth failure, mental defi ciency, bone lesions, brittle hair, anemia).
• Usually caused by copper malabsorption.
Zinc deficiency causes achondromatosis enterpathica (infants develop growth retardation, hair loss, severe diarrhea, candida and bacterial infections), impaired wound healing, skin ulcers, alopecia, night blindness, confusion, apathy, and depression.
Magnesium severe deficiency can cause cardiac arrhythmias, paraesthesia and tetany. Iodine severe deficiency can cause cretinism (children), hypothyroidism, and goiter.
Vitamin b 3 (niacin)
• Found in fish, liver, nuts, and whole-wheat flour.
• Deficiency causes pellagra): dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia.
Vitamin b 6 (pyridoxine)
• Widespread distribution, also synthesized from tryptophan.
• Deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, convulsions, and sideroblastic anemia. Deficiency may be provoked by a number of commonly used.
Chronic Kidney Disorder Homeopathic Treatment
Homeopathy does not identify kidneys as a simple organ of excretion or selective filtration, but appreciates it in relation to the individual as a whole. Kidneys have a comprehensive role, the fluids coming to it and going from it impinge on every organ, tissue and cell of our body. Homeopathy plays a significant role in long term management at all stages and variants of nephrotic syndrome. The basic approach in homeopathy is to evaluate nephrotic syndrome in its totality, whereby a lot of highlight is given to the patient as a whole besides thoroughly studying various aspects of the disorder. Homeopathic remedies help arrest further progress of the disease and assist in recuperating faster, reduce and eventually stop the need for steroids, reduce duration, frequency and severity of the attacks by regulating the autoimmune processes. The remedies manage the protein leakage, by amending the glomerular function of the kidney. Remedies also uplift the body’s own healing capacity, whereby precluding the frequent infections such as colds, throat infections, etc.
Homeopathic remedies when taken in the preliminary stage of nephrotic syndrome can prevent complications like renal failure, consequently, limiting the option for dialysis in instances, where kidney damage has advanced, homeopathy discourages further progression of the syndrome, and will contribute in reducing the frequency of dialysis, or at times, even eliminate the need for dialysis. Homeopathic approach focuses on a detailed case study, which involves the medical history of the patient, underlying pathology, mental, emotional and spiritual aspect of the patient, family history, personal history, possible causative factors, and much more. The homeopathic focus is not on treating the disease but in healing the person who is sick and in reviving the health. Homeopathic remedies will help enhance the quality of life, by strengthening the immune system of the patient, thus, making them less susceptible to infections.
Hence, homeopathy can skillfully manage symptoms related with nephrotic syndrome. With well-timed homeopathic treatment it may be possible to avoid steroid dependency and kidney failure
Kidneys are two bean shaped organs, positioned at the focal point of our back, on either side of the spinal column, underneath the rib cage. Kidneys work as sophisticated recycling devices, separating urea, mineral salts, toxins and other waste products from the blood. They safeguard water, salts and electrolytes that are essential for the operation of other organs and systems in the body. Kidneys also produce hormones that control red blood cell production, blood pressure and calcium metabolism. Kidneys perform a life sustaining job for the body by maintaining a stable balance of body chemicals. Any malfunctioning in this balance leads to kidney disorders, one of which is nephrotic syndrome (chronic renal disease). Nephrotic syndrome (chronic renal disease) is a forewarning that your kidneys are being damaged.
Nephrotic syndrome (kidney failure) is a multifaceted immunological disorder where there is unusual leakage of protein, prompting low levels of proteins and high levels of fat in blood and swelling of body parts. Nephrotic syndrome is an outcome of damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys known as glomeruli that strains wastes and surplus water from the blood, and passes it on to the bladder as urine. When the glomeruli are operational, they uphold protein in the blood and avoid leakage into the urine. When damaged, they not execute this role successfully, and 3 grams or more of the protein can escape daily out of the blood. When blood is low in protein, fluid accumulates in tissues rather than circulating, causing puffiness all over the body. Normal amounts of blood protein are essential to help control fluid throughout the body.
Swelling on the face, around eyes, ankles and feet.
Low urine output.
Excessive protein excretion in the urine.
Weight gain from fluid retention.
Loss of appetite.
Shortness of breath.
Low or high blood pressure depending on age.
Stunted growth in children.
Blood clotting inside the kidney or excessive bleeding.
Kidney failure symptoms like sleepless vomiting weight loss bad breadth sore mouth weakness increased urination.
Causes of nephrotic syndrome:
Minimal change disease in children, a kidney disorder triggered by an allergic reaction, viral infection, immunization, etc.
Membranous glomerulonephritis, an inflammation in the kidney.
Pre-eclampsia, toxemia during pregnancy.
Mononucleosis, an infection caused by epstein barr virus.
Hepatitis, a contagious disease of the liver.
Overuse of non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs, substance abuse, etc.
Genetic disorders like down’s syndrome, hemophilia, cancers, celiac disease, etc.
Immune disorders like allergies, asthma, diabetes, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
Systemic lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune disorder that affects the skin, joints, kidneys and other organs.
Multiple myelomas, cancer of the plasma cells in bone marrow.
Amyloidosis, a disorder in which protein fibers are deposited in tissues and organs.
Segmental glomerulosclerosis, scarring of the tiny blood vessels in the kidney.
Kidney failure heart failure oedema na k imbalance in serum.
Self care measure:
Eat enough protein, to replace the protein loss in the urine. However, excessive protein should be avoided, as filtering of surplus protein can cause tubular damage to the kidneys.
Reduce sodium intake to ease the swelling.
Avoid fatty foods.
Avoid caffeine, smoking and alcohol.
Monitor your fluid intake.
Eat more fruits and vegetables.
Garlic, ginger and parsley are strengthening herbs for the kidney.
Self care measure of kidney disease.