Dr. Sharan Srinivasan - Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Fees, Contact Number, Feedbacks | Neurosurgeon in Bangalore

Dr. Sharan Srinivasan

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I'm a caring, skilled professional, dedicated to simplifying what is often a very complicated and confusing area of health care.

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Dr. Sharan Srinivasan is a renowned Neurosurgeon in Kempapura Hebbal, Bangalore. He is currently associated with Bangalore Baptist Hospital in Kempapura Hebbal, Bangalore. You can book an instant appointment online with Dr. Sharan Srinivasan on Lybrate.com.

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  • C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
    General Physician

    Polio is a virus that has the potential to infect any parts of the body including, but not limited to nerves and muscles. Primarily there are 3 types of polio namely, non-paralytic, spinal paralytic and bulbar. This disease shows minimal to no symptoms in more than 90 percent of the cases. 5 percent of the cases can show symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, sore throat and abdominal pain. Polio is a communicable disease and can cause massive damage if a proper dosage is not taken. It can spread through air, physical contact with an infected person, coughs etc.

    1. Polio can cause paralysis: Polio has a far-reaching permanent effect on the body. It can cause paralysis on any of the limbs leading to permanent disability. This severely alters a child’s life. The far-reaching consequences of the virus can only be negated through vaccination.
    2. Weak muscle: Polio can result in weak muscles, respiratory problems and loss of reflex. If the breathing muscle collapses, it can result in the death of a person. Any of the above-mentioned symptoms can lead to weak body development altering the fate of a child.
    3. It can spread fast and quick: Polio spreads very fast through the air, physical contact, saliva and water. It not only affects a single life but put millions at risk of the disease. A 1916 outbreak of the disease killed 6000 people in the United States and left several thousands of people disabled.
    4. It reduces the risk of infection: 3 dosages Polio vaccination under the age of 6 can save a baby from getting polio in future. The body successfully creates polio antibodies from the vaccines and gets enough ammunition to fight it if the virus attacks it in future.
    5. Social responsibility: Massive amount of awareness campaigns have been run by countries all over the world to permanently eradicate polio from the face of the earth. As per the latest reports, only 3 countries are reported to have babies affected with polio; Afghanistan, Pakistan and Congo. It is, therefore, a social responsibility to take part in the mission of removing polio from the face of the earth once and for all.
    6. Save future generation: Although polio is not known to be a disease which passes through heredity, there still lies a chance for the future generation to get this disease. In order to negate that from happening, it makes sense to get the vaccines on time.
    7. Give your kid a head start: Every kid deserves to have an equal amount of privileges like others. One small mistake on part of the parents can heavily cost a child’s future. In order to make sure your kids grow up with any apprehension of polio, it is very important to treat them with polio vaccines.
  • MBBS, Master In Health Science

    * Should I be afraid of talking to the doctor?
    No. Every doctor wants his/her patient to recover as soon as possible. If patients have the right knowledge, they are able to interpret and report their symptoms better. Having this knowledge prevents unnecessary anxiety and greatly facilitates diagnosis and treatment.

    It is the duty of every doctor to provide the right information to the patient, and every doctor tries to do this to the best of his/ her ability. Sometimes it is not possible to provide thorough information and answer all questions of a particular patient, because then the doctor will not be able to give adequate time to the next patient. Th is is the main reason behind writing this book. In many cases, patients do not want to talk to their doctor because they are afraid of knowing more about their illness. This is the wrong approach. Knowledge is power. I assure you that having the right knowledge will decrease your anxiety and help you get better.

    I do have one suggestion: before going to the doctor, write down all your questions on a piece of paper. Almost all doctors will be very happy to answer your questions if you ask them efficiently.

    * Why should I pay attention to my symptoms? just run some tests and you will know what disease I have...
    Tests can be helpful, but they cannot diagnose all diseases. Often, no test can detect the small short-circuits in the brain that are responsible for causing seizures. Until very recently, there was absolutely no test that could diagnose parkinson's disease. Tests cannot tell the doctor how you are responding to the medication. For example, in parkinson's the doctor may ask you how you feel in the morning, how long the eff ect of medication lasts, do your arms or shoulders jerk after you take medication, and so on. Each symptom is important for the correct diagnosis and treatment of your condition. You and your immediate family members can provide the doctor with this essential information. If you have difficulty remembering your symptoms, you should note them in a notebook. If you have difficulty describing some of your symptoms, you should make a video recording for 3-5 minutes using a smartphone or digital camera (android, Iphone etc). Such recordings are tremendously helpful for diagnosis and treatment.

    * What are the common tests used to diagnose brain diseases?
    The three tests most commonly used are:
    Mri, ct scan and eeg. Other specific tests have been described in the relevant chapters.
    (i) Mri (magnetic resonance imaging) scan:
    An mri scan is probably the most important test for diagnosis. It can diagnose many diseases such as a stroke, tumor and inflammation. Mri scanning is done in a big tube shaped machine which is attached to a bed. Th e patient sleeps on the bed for 30-45 minutes. Th e bed slowly moves back and forth through the machine. During this time the machine clicks very detailed pictures of the patient's brain.

    Please note that during the scan you may hear some loud whooshing and clicking sounds. Th ese are just the sounds of

    Magnets and motors inside the machine, and there is no need to be concerned by these noises. Some people may feel anxious because of the small space within the scanner, and a few people may need medications to decrease this anxiety. Mri scanning is extremely safe; there is usually no health risk. Before the scan, please inform the doctor about any metal inserts or implants (e. G. Heart defi brillator) In your body.

    Mri test machines are of various strengths such as 1.5 tesla, 3 tesla and so on. Mri machines with a higher number (for example 3 tesla) take better pictures. This book was written in 2015, at this time the highest resolution mri available in india was 3 tesla.

    (ii) Ct (computerized tomography) scan:
    The CT Scan machine looks just like the mri machine. It has a bed that moves back and forth slowly while the machine takes a picture of your brain.

    CT scan has a few advantages over mri:
    (i) It is less expensive. An mri may cost around 5000-7000 rupees, while a ct scan usually costs around 1000 inr (indian rupees).
    (ii) It can be done very quickly. An mri may take 1 hour or more, but a ct scan can be completed in 10-15 minutes.

    Unfortunately, CT scanning has some significant disadvantages:
    - The picture obtained by a ct scan is not as clear as that obtained by an mri. The difference in quality is striking: it is like the diff erence between a black-and-white tv from the 70s and the new lcd televisions available today.

    - CT-Scan exposes your body to radiation.
    Radiation is bad for your body, and especially a baby's body. Therefore, pregnant women should never have a ct scan. Ct scan is commonly used during emergencies. When a patient comes to the emergency room, a rapid ct scan may be done to look for emergencies which may need immediate surgery such as bleeding inside the brain. An mri is usually done the next day, when the patient is more stable.

    If you have already had an mri, then usually you do not need a ct scan. Th ere are a few rare conditions (e. G. Calcification in brain) which are seen better on a ct, but these are very uncommon.

    (iii) Eeg (electro-encephalo-graphy):
    Our brain functions because of electric currents traveling from one place in the brain to another. An eeg measures this electric current.

    To do this test, small pieces of wire are stuck to the head using glue. These wires are then connected to an amplifi er and the electrical activity in the brain is recorded. The machine itself does not send any current to the brain. It only records current. Therefore, there is no pain or discomfort, and this is an extremely safe test. Anyone can have this test, including pregnant women, babies and very sick patients. Th is test is most often used for evaluating seizures. An eeg is also used in cases where the patient is unconscious for a long time, without a clear reason.

    1. Doctor, my hand keeps shaking. It stops shaking only at night. Why is this happening?
    The shaking of your hands is called a tremor. There are many causes of hand tremor. Th e most common causes are essential tremor and parkinson's disease. If you have essential tremor, your hands will shake more when you try to do something. For example, writing may become very diffi cult or water may fall down when you try to drink form a glass.

    If you have parkinson's disease, the tremor is maximum when your hands are resting and doing nothing. For example, when you are sitting on a chair and watching tv comfortably, the hand starts shaking. Besides these common causes, there are other causes. For example, shaking of the hand (s) can begin after a small stroke near an important part of the brain called the red nucleus or in a condition called dystonia which causes contraction of the hand muscles without any clear reason some medications (see list), severe anxiety and very excessive tea/coff ee can cause hand shaking. Finally, there are diseases that have symptoms exactly like parkinson's disease.

    Therefore, I need to examine you carefully. Based on observing you so far, I think there is a possibility that you may have parkinson's disease.

    2. Parkinson's! I have heard this is an extremely serious illness! is this disease fatal?
    No. Parkinson's disease is not fatal. Yes, but it is important to treat parkinson's disease promptly. Th e diagnosis of parkinson's disease is often missed. If not treated on time, patients with parkinson's disease are significantly restricted in their day-to-day activities, practically becoming disabled if treatment is delayed for a long time.

    Secondly, if left untreated, patients with parkinson's disease can have frequent falls causing serious injuries including fractures and head injuries. Hence the diagnosis and treatment of parkinson's disease should be done as soon as possible.

    3. What causes parkinson's disease?
    Our brain runs on electricity and chemicals. If there is too much or too little of a particular chemical in your brain, it causes a disease. Parkinson's disease is caused by the reduction of a chemical called dopamine in our brain.

    Dopamine is produced in the back of our brain, in a part called the mid-brain. It is then transported forwards and is widely distributed throughout the entire brain. It fi res up the movement centers of our brain, and helps them communicate better with one another. In parkinson's disease the cells in the midbrain producing dopamine gradually

    Die. No one quite understands why this happens. Then effect is that the movement centers of the brain don't Communicate well with one another, and this produces the various symptoms of parkinson's disease.

    4. Ok so what are other symptoms of parkinson's?
    You already know one symptom shaking of the hands while resting. There are many other symptoms in patients with parkinson's disease and recognizing them is often very easy:
    - Their muscles are often stiff and become inflexible, but they often do not complain about it. Th ey may complain that they are not able to do some things such as comb their hair.
    - They are very slow in doing everything. They walk very slowly. They often bend forward while walking.
    - They have difficulty turning around when they are walking.
    - Sometimes they can get stuck in one position. Often this happens while walking, but may happen while doing something else.
    - In later stages, they can fall frequently.
    - Their friends may notice that their face has become expressionless and they just appear to stare off without blinking into distant space.

    All patients do not have all of these symptoms. Some patients experience just the shaking of hands; other people experience just the muscle stiffness and so on. Often as people get older, more and more of the dopamine producing cells are destroyed and patients start developing more symptoms. But it takes years for this to happen and it may not happen in all people. In some patients, parkinson's disease remains restricted to just a few symptoms.

    5. Ok doctor, thankfully I seem to be having just the hand shaking at this time. But other than the symptoms you just described, I am having other symptoms. I am always constipated, I cannot sleep well, and my saliva keeps dribbling from my mouth. Is it possible that these symptoms are also related to parkinson's disease?
    Yes. It is not just possible but very likely that all these symptoms are due to parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is recognized by all doctors as a disease affecting movement. But in addition to movement problems, patients can have many other problems.

    These are frequently not recognized, even by physicians, and therefore left untreated. If recognized and treated (and simple treatments are available for many of these symptoms), their resolution can significantly improve the patient's quality of life. It is important that your doctor should think about other diseases too. For example

    If you have back pain, it is important that the doctor should think about arthritis of the back, if you have impotence your doctor should think about diabetes etc. But in many cases, no other cause can be found - these problems are due to parkinson's disease. About 10-20 years ago, even doctors did not know about these complications of parkinson's disease. It is a matter of great pride for me that I had the opportunity to receive training from the world-famous indian professor who is at the forefront of research regarding these symptoms: Dr. Kallol ray chaudhuri at king's college hospital in london.

    6. How can you be sure that I have parkinson's disease?
    A better patient history and examination will help me to confirm my diagnosis. We need to rule out other problems which look like parkinson's disease. Certain drugs may produce symptoms that are very similar to parkinson's disease (see list). Make sure you are not taking these medications, and avoid these medications in the future.

    There are a few other diseases which have almost the same symptoms at parkinson's disease. Their names are complicated! these include diseases such as progressive supranuclear palsy (psp), multiple systems atrophy (msa) and cortico- basal degeneration (cbd)! th names are not very important the important thing is that there are other diseases that look just like parkinson's disease. Some of these diseases are identified by your doctor by looking for small clues on your exam: such as your blood pressure and the way your eyes move. Now let me tell you something very frankly even after a very detailed history and meticulous examination, the diagnosis may not be clear in some patients, even to the best of doctors in the best of institutions.

    7. So isn't there a test for parkinson's disease?
    Unfortunately, there is no test for parkinson's disease which can prove it with 100% accuracy. An mri (see information for everyone section) can be helpful to rule out some other diseases e. G. Multiple strokes, and 
    Therefore many doctors get an mri in patients with parkinson's disease. There is one test that can be helpful. It

    Is called the dat scan. The dat scan is abnormal in parkinson's disease, but it is also abnormal in some other diseases that look like parkinson's disease! therefore it is helpful only in certain cases. There are a few other tests like a cardiac scan (mibg scan), but these are only available at a few research centers, and again, do not help to completely rule out other diseases.

    8. But. That is very concerning. What you are saying is that in some patients the diagnosis remains unclear?
    You are correct. In most cases, the diagnosis of parkinson's disease can be made with certainty. But about 10% of patients have an uncommon mixture of symptoms so that no doctor, no blood test, no investigation can confidently determine if the patient has parkinson's disease or if he/she has another, similar disease. In such cases, most doctors explain the situation to the patients, and give them anti- parkinson's medications such as levodopa. Usually, a dramatic improvement is seen if the patient has parkinson's disease. If a patient takes an adequate quantity of Levodopa for 4-6 weeks and there is no clinical improvement, it is very unlikely that he has parkinson's disease.

    These medications cause clinical improvement in about 1/3rd of all patients with the other diseases such as msa, psp etc. However, this improvement is not as dramatic as the improvement seen in parkinson's disease and frequently does not last as long. As the years go by, other symptoms develop (such as urinary problems, eye movement problems and falling) and a more definite diagnosis can be made on the basis of repeat examination.

    9. Hmm. Doctor, there must be several medicines for parkinson's. If the parkinson's is caused by a lack of dopamine, shouldn't consuming dopamine help to reduce the symptoms of the parkinson's?
    Yes, there are many medications and yes you are correct providing extra dopamine to the brain is one of the best ways to make the symptoms better. I have provided a list of these medications, but it is worth highlighting two of them: levodopa is the oral form of dopamine. It is converted into dopamine when it goes inside the brain. Th is is usually the fi rst medication that is started. It is available in standard, dispersible and extended-release

    Preparations. Young patients with very mild symptoms of parkinson's disease are given a diff erent kind of medication initially. These medications are called dopamine agonists. Th ere are 3 dopamine agonist medications: pramipexole, ropirinole, and rotigotine. Th ey are available in standard and extended release preparations.

    10. So, what you are saying is that the dose of parkinson's medications does not stay constant throughout life?
    You are correct. Parkinson's disease often progresses as patients grow older. Some symptoms change and become less prominent but on the whole the symptoms become more severe. Th is progression is probably caused by gradual death of more and more cells producing dopamine. Very few people have side eff ects due to these based on the symptoms that develop, the medications. Often, parkinson's disease dose of parkinson's medication may need progresses as patients grow older and new to be changed, or new medications may be given. For example, if you have trouble sleeping at night, then the doctor can ask you to take an extra levodopa pill at night or an extended release ropnirole pill. If the benefi cial effect of levodopa is not lasting for as long as it used to, the doctor may ask you to take entacapone with the levodopa. If you have constipation the doctor will prescribe a laxative and so on. Sometimes it may take a few trials of different medications over 1-2 weeks to find the right combination that works for you. Parkinson's is not a deadly disease. Th ere are many medications for parkinson's. Th e doctor needs to have precise information about the patient's symptoms in order to prescribe the right medications. In parkinson's disease, the doctor needs help from his/her patient. It is essential to record your symptoms accurately and visit your doctor regularly, every 3 to 6 months.

    11. Doctor, you are saying that frequently the dose of levodopa needs to be increased. But what happens if too much levodopa gets into the person's brain?
    Yes, this can happen but it is not life-threatening. When there is excessive dopamine in the brain, the body starts moving too much. Often there are small jerks in the neck, shoulders and sometimes in the leg. If you are a fan of michael jackson, you have seen break-dancing. Th ese excessive movements look like break-dancing. Th e medical term

    For these excessive movements is dys-kinesias. It is very important for you to be aware of them and remember the word: dys-kinesias. Often, dys-kinesias are at their maximum 1-2 hours after you take levodopa. If you have trouble recognizing these movements, you should take a video of any suspicious movements on your smartphone and show it to your doctor. In the early stages of parkinson's disease, dys-kinesias are only seen when the

    Levodopa dose is very high. But in more advanced stages, they may be seen at lower doses and giving the patient an adequate dose of levodopa without producing dyskinesias may become diffi cult. At this stage, some dyskinesias may need to be tolerated. If you are suff ering from dyskinesias, you can reduce the dose of levodopa that you are

    Taking. But this may result in some of the symptoms of parkinson's disease (slowness, rigidity, freezing etc) to reappear. Another way in which dyskinesias may be reduced is by giving you amantadine.

    12. I am getting it now, doctor. This is like a weighing scale isn't it? too little levodopa causes the parkinson's disease symptoms to come back, and too much levodopa action causes dyskinesias.
    Yes! th at is absolutely right. In the initial stages, balancing this weighing scale is very easy. But after 10, 15 or in some cases 20 years, balancing this scale becomes diffi cult. After taking levodopa, many patients improve but also get dyskinesias. It becomes impossible to fi nd a levodopa dose that causes improvement without producing dyskinesias. Th erefore, at this stage, some dyskinesias may need to be tolerated as long as you are able to function satisfactorily.

    13. So doctor, you told me what happens when there is too much dopamine action in the brain. What if the there is too little dopamine action in the brain? What if levodopa just stops working?
    Levodopa never stops working. But it may become less effective, and its effect may become short-lived. Th ere could be many reasons for levodopa to become less eff ective. These are listed separately the most important reason is that the patient may not be taking the levodopa on an empty stomach. As parkinson's disease advances, the eff ect of levodopa lasts for a shorter duration of time. Here is a somewhat typical story from such a patient. Remember, this happens only in few cases:
    Taking the tablet helps me only for a short time. When I wake up in the morning, my feet contract, twist and become painful.

    14. I understand. It must be difficult at that stage to find the right combination of medications. What if the situation worsens further?
    Yes. And I think it is vital for patients to understand this. Frequently, with the right combination of medications the patient can get better. But it can take some time to find the right combination; sometimes even 3-4 trials of diff erent combinations may be required. If a patient gives up hope and gives up in the middle of these trials, the only possible outcome is progressive deterioration of the patient's health.

    Sometimes, inspite of repeated adjustments, a good combination of medications cannot be found. But remember this situation arises 10-20 years after the parkinson's symptoms have been detected. Many parkinson's

    Patients do not have to face this situation. If the right combination of medicines could not be found even after many trials, then still there is one solution. Brain surgery. Th en I take my morning dose of levodopa

    And feel good. Sometimes I get some dyskinesias, but I don't complain about them because I am feeling good. But only an hour or 1.5 hours later, the symptoms of parkinson's disease start coming back. I become slower and slower, and then freeze. I get better again when I take levodopa, but I can't keep taking levodopa every hour!

    I understand. It must be difficult at that stage to fi nd the right combination of medications. What if the situation worsens further?

    Yes. And I think it is vital for patients to understand this. Frequently, with the right combination of medications the patient can get better. But it can take some time to fi nd the right combination; sometimes

    Even 3-4 trials of different combinations may be required. If a patient gives up hope and gives up in the middle of these trials, the only possible outcome is progressive deterioration of the patient's health. Sometimes, inspite of repeated adjustments, a good combination of medications cannot be found. But remember this situation arises 10-20 years after the parkinson's symptoms have been detected. Many parkinson's patients do not have to face this situation. If the right combination of medicines could not be found even after many trials, then still there is one solution. Brain surgery. A proper mixture of medications may help this situation as well. I had given you an
    Example of this earlier: entacapone can prolong the eff ect of levodopa.

    15. Doctor. Brain surgery? are you kidding me? this is a big deal. By the way, what is this surgery called?
    I know brain surgery is a big deal. This surgery is called deep brain stimulation, or this is a brain surgery, but a relatively dbs

    If your symptoms are well controlled with medications, no doctor in their right mind would recommend you to have surgery. But in a few patients, medications no longer produce adequate improvement. Either the improvement lasts for a very short time, or the medication produces such dramatic dyskinesias that giving an adequate dose is impossible.

    Approximately, 70% of such patients benefit from this surgery. The improvement is very significant, but dbs does not make all symptoms of parkinson's disease magically disappear. It is very important to have realistic expectations from the surgery. The improvement seen after surgery is batteries last for about 5 years, and can be Replaced when required.

    16. Well. How is this surgery done?
    This is a brain surgery, but a relatively minor one. A metal frame is usually attached to the patient's head. A very small hole (approximately 1 cm in diameter) is made in the head, and a thin (1 to 1.5 mm thick) wire is inserted through it. The wire is pushed into a very particular part of the brain called the sub-thalamic nucleus. Th e same process is repeated on the other side and another small wire is inserted. These wires are then connected to a small battery (a square of approx. 3 inch) that is kept in the skin below the chest. No part of this device can be seen from the outside, and any scars on the head are usually covered by hair in a few weeks. Th e device is usually turned on 4 weeks after the surgery. On an average, most.

    17. I see. Doctor, does DBS cure all symptoms of parkinson's disease?
    No. DBS surgery improves only those symptoms which improve after levodopa.

    - Dbs surgery prolongs the eff ect of levodopa, decreases dyskinesias, improves slowness of movement, hand shaking, muscle stiff ness and in general makes the patient much more functional. However, symptoms that do not get better after levodopa such as freezing and falling usually do not get better after dbs.

    - Approximately 5% of patients can have serious complications such as stroke, seizure and infection. But most of these problems are cured with medications. Only 1% of these patients have permanent problems from these complications, such as permanent weakness of one side of the body. Other symptoms that we talked about e. G. Sleep problems may get better after dbs. I conducted an audit of sleep symptoms after dbs during my time in london at king's college hospital, and found that there is

    Significant, but non-dramatic, improvement in many patients.

    Two problems can become worse after DBS:
    (i) Severe psychiatric problems such as severe depression and hallucinations and
    (ii) Severe diffi culties of thinking and memory. If any of these problems are severe, dbs is usually not off ered to the patient. If a patient has severe psychiatric problems and is under treatment, dbs may be considered in the future if they completely resolve.

    18. Okay doctor, what are the risks of this surgery?
    Th ere is a small amount of risk involved in any surgery. Since dbs surgery is relatively minor, the risk is low but is not non- existent.
    - The risk of death is less than 1%
    - Approximately 5% of patients can have serious complications such as stroke, seizure and infection. But most of these problems are cured with medications. Only 1% of these patients have permanent problems from these complications, such as permanent weakness of one side of the body.
    - A few patients have minor problems such as problems in wire connections or a non-functioning battery. Th ese are easily corrected. In short, about almost 90-95% of patient do not have any complications during or after the surgery, and the risk of death or permanent problems is very small (lts 2%).

    19. Can the doctor guarantee a significant benefi t after DBS surgery?
    No. No doctor in the world can guarantee Improvement after dbs. Th at being said, improvement happens in most patients as long as they are carefully selected. Before off ering you option of surgery, the doctor will give you a large dose of levodopa and make sure that your symptoms improve significantly. He/she will tell you that this is the maximum benefit that you may get after dbs, and try to set realistic expectations so that you are not disappointed after the surgery. Often the surgery is followed by a period of temporary improvement, even before the battery is switched on. This improvement Goes away in a few weeks. Th is is expected and you should not be disappointed - this is a good sign. After the battery is switched on, it may take between 3-6 months to achieve the optimal balance between your dbs and medications. During this time, your symptoms will improve gradually. But you should be patient if your symptoms

    Have not improved within 1-2 months there is a good chance they will improve with further dbs adjustments. Most patients improve after dbs surgery, but a few people do not improve. Th e reason why these people do not benefit from dbs surgery is unknown, and this is being vigorously researched in the us, uk and other countries. Read more here

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    Sleep is the normal physiological process of our body which is as important as respiration and digestion. Sleep is vital for maintaining our physical and mental health. Normal adults require 8 hours of sleep every day, whereas it 14 to 15 hours of sleep is recommended for for infants and toddlers.

    What are the different stages of Sleep

    Every human has a natural circadian clock in their body, which is responsible for maintaining our sleep - wake homeostasis. The different stages of sleep include REM and NREM that is rapid eye movement sleep and non rapid eye movement sleep respectively. REM is the deep sleep stage in which it is very difficult to wake up the person as this stage includes the sensory inhibition and all voluntary muscles along with almost all interactions with the surroundings are inhibited. Therefore, a person’s physical stress and tiredness also gets relieved during this stage of sleep. NREM sleep is the stage between REM and awakening and here the person may have sensory connection with his or her surroundings, but may not respond.

    Sleep and its benefits
    Sleep and stress have a very strong connection with each other. The best way to relieve stress and any other mental disturbance is sleep. It is essential to have knowledge about sleep psychiatry for almost all physicians as they face many sleep deprived patients in their day to day practice.

    1. Sleep is not only responsible for relieving mental stress and depression, but has other benefits as well
    2. Sleep is also essential for the normal physiological growth in early infancy and it is vital for development of normal alertness, attention and knowledge
    3. It also relaxes our voluntary muscles and thereby, relieves us from physical stress
    4. Sleep disturbance may also aggravate diseases in our body. Sleep is also the state of recovery and healing.

    Sleep psychiatry also insist on meditation and ensures that people have normal pattern of sleep, in order to maintain the mental health of the person in a normal state.

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  • International Arthroscopy , Shoulder Surgery Fellowship, M Ch. Ortho, Fellowship in Joint Replacement, Fellowship Tr.Sports surgery/arthroscopy, Fellowship in Orthopaedic Rehabilitation (FOR), MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS

    It is not that very easy to get complete recovery after spinal surgery and for that you have to rely on different caring tips. Your surgeon can help you in this regard and can provide you a checklist containing different essential caring tips. You should follow those tips sincerely so that unwanted side-effects can be easily avoided. 

    Few caring tips after a spine surgery:

    1. Consumption of adequate amount of proteins: If the protein content is increased in your diet, then quickest recovery can be definitely expected. Muscle collagen can be strengthened and healed with the regular intake of the necessary amounts of protein. In fact, infectious conditions can be effectively dealt with by protein intake. 
    2. Getting adequate rest: Proper rest is needed and you should have enough sleep for getting complete recovery. If your body needs some more sleep than the standard one, then you should go for the same. Your mood, memory and body will get refreshed and rejuvenated by taking proper sleep at night. In fact, you can also get rid of pains and other side-effects after surgery by taking rest.
    3. Taking nutritional supplements: There are a few essential nutrients that are needed after the surgical procedure and they are vitamin D, vitamin C, Omega-3 fatty-acids, magnesium and others. These nutritional elements are now available in the form of supplements and are readily available in the stores. Though these supplements are completely organic, but still you should start taking the same when doctors permit you. These supplements help in collagen healing and thus speedy recovery can be gained by taking them in a consistent manner. Muscle heath can be effectively protected by consuming these supplements. 
    4. Acute hydration: Hydration is highly needed especially after spinal surgery so that toxin accumulation can be prevented. If you want to get proper hydration, then nothing can be a better option than drinking lots of water. In fact, spinal surgeons also recommend the same for avoiding surgical complications. Tea, coffee and sodas need to be completely replaced with water. Your system can be thoroughly cleaned by draining out toxins. 
    5. Eliminating refined sugars from diet: Refined flour and sugary products are to be completely curtailed from regular diet; otherwise you might face severe complications. Your blood-sugar level needs to be regulated. If your immunity system gets suppressed, then you will be in great trouble and hence sugar should not be included in your diet at all.
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  • BHMS

    Insomnia is a mental condition, which is characterized by a difficulty in falling asleep, even when you have the chance to do so. The causes of insomnia include stress, emotional or physical discomfort; environmental factors like noise, light or extreme temperature that interferes with sleep; and depression or anxiety.

    The visible symptoms of insomnia are inability to fall asleep no matter what, irritability, depression, lack of concentration and enthusiasm, and distressed stomach and intestine. Complications associated with insomnia can cause psychiatric problems, obesity, increased risk of long-term diseases or conditions like high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes.

    Insomnia can be classified in the following ways -

    1. Secondary insomnia: it stands for sleep problems that may be caused by health conditions, medications, pain or any other causes.
    2. Acute insomnia: it is also known as short-term insomnia and usually lasts for a night or a few weeks.
    3. Primary insomnia: it refers to sleep problems which aren't directly related with any health condition.
    4. Chronic insomnia: insomnia is described as long-term or chronic if you suffer from it for about 3 nights a week for 1 month or longer.

    Homeopathy is a boon towards treating insomnia.

    1. Efficiency: The efficiency of homeopathic medicines in curing the several problems associated with insomnia is unquestionable. Plus, targets at providing long-term cure for insomnia instead of just temporary relief. The approach that homeopathy adopts includes getting at the root cause of the problem, and weeding it out so that there's never a relapse of your condition.
    2. Safety: Homeopathic medication are far safer therefore, it is preferable and highly recommended. It serves invaluably during insomnia and does not involve any side effects.
    3675 Thanks
  • Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (DLO), DNB (Otorhinolaryngology) , MS - ENT , MBBS
    Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) Specialist

    It is that time of the year when insects are all around. Suddenly one feels a buzzing sound or an itchy feel in the ear. To your horror, one feels a live insect is in your ear, which can be extremely annoying and is like a nightmare. Insects often get stuck when they enter our ears as they cannot fly or crawl out. They try to find their way out and their movements inside our ears can be very uncomfortable, painful and can be itchy as well. Moreover, they can easily produce infection.

    In this scenario, do not try to remove an insect with cotton swab, tweezers or hair clip as it will make the situation worse and can lodge the insect deeper into the ear canal, which can possibly damag the eardrum, leading to permanent hearing loss. If an individual is not certain about the potential harm taht can be caused by the insect in the ear, one should seek medical care immediately. Insects in the ear are common reasons for visits to doctor's clinic, especially in children.

    If one suspects an insect in ear, one may experience pain, swelling, blood or crackling. One may even feel biting, stinging, hearing loss or dizziness. It is best to stay calm in this situation as being active may lodge the bug further in ear or cause it to move further back or cause serious damage to the sensitive eardrum

    One way to try to remove a bug in ear is by tilting the ear toward the ground and attempt to wiggle the ear. Grasp the earlobe and give it a wiggle. If the bug is not too far into ear canal, it may fall out on its own. If the bug is still alive and is not too far inside of the ear canal, it may simply come out on its own. If one stays calm and keep objects including fingers away from ears, it is likely that the bug will find its way back out of ear.

    One can also try to flush the ear with warm water with a dropper or a bulb syringe. This can be done by holding head upright and stretching the ear canal by pulling the outer ear and then putting a steady stream of warm water into ear. Tilt head to the side to drain out the ear. Do not try this if one suspects that ear drum has been ruptured to prevent additional damage.

    To avoid stinging or eardrum rupture from scratching or biting , one may use a drop or two of mineral, baby, or olive oil inside your ear canal to kill the insect. Finally, visit an ENT specialist doctor as they can remove the insect by special suction devices. Post insect removal, one must look out for signs of infection as swelling, dizziness, hearing loss, fever, and pain. Finally follow up with ENT specialist or Otolaryngologist for the final opinion.

    3937 Thanks
  • Fellowship in Neonatology, MRCPCH(UK), Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS

    Sleep problems, which can be defined as a sleeping pattern where the parents are unsatisfied, are one of the leading concerns of parents. Children should get a minimum nine hours of sleep so that their health and brain development can occur. Sleep problems can affect not only their health, but also their social and school life. Any interruption or abnormality in a child's sleeping patterns should be examined by a doctor and parents should make necessary efforts for knowing the actual causes of sleep interruption of their kids.

    What are the causes of sleep disorders in children?

    1. Injuries and accidents
    2. Behavioural troubles
    3. Overeating
    4. Slow-reaction times
    5. Performance problems
    6. Mood problems
    7. Learning, concentration and memory troubles

    Common signs of sleep troubles in kids:

    1. Difficulty in falling asleep
    2. Occurrence of unusual events at the time of sleeping like nightmares or sleep-walking
    3. Snoring and breathing pauses
    4. Difficulty in staying awake in daylight
    5. Daytime performances can be adversely affected

    Best methods for dealing with sleep disorders in children:

    1. Regular bed-timing should be sincerely maintained at night.
    2. Relaxing routine for bedtime needs to be followed,including story-book reading, getting warm bath and others.
    3. Noise in the house, especially at night, should be minimized so that unwanted disturbances can be eliminated.
    4. If the room temperature is pretty comfortable, then your kids can sleep peacefully.
    5. Giving caffeine in excess quantity, especially before sleeping, should be reduced otherwise the kids will not sleep well.
    6. Meals should not be provided just before bedtime; rather they should be taken a few hours before sleeping.
    7. If your kids are so very addicted to different electronic gadgets or devices like telephones, televisions, computers and others, then they might face sleeping troubles. Thus, it is your duty to keep your kids away from this kind of addiction.
    8. If your kids are too very tired, then do not keep them awake forcibly; rather you should make them sleep immediately so that they can get a relaxed sleep at night.

    If you think that sleep disorder has become a serious issue with your kids as well, then nothing can be a better option than consulting any health physician. They can best analyse the underlying cause of this issue with your kids.

    4662 Thanks
  • PhD Human Genetics

    Apart from affecting your memory, health and looks, sleep deprivation can lead to decreased physical intimacy as well. People who have trouble sleeping often face difficulty in coping with their relationships, as with almost all aspects of their lives. Similarly, in the modern world of continuous work pressure and fast paced lifestyle, stress generally takes away all the energy required to enjoy a fulfilling sex life.

    The following are some of the ways chronic sleep disorders and stress may affect your sex life:

    1. Mood swings: Sleep disorders often lead to perpetual mood swings. It can make a person grumpy and quarrelsome. If you're sleep deprived, you may get very agitated even by minor stress. This can hurt interaction between you and your partner, leading to a disruptive relationship in the bedroom.
    2. Anxiety: Increased levels of anxiety and stress attributed to lack of sleep can lead to loss of sexual function and even sexual disorders at times. Lack of sleep generally decreases your experience of positive emotions, which may lead to pessimism and subsequently lack of sexual interest.
    3. Decreased social activity: Lack of sleep may decrease your likelihood of engaging in social interactions. People with sleep disorders usually avoid social engagements, as they believe it may disrupt their sleep patterns. They rearrange their sleeping patterns by avoiding social interactions, which leaves them with lesser opportunities to meet with people of the opposite sex, thereby affecting their sex lives.

    So, what you should do?

    1. Focus on getting rid of other stressful issues from your life: Common tensions of your daily life and everyday issues like the normal household chores, and your duties and responsibilities towards your family often leave you too exhausted to spend time with your partner. Moreover, getting preoccupied with social commitments also minimises the time available for just the two of you.
    2. Go to sleep and wake up at roughly the same time everyday to tune your sleep cycle. Avoid waking up late into night as far as possible.
    3. Avoid afternoon sleep or take only a nap.
    4. Don't take heavy foods, big and late meals.
    5. Eat at least 2-3 hrs before sleep.
    6. Avoid coffee and tea in the night.
    7. Don't get glued to the tv, computer, or mobile till sleep time. Shut them down 30 mins. before retiring to bed.
    8. Read something calming, meditate, or listen to quiet music just before sleeping.
    9. Regular workouts helps you get good sleep.
    10. Avoid serious discussions, work or complex decisions 2-3 hrs before sleep. If any of them bother you much, jot them down on a paper. That will lighten your mind help you get better sleep.

    If sexual problems and concerns make you sleepless, seek help from a sex counselor. If your sleep problems are due to work in shifts or night-only shifts, take the help of a specialist in sleep problems. This way you can overcome sexual problems arising out of sleep disturbances, and have an improved sex life.

    3819 Thanks
  • MCh, DNB (Orthopedics), MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS

    Slip disk is a condition of the spinal column which consists of a stack of vertebras from the cervical, thoracic and the lumbar spine.The bones of the spine are cushioned by disks that are present to absorb shocks. Trauma to the spine may cause the disk to bulge or be ruptured. This may lead to pain in the neck and the back. 

    Causes of slip disk

    Slip disk is caused when the jelly like substance present in the disks bulges out. The damaged disk thus puts pressure on the adjacent nerve causing excruciating pain. The various causes of a slipped disk are:

    1. Incorrect form during exercise: If you are into weight lifting, it is important that you use proper form during exercising. Moves like barbell squat and deadlifts can put pressure on the spine and lead to disk problems, if not done correctly. Make sure you work on your core strength and keep your lower back straight while exercising. 

    2. Smoking: Smoking causes the disks to lose their flexibility and thus, increases the risk of slipped disk.

    3. Ageing: Ageing decreases the content of water in the spine, thus leading to inflexibility.

    The symptoms of slip disk are:
    1. Pain on one side of the body that tends to aggravate over time
    2. Activities such as sitting and coughing may lead to pressure on the spine causing pain
    3. Your range of motion on certain movements may be restricted
    4. Pain in the neck while moving it
    5. Numbness in the shoulder and the neck region
    6. You may experience tingling sensations in the genitals, hips and the legs
    7. You may have muscles spasms which lead to sudden contraction of the muscles
    8. It may also lead to partial paralysis of the lower body

    1. If you are overweight, try to reduce weight and then focus on maintaining healthy weight levels
    2. Maintain proper posture while sitting or standing
    3. Exercise on a regular basis to build strength and keep your joints healthy
    4. Don't remain in seated position for an extended period of time. Take small breaks in between to stretch

    3996 Thanks
  • BHMS

    Autism is identified by characteristics like difficulty in communication, the use of language, understanding abstract concepts and building bonds with other people. This brain development disorder is also characterized by the performance of repetitive behaviors in the affected individual.

    Treatment of this condition requires an understanding of every vital factor associated with the condition. The hardcore approach is vital for understanding the stimulus/response connection of symptoms. This is because whenever an autistic child undergoes stressful situations, the reaction is a sign that a homeopath cannot ignore. By completely understanding the cycle of stress and reaction, a homeopath can only be able to suggest the right treatment program.

    What about the remedies prescribed for treating the condition? Being a holistic branch of medicine, homeopathy takes into account the complete physical as well as the mental makeup of the individual. Additionally, in this alternative medicine, the homeopath also takes into consideration the details of the disease while recommending remedies. Remedies like Carcinocin, Secretin and Thuja are favored the most for treating the condition. At the same time, the appropriate remedies are recommended after having a thorough understanding as to whether the individual falls within the constitutional makeup of the remedies considered.Another essential aspect of this branch of medicine in the treatment of this brain development disorder is the practice of using LM potencies (homeopathic medicines on the last scale of potencies). These remedies are not only acted faster but are also gentler compared to others.

    3481 Thanks
  • MS - ENT(Gold Medalist), MBBS
    Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) Specialist

    Ageing is not the only factor that brings hearing impairment. The causes are many. Certain medications, continuous exposure to loud noise, genetic involvement, injury and some medical conditions may cause hearing loss.

    But if you think that you are facing hearing issues, then these symptoms should raise an alarm for you to see an ENT specialist:

    1. You find it hard to hear phone conversations: Do you find yourself asking the person on the other end of the phone line to 'repeat' themselves, or find yourself pressing the phone instrument right into your ear? If you are trying so hard to hear, you might find yourself missing out on bits of the conversation as focussing to clearly hear the conversation is exhausting work. Getting a hearing test might be a good option if this sounds like you.
    2. Your TV is blaring: Do you often find people around you shouting above the TV sound complaining that it's too loud? When you find it hard to hear the TV at the average volume and find yourself turning up the sound, this could signify a hearing loss. Doctors are seeing a growing number of patients visiting them after prolonged exposure to loud music and sounds.
    3. You have trouble hearing in noisy environments: When you are out dining with friends or family at a busy restaurant or accompanying a friend shopping in a busy street, all that background noise makes it difficult to hear what the people are saying. People with hearing loss often have problems masking out background noise. 
    4. You find yourself leaning closer to people to follow the conversation or staring at their lips trying to lip-read what's being said.
    5. Family members telling 'you're going deaf'?: Trust the views of the people closest to you, they never lie about your health. Family members often are the first to sense signs of hearing loss as they find themselves repeating things to you or calling out louder to get your 'attention'.
    3029 Thanks
  • FRCS - Neurosurgery(UK), M.Ch - Neuro Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS

    The word epilepsy brings to mind visions of people frothing at the mouth and rolling on the ground. However, epilepsy affects each patient in a different way. This can make it hard to recognize at times. In the more serious cases of epilepsy, an epileptic attack can make a patient injure himself or develop other life threatening conditions. In rare cases, epilepsy can even cause death. Thus it becomes imperative to understand how to deal with epilepsy.

    Treatment options for epilepsy can be categorized as medication, surgical procedures and dietary changes.

    Medication: Medication for epilepsy is prescribed on the basis of the symptoms presented and the type of epilepsy the patient is suffering from. In most cases, seizures can be controlled with a single type of medication, but in others, the doctor may need to prescribe a combination of medicines to control epilepsy. These forms of medication do have side effects and hence any reactions to the medication must be immediately brought to the doctor's notice. The dosage for epilepsy medication may need to be varied with time. An epileptic patient should never discontinue medication on their own.

    Surgery: Depending on the type of seizures and the area of the brain affected, a doctor may advise surgery in cases of severe epilepsy. Surgery can help reduce the number of seizures experienced or completely stop them. Surgery to treat epilepsy is of many types. Some of the common procedures are:

    1. Surgery to remove tumor of any such conditions that may be triggering the epileptic attacks
    2. Surgery to remove a small section of the brain from where a seizure originates. This may also be referred to as a lobectomy.
    3. Multiple subpial transaction or a surgery that involves making a series of cuts in the brain to prevent the seizures from spreading to other parts of the brain.
    4. Surgery to sever the neural connections between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
    5. Surgery to remove half the brain's cortex or outer layer

    Dietary changes: A diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates can help reduce seizures. This is known as a ketogenic diet and aims at making the body break down fats instead of carbohydrates. It can cause a buildup of uric acid in the body and thus should be practiced only under the guidance of a dietician. In cases where epileptic attacks are triggered by malnutrition and birth defects, taking vitamin supplements can help lower the frequency of seizures.

    4485 Thanks
  • DNB (ENT), MS - ENT
    Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) Specialist

    Hearing is one of the five senses that you or anyone else relies on for communication and a whole host of other things. Among the five senses, touch, smell, taste, hearing and sight, it is often hearing, which is the most easily affected. You don't have to be a senior citizen to experience hearing loss as it is quite common among younger people as well. This problem is also getting widespread with each passing day.

    Before coping with hearing loss, the first job is to detect it
    If you have a hunch that you or any of your loved ones is suffering from hearing loss, it is important that you get it diagnosed. Some of the common symptoms of hearing loss will be:

    1. Hearing difficulties while talking to someone over the phone
    2. Straining to hear conversations with family members or friends in household situations 
    3. People usually need to repeat what they talk to you with a louder voice
    4. You often hear complaints that you keep the TV too loud.
    5. In crowded situations, such as family gatherings or a restaurant, you have problems listening to people.

    Although this condition tends to affect senior citizens, an increasing trend shows younger people i.e. people mostly in their 40 and 50s and even younger than that suffer from this condition.

    How to deal with hearing loss?
    Some of the options to deal with hearing loss are mentioned below.

    1. Once diagnosed with hearing problems, change your ways of communication: If you or your loved ones have been diagnosed with hearing problems, it is important that both adjust your ways to deal with the problem. Rather than getting angry at the other for not being able to communicate effectively, develop and strategize ways to make communication less problematic and erratic.
    2. Cochlear implants: This is a newer technology, which has gained popularity in the past decade or so. These are directly implanted into the inner ear and are designed to bypass the damaged areas of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. These have become very popular, although, are not a replacement of natural hearing. It is only prescribed for people who have severe hearing loss or are deaf.
    3. Hearing aids: Although selecting a hearing aid is difficult as the patient needs to be comfortable, once selected it is one of the best solutions for the hearing impaired. The functionality of these devices can be extended with the hearing assistive technology or HAT devices that can focus the audio waves depending on the situations and give a more tailored approach for every individual's needs.
    3558 Thanks
  • Skin Diseases Cancer Heart Diseases Musculoskeletal Disorders Male Sexual Disorders AIDS, Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus Blood Disorders Respiratory Disorders, Gastrointestinal Disorders Endocrine Disorders ENT Disorders, Gynecological Disorders Opthalmic Disorders Psychiatric Disorders Urological Disorders

    Absolutely indispensable to your existence is the proper functioning of your brain. Not only does your brain ensure a normal functioning of your body, but also it controls all your vital organs. Yet, brain disorders are among the most common diseases the modern populace has to confront. Tumorous growth in the brain affects the health of the brain in the most significant of manners. Be it benign or malignant, anomalous growth of the brain tissues leads to brain tumor. Some of the most evident causes of brain tumor are genetic dysfunctions, exposure to harmful radiations and immune-suppressants. You may detect the incidence of brain tumors through some of the more obvious symptoms like acute headaches, seizures, projectile vomiting as well as some fairly subtle conditions like a feeling of numbness, coordination problems, etc. The immediate recourse to brain surgeries and expensive treatments often do not yield the desired results. As a consequence, many seek an alternative therapy which can potentially soothe the trauma and fight the disease.

    Replete with the benefits of ancient medicinal knowledge, Ayurveda offers remedies, which heal the diseases without causing any side-effects. The natural, herbal therapies improve your immunity from within; enhance your bodily strength and your will to live. It also aborts abnormal cell growth and helps in normal regeneration. Some of the most reliable Ayurvedic remedies have been enumerated below.

    1. Aswagandha: Aswagandha herb has fascinating healing properties. They play a major role in restoring strength and immunity in your body. It is endowed with anti-inflammatory properties and is beneficial anti-oxidant. It supplements the essential nutrients, which improve the functions of the brain and minimize the adverse effects caused by harmful radiation.
    2. Curcumin: Curcumin has been known to disintegrate malignant cells from your body. It not only is a great anti-oxidant, but also improves immunity. It has gained popularity as a cure for brain tumors as well.
    3. Guggul: Guggul is known to revitalize the damaged cells and impart good health. It enhances oxidation potentials of the body and speeds up recovery from brain tumors.
    4867 Thanks
  • MS - ENT, MBBS
    Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) Specialist

    SSHL is not like any other normal hear-loss trouble. Rather it is quite a severe condition. Sudden deafness can occur at any time due to several reasons. This trouble does not affect both the ears rather only one specific ear is usually affected, and thus this is one of the prominent signs that can help the doctors to understand that SSHL has occurred. 

    What are the leading causes of this hearing loss?

    1. Head injury: If you have faced any severe kind of head injury ever, then it might bring SSHL. This is why you are suggested to get necessary treatment on time so that this kind of hearing loss can be avoided.
    2. Loud-noise exposure: If your ears are exposed to louder noises or sounds in a consistent manner, then there is a greater possibility of the occurrence of this hearing loss. Thus, you should stay away from unwanted noises. 
    3. Ageing: With the increase in age, hearing power slowly decreases. However, if you take proper precautions from the very beginning, then SSHL can be definitely avoided. 
    4. Blood-circulation troubles: Interrupted blood-circulation creates different physical troubles out of which hearing loos is one of the most prominent one. And if timely treatment is not provided, then it might get converted into SSHL. 
    5. Ototoxic medication: This kind of medication should not be continued for long without doctor's prescription otherwise SSHL might occur. 
    6. Lyme disease: This is a kind of disease, which occurs due to tick bites and this is pretty infectious in nature. Apart from that, this disease is now considered as one of the main sources of SSHL. 

    How to evaluate this hearing loss? 

    1. History analysis: The history of the patient needs to be known first otherwise SSHL cannot be perfectly treated. If the history shows that the patient already has an existing trouble of ear loss for which SSHL has been proven, then in accordance with the same the treatment can be prescribed. 
    2. Laboratory and imaging: Laboratory analysis is one of the main methods for evaluating SSHL and necessary images of the ears boost the potentiality and importance of this kind of analysis to a great extent. 
    3. Quick evaluation: This kind of medical evaluation is mainly made on the basis of the symptoms. The doctors often follow the signs thoroughly in order to determine as to whether the patients have SSHL or not. This evaluation is highly supported by different medical tests that are prescribed by the doctor.
    4737 Thanks
  • BHMS

    Autism is defined as a neurobiological pervasive development disorder that includes lack of social skills and inability to reciprocate to social interactions. The patient may also have intellectual and cognitive deficits and problems in communication (verbal as well as non-verbal).

    Conventional medicine is mostly used to treat some of the symptoms but is never used to cure or provide remedies for autism. A proper professional homeopath will be able to guide you to get the best results for your child and reduce all the problems of autism, if not outright cure it.

    Some of the medications that could be used to treat autism are as follows:

    1. Cuprum Metallicum: This works wonders when the child is being very obsessive, angry and is inflexible, tense and is very aggressive towards their parents. Some of these children may even exhibit malicious behaviors and are usually averse to touch or being approached.
    2. Androctonus: A child or a patient who tends to swing wildly from a stable good mood to a destructive mode can be calmed down or evened out by Androctonus. These children also exhibit behaviors of suspiciousness and quickness to act on their compulsion.
    3. Carcinosin: This is very helpful in children affected by autism who are talented, but are obsessive, compulsive, stubborn and also have sleep related issues. These children may also have addictive disorders.
    4. Agaricus: This medication is very good for children who may be mentally and physically awkward and show symptoms like indifference, muttering, talking, shouting or singing but not answering to direct calls or questions. Agaricus is very effective for children who suffer from involuntary jerking when they are awake.
    5. Helleborus: This is a very effective medication when the child is slow and under active and seems to be depressed most of the time. Some of these children may also have muscular weakness and helleborus is very effective in treating them. These are only a few examples of how homeopathy can provide remedies for your autistic child and thus is an effective solution.
    3485 Thanks
  • MD - Homeopathy, BHMS

    Sinusitis and migraine both are very painful condition, causing immense discomfort. Homeopathy deals with both the conditions very well.

    1. Sinus and Homeopathic cure: Sinusitis is the inflammation or infection of one or more of the sinuses. It can be caused by a virus, bacteria, fungus, allergies or excessive nose blowing and results in the blockage of the sinus opening. Sinusitis can be acute (lasting 4 or lesser weeks), subacute (lasting 4 to 8 weeks), chronic (lasting beyond 8 weeks) and recurring (several attacks in a year).

    There are different remedies available to treat the different symptoms of sinusitis, which work together to completely cure it by boosting the body's immune system without having any side effects.

    Homeopathy for Nasal Polyps: Soft growths arising from the mucous membrane of the nose or paranasal sinus are referred to as nasal polyps and causes acute sinusitis. The most common treatment option suggested by a conventional system in nasal polyps is surgical removal. In most cases, nasal polyps reappear after surgery. However, surgery is a temporary fix since it does not address the body's tendency to form polyps. Homeopathy, on the other hand, offers a permanent solution by treating the root cause.

    Following six homeopathic medicines are usually recommended for nasal polyps - Lemna Minor, Sanguinaria Can, Calcarea Carb, Kali Bichrome, Teucrium, and Phosphorus.

    2. Migraine and Homeopathic cure: A migraine is a headache that causes a distinct pulsating pain, usually in one side of the head. It is different from normal headaches in the sense that the pain is much more intense and it may be accompanied by nausea or vomiting as well.

    Some of the common and known causes, which may trigger migraines in people are:

    Dehydration is known to trigger migraines: Patients with hypoglycemia may also face migraines if the blood sugar level drops within their body. Change in air pressure due to change in altitude may also cause migraine. - Lack of sleep - Stress

    Remedies for Migraine in Homeopathy:

    • Glonoine: For people who frequently have migraines due to congestion of the sinuses, this medicine has been known to be very effective.
    • Spigelia: To treat migraines in the left side of the head.
    • Natrum Mur: This provides great relief from migraines, which may have been caused by stress. Also, if a proper dosage is taken, it can help cure it as well.
    • Belladonna: This had been known to be a great provider of relief for people who regularly face throbbing headaches.
    3846 Thanks
  • D.P.H, MBBS
    General Physician

    It is the most common problem seen in society today. A migraine is a common neurological condition characterised by a headache, but some people have associated symptoms of eye and ear.
    Classic symptoms of a migraine:

    1. Severe throbbing headache on one side of head
    2. Nausea and vomiting
    3. Sensitivity to light and noise.
    4. Prefer quite a dark room to sleep

    Vestibular symptoms:

    1. Vertigo
    2. Dizziness
    3. Imbalance
    4. Unsteadiness
    5. Sensitivity to motion

    Hearing symptoms:

    1. Muffled hearing
    2. Ear fullness
    3. Ringing in the ear or tinnitus

    Causes of a migraine:
    Migraine headaches probably relate to both abnormal discharges in cells within the brain and to the construction of the walls of the blood vessels in and around the brain. But the exact cause of a migraine is not known. Following are the provocating factors which make the condition worse

    1. Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar)
    2. Stress altered sleep patterns
    3. Diet fast food, oily food, processed food
    4. Chocolates, cheeses
    5. Coffee sodas with caffeine
    6. Alcohol

    Factors related to a migraine

    1. More common in women than men
    2. Symptoms are often worse during menstruation
    3. Family history


    1. Avoid food, which triggers migraines e.g. Chocolate, alcohol, cheese, oily, spicy, junk and processed food
    2. Relaxation exercise
    3. Stress management
    4. During menstrual period decrease the salt intake and take some diuretic
    5. Ibruphen for pain after meal
    6. Other treatment with the advice of neuro physician e.g.
      1. Beta blockers agents
      2. Calcium channel blockers
      3. Tricyclic antidepressants
      4. Seratonergic agents
      5. Gabapantin or neurontin
      6. Clongepam
      7. Acetazolamides or diamox
      8. Sodium valporate or depakots
      9. Topiramax
      10. Oxycarbazapine or trieptal
  • DM - Cardiology, MD-Internal Medicine , MBBS

    We're all guilty of making fun of snorers, but sometimes this snoring can be a symptom of sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a condition where breathing is not continuous and may start and stop many times while asleep. This affects the quality of your sleep and in turn can affect many aspects of your health including your cardiovascular health. Here's how:

    High Blood Pressure: When a sleep apnea patient's breathing stops, the oxygen levels in the blood also suddenly fall. This can increase your blood pressure. High blood pressure means that the heart muscles need to work harder to pump blood through the body.

    Cardiomyopathy: As a result of high blood pressure, the heart walls may become thicker and the heart muscles become stiffer. This is known as Cardiomyopathy. As this condition worsens, the heart becomes weaker and is unable to maintain a regular rhythm. This can eventually lead to heart failure.

    Arrhythmia: An irregular heartbeat is also known as Arrhythmia. This may also be related to the changes in the heart's structure that follow the drop in blood oxygen levels. In many cases, Arrhythmia has no visible symptoms and can often go undiagnosed. This can result in the formation of blood clots in the atria which can lead to a stroke.

    Sleep apnea is easy to diagnose. If the doctor feels that you show symptoms of sleep apnea, you may be asked to stay on the hospital overnight and undergo a sleep evaluation. This tests a variety of body functions including brain activity, eye movements, heart rate, breathing patterns and blood oxygen levels.

    Treatment for sleep apnea depends on the causes for this condition. If you are overweight, regular exercise and a change in diet can help you lose the excess weight and cure sleep apnea. Similarly, if your sleep apnea is triggered by an allergy, treating the allergy can help cure the sleep apnea. Other forms of treatment for sleep apnea may include:

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP): This is a machine which pumps air into the body through a nasal mask. By keeping the pressure in the machine higher than normal air pressure the upper airway passages are kept open and hence the quality of your sleep is improved. An auto CPAP machine can modulate the air pressure such that it is higher when you inhale and lower when you exhale.;

    Oral devices: Your doctor may suggest oral devices that allow you to keep your mouth open while you sleep. This is easier to use than CPAP machine but less effective. Surgery is the last resort when it comes to treatment for sleep apnea.

    4710 Thanks
  • MANNS, DNB (Neurosurgery), MBBS

    There is no trustworthy evidence regarding what causes brain tumors, but there are a few risk factors that have been substantiated through research. Children and young people who receive radiation around the head are susceptible to developing tumors in the brain once they grow up. Also, people with a certain kind of rare genetic condition like neurofibromatosis may develop a brain tumor though such cases are very few in number. Age is also an important factor as people aged over 65 years are diagnosed with brain tumors at quadruple times higher than children and younger people.

    Types of Brain Tumours:

    A primary brain tumor originates in the brain, and they may or may not be cancerous. Some tumors can be benign, which do not spread in the surrounding tissues and are not very malicious. However, that does not signify that they will not cause any harm over time. Sometimes these tumors can be severe and cause a threat to the life of the sufferer. The National Cancer Institute reports that approximately there were 23, 380 fresh cases of brain tumors in 2014.

    Identifying the Symptoms of Brain Tumors:

    The symptoms of the brain tumor are dependent on various factors such as the size, type as well as the exact location of the tumor. These symptoms are triggered when any tumor is pressed or clashed against a nerve or disturbs a part of the brain. Symptoms are also felt when any tumor particle blocks the fluid flowing around the brain or when there is a swelling in the brain owing to the build-up of fluid.

    Common symptoms include: headaches that get worse in the morning, nausea along with vomiting, an alteration in the speech, hearing and imbalances in walking and movement, mood swings, change in personality and ability to concentrate or remember things and seizures or convulsions.

    Treatment for Brain Tumor:

    Surgery is normally the most usual treatment for brain tumors, and the patient is given anesthesia, and the scalp is shaved before the surgery. Then, craniotomy is performed to open the skull, and the surgeon removes a bone piece out of the skull. Then the tumor is removed as much as possible. The bone is then restored back, and the incision on the scalp is closed. Sometimes surgery is not viable in case the tumor has developed in the brain stem or some other complex parts.

    Neurosurgeons can surgically remove some tumors completely (called resection or complete removal). If the tumor is near sensitive areas of the brain, neurosurgeons will only be able to remove part of it (called partial removal). Even partial removals can relieve symptoms and facilitate or increase the effectiveness of other treatments.

    The role of surgery in treating brain tumors:

    Surgery can provide:

    • The complete removal of some brain tumors
    • A sample to enable doctors to diagnosis the tumor and recommend the most appropriate treatment
    • Better quality of life:
      • Reduced symptoms and improved ability to function (e.g., to think, speak or see better)
      • Less pressure within the skull from the tumor
      • A longer life

    In case you or any of your near ones is affected with brain tumor, you should visit the doctor to know the possible treatments other than surgery and other important questions related to brain tumor.

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