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Dt. Munira

Personal Statement
I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family.

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Dt. Munira is a renowned Dietitian/Nutritionist in Indira Nagar, Bangalore. You can consult Dt. Munira at Qua Nutrition, Indiranagar in Indira Nagar, Bangalore. Book an appointment online with Dt. Munira and consult privately on Lybrate.com.

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  • Masters in Dietetics and Food Service Management -, B.Sc.- Dietitics / Nutrition -, Reebok Instructor Course

    Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, no matter which culture you belong to. The age old saying goes that you should have breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper. Let's look at some of the menu items, which are not considered ideal for breakfast menus on a regular basis along with a few others which are.

    Some of the unhealthiest breakfast foods:

    1. Chole bhatture or oily pooris: These are favorite items within Indian breakfast menus. However, they are full of oil and saturated fats. Apart from contributing to diabetes and blood pressure, bloating, acidity, and heartburn are also common side effects.
    2. Pakoras, samosas or kachoris: Common items which are included in many breakfast and snack menus, these oily fries are major contributors to bad cholesterol, reduce good cholesterol and is are major contributors to obesity.
    3. Sugary cereals: While plain corn flakes are good, sugary cereals have processed sugar and are a no-no for breakfast items as they could cause elevated blood glucose levels and thus cause a host of problems.
    4. Medu vada: While having a medu vada once or twice is alright, having it as a daily breakfast item will add a lot of oil to your diet and so, should be avoided.
    5. Bakery items: Many bakery items such as doughnut, Tiffin cakes, and sweet breads usually tend to have a lot of processed sugar, refined flour and additives which can be harmful to your health.

    Some healthy breakfast foods:

    1. Idli: This is a staple breakfast item in southern India and is very healthy as it is prepared by steaming rice mixes. However, reduce spicy chutneys or side dishes while consuming idlis as they can be quite bad for health.
    2. Upma: Another export of the south, upma is now loved all over India and the world. Made with suji or rawa and very little oil, this is a great and filling breakfast alternative.
    3. Poha or Chivra pulao: Made from flattened rice flakes, poha, also known as chivda pulao, is a great healthy alternative and should be incorporated in breakfast diets.
    4. Indian veg sandwiches: As long as the bread is whole wheat, this is a very healthy option as it is usually made with vegetables like tomatoes, cucumbers and potatoes and also has chutney as the dressing.
    5. Dosa: Another great option from southern India, this is a great breakfast food if the sambar and accompanying dishes are cooked in less oil and have fewer spices.
    6. Khakra: This dish which comes from Gujarat is also a great breakfast item and can also become a low calorie snack for cravings in between meals.
  • MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS

    Breast examination is a way of detecting early changes that help in detecting lumps or other growth in the breast. This is a manual form of examination that may be carried out by the doctor or even by the patient. This kind of examination helps in detecting the onset of breast cancer and helps in successful treatment of the same. It is an essential screening strategy that all women must go through. Let us cast a glance on the various details regarding this examination, and also how frequently it must be conducted.

    1. Age: Women who have reached the age of 18 are said to have matured physically and sexually. They should perform this examination once they have reached the said age in order to detect any anomalies in the way the physical changes occur in the breast tissue.
    2. Procedure: One should begin by looking at one's reflection in the mirror to find any rashes or dimpling in the breasts. The shape, size and colour of the breasts and nipples must also be studied so as to check for any anomalies. Inverted nipples, redness and soreness must also be reported to the doctor. Once you are done checking the visuals, you can raise your arms and look for any changes. Then, you will need to lie down and feel your breasts by using a circular motion. The finger pads must be used in order to check for any lumps. One must start from the centre and move the breasts sideways. Any wet and slippery feeling must be reported to the doctor immediately.
    3. Pressure: During the breast examination, you must use light pressure for the skin and tissue that lie beneath the breasts, while medium to moderate pressure should be used for the middle portion of the breasts. One must use a firm hand to check the tissue that lies at the back of the breasts, near the rib cage.
    4. Frequency: One must get into the habit of conducting a breast examination at least once a fortnight or once a month, without fail. You can also go to the gynaecologist for an examination in case you are not confident of conducting it on your own with proper movements and accuracy. You may also journalise your breast examination findings.
    5. Menstrual Cycles: When you are going through your menstrual cycle or period, it is important to remember that your breasts can become tender just before or after the start of the cycle. So, do not panic if you think you have found a lump or any other growth at this time. It is best to check again after a week and then visit the doctor about checking the same.
  • M.S. Counselling and Psychotherapy

    What is stress?

    There are situations in life when a person is required to perform beyond his/her normal capacity, or situations when some expectations are not met. This creates anxiety, fear and anger. This is a situation where a person feels inadequate, under-confident and experiences loss of control. This affects a person's physical and mental wellbeing. This feeling of fear, anxiety, restlessness is commonly known as "tension or stress".

    Symptoms of Stress :

    1. Anger and Aggression: While under stress a person starts doubting his/her own capacity and efficiency because he/she feels inadequate or incapable of performing certain tasks. This creates a lot of anger or frustration and sometime, may result into aggressive behaviour. 
    2. Irritability: Under stress people get irritated for no reason. There is loss of patience, loss of sense of humour.
    3. Sleep Disorders: A person under stress may not be able to sleep at all or in some cases sleep excessively.
    4. Eating Disorders: A person under stress may lose appetite or in some cases, tend to overeat resulting in harmful effects on body.
    5. Anxiety: Stress may cause a lot of anxiety and restlessness. The person under stress may not to able to concentrate and unable to focus on any activity, making things more complicated.
    6. Depression: In a few cases a person under a lot of stress may go into depression.
    7. High BP: Body and mind are closely connected. Hence stress in mind creates stress in the body and under stress, blood pressure may rise.
    8. High Sugar Level: Stress may increase the blood sugar levels.
    9. Headache or Unexplained Body Pains: Stress may cause headache or body aches in different parts of the body, without any physical reason for it. 

    Sometimes, there may not be any symptoms for stress but the trauma manifests in the form to heart attack, Stroke etc.

    What causes stress ?

    1. Relationship Issues - Conflicts in relationships is a major cause of stress.
    2. Life style - Working for long hours, sedentary life style, unhealthy food habits, along with insatiable urge for money causes a lot of stress.
    3. High expectations from oneself and from others - The peer pressure, the pressure of constant deadlines builds up a huge stress. When a person has very high expectations from himself/herself without corresponding efforts, there is a fear of failure which causes lot of tension. At the same time, having unrealistic expectations from others also is a definite reason for disappointments, resulting in stress.
    4. Physical and Emotional Abuse - When a person is physically or emotionally abused and unable to defend himself/herself for various reasons, it causes frustration. This results in anger and stress.
    5. Competition - Unhealthy competitions with others create a feeling of inadequency and result in lower self esteem and sadness, thereby causing stress.
    6. Health Issues - Chronic and serious health issues cause lot of tension.
    7. Suppressed Emotions - Lack of freedom to express own emotions and feelings, amounts to stress.
    8. Lack of Assertiveness - Inability to say "No", when wanting to say so, inability to fight for one's own rights, causes tension and anger.
    9. Boredom - Lack of creative/interesting occupation may cause stress especially in old people or people with physical disabilities.
    10. Low self esteem, feeling hopeless and helpless - If a person has low self esteem and does not value oneself, it causes lots of negativity and stress.

    Why stress management is important?
    Body and mind affect each other's functioning. When the mind is stressed out, it gets reflected in the body in the form of high blood pressure, high sugar levels, indigestion, acidity, heartburn, ulcers, skin rashes, headache, nausea, cancer, eating disorders, psychosomatic pains etc. It may trigger asthma, migraine etc.

    Because of these harmful effects of stress, the body's capacity to function reduces. At times, it may cause serious threat to one's life. Hence, it is very important to learn to relieve and also to manage stress, in order to have a long and healthy life.

    There are a number of ways to relieve stress:

    1. Sleep, take rest, relax.
    2. Take a break from daily routine, do something different, take a short vacation.
    3. Go for a walk/jog/run/cycling. Practice Yoga, meditation, deep muscle relaxation, etc.
    4. Spend time with friends and family.
    5. Play with children.
    6. Spend time with pets.
    7. Pursue a hobby like reading, gardening, painting, music, dance, singing, cooking, etc.
    8. Recreation - Watch a movie, play, picnic, go for a drive or shopping.
    9. Pamper yourself with beauty treatments, massage, or your favourite food/drinks. 

    How to manage Stress?
    Stress is inevitable part of life now. Right from a kid going to Pre-Nursery school to senior citizens staying alone at homes and having severe health problems; all are under lot of stress. No one can avoid stress. But there are certain ways to manage your stress-

    1. Self-awareness. Learn more about your own self. Understand what induces stress in you, what tasks are difficult for you, what situations are difficult for you and then try to figure out the reasons why it is so. Try to resolve or modify your thoughts and attitude.
    2. Identify stressors and explore options. Once you identify what is causing your stress, try to find more options to resolve your issues.
    3. Reasonable Expectations and Feasible Goals. Have reasonable expectations from yourself and from others. Have goals which are possible for you to achieve.
    4. Learn assertive techniques. Learn to express your feelings, learn to fight for your own rights, understand and respect other's rights.

    Try to minimise stress in life and lead a happy healthy life.

    1 Thanks
  • MBBS, MD - DVL

    There are many things we do in our daily routine that can have various repercussions. The state of our skin is one of these. Starting from what we eat to how we shower and what kind of a skin care regimen we follow, there are a variety of factors that can affect the way our skin behaves. So are you showering the right way? Find out the best way to shower if you want healthy and glowing skin that retains its elasticity for a longer time.

    1. Turn it to Cold: Did you know that standing under hot water for too long can actually rob your skin of its moisture and make it look shrivelled? That’s right, the temperature of the water can actually make your skin good or bad. So turn the knob for a cold shower and enjoy an energetic shower, which will leave your skin looking dewy fresh. The water should not be completely cold, as harsh temperatures can have the same effect as extremely hot water. Instead, make sure that you find the perfect room temperature or luke warm setting with which you can shower every day.
    2. Showerhead: This may come as a surprise to you. Your showerhead actually determines the health of your skin. This showerhead is usually packed with dirt and grime that we know nothing about. Showering with this dirty showerhead can actually lead to a host of health issues in the long run including a slowdown of your immune system, as per the views of many doctors. So unscrew the showerhead and give it a good rinse in a mug of hot water. Use a toothbrush to easily dislodge the loose dirt and the grime that may have settled in layers. Take special care of the tiny jets, which should not get damaged in your cleaning spree!
    3. Shampoo and Conditioner: Remember to lather your locks in the right way by diluting the shampoo a little before spreading it evenly over the rest of your scalp. You should also do the same for your conditioner and let it stand for a few minutes before you wash it off.
    4. Exfoliation: Keep this activity to a minimum to avoid excessive abrasion of the skin. Use soft foam on a daily basis and keep the exfoliation to a minimum with one or two sessions a week.
    5. Cleansing: While the bar soap is the cleanest option, the loofah is not. So, if you are using a loofah on a daily basis, you will have to clean it up properly before you hang it to dry. Also, ensure that your bathroom has plenty of ventilation so that it may dry properly before your next use.
    1 Thanks
  • Bachelors Of Physiotherapy, Diploma in Nutrition and Health Education

    From an early age we’re taught that alcohol is bad for us, but is that really true? Drinking yourself silly every night can have disastrous consequences, but having one drink a day is associated with a number of health benefits. The key here is moderation. Moderate drinking can be defined as one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men. This is a daily quote system and not to be taken as an average over time.

    Here are a few ways your body can benefit from the occasional drink:

    • It boosts cardiovascular health: Many types of alcohol are rich in phenols. This helps fight stress, reduces the risk of hypertension and can protect the heart against a number of cardiovascular conditions. Moderate amounts of alcohol can also increase the amount of good cholesterol in the body and influence the clotting of blood. Higher levels of cholesterol help protect against heart diseases while by influencing the blood clotting process, alcohol can indirectly help prevent the formation of blood clots in the arteries.
    • It slows aging: Some types of alcohol like wine are rich in antioxidants. This helps flush toxins out of the body and can slow down the aging process. An antioxidant called resveratrol that is found in red wine can even increase the lifespan of cells and activate enzymes that slow down the aging process. It is also said to increase DNA stability thus extending a person’s lifespan.
    • It can help fight diseases: Alcohol is said to lower the risk of catching a cold. A warm drink like brandy can also be used to treat sore throats and a cough. Tonic water contains quinine that is anti inflammatory and has analgesic properties. Though medication for malaria is now easily available, tonic water can be used to treat the initial phase of the disease if proper medication is not available.
    • It enhances your libido: Excessive drinking can dampen your sex drive, but when consumed in moderation, alcohol can lower the risk of erectile dysfunction. Moderate amounts of alcohol also help lower inhibitions and thus encourage people to form sexual relationships.
    • It improves cognitive ability: Almost all forms of alcohol contain ethanol that helps neurons resist wear and tear. This can lower a person’s risk of suffering from Alzheimer’s or dementia later in life. It can also enhance problem solving abilities and encourage creativity.

    All of the above benefits are applicable only if alcohol is consumed in moderation. Thus do not use them to binge drink.

    3 Thanks
  • MD - Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that results in higher level of blood sugar in the body. It is assuming epidemic proportions and India has become the new diabetic capital with more than 50 million diabetic people. The main problem with diabetes is that it does not completely go away and there is a whole myriad of issues that it brings along with it. Heart attack, stroke, eyesight problems, delayed wound healing, nerve damage and impotence. Therefore, diabetes and by that we mainly mean blood sugar level has to be managed so that there is a delay in onset of the associated conditions and/or reduced in severity.

    Ayurveda refers to diabetes as Prameha (excessive urination) and Madhumeha (sugary urine) and has identified close to 20 forms of the disease. According to Ayurvedic belief, each disease is caused due to imbalance in kapha, pitta, and vata doshas and diabetes is caused by all these, predominantly by kapha. With any stream of medicine, management of diabetes involves two tracks – one is lifestyle changes and the second is medications.

    Lifestyle changes include the following:

    1. Diet: Reduce the amount of rice, sugar, potato, sweet fruits, maida, deep fried foods, and red meat. Protein-rich foods like lentils, soya, green leafy vegetables and fish should be increased. Diet plan should change to small, frequent meals instead of binge eating.

    2. Exercise: Include 30 minutes of regular exercise into your daily routine if you have a diabetic predisposition.

    3. Others: Avoid smoking and alcohol, ensure sufficient sleep, avoid sleeping during day time, improved foot and eye care, periodically check sugar levels and manage stress levels.


    Ayurveda has a whole lot of home remedies which have proven to be very effective against diabetes:

    1. Jambhul: Eugenia Jambolana whether eaten raw or juice extract has been shown to have beneficial effects in managing sugar levels and cholesterol.
    2. Gymnema sylvestre: Used to manage diabetes for over 2000 years, it reduces sugar cravings and is being touted as the future for diabetes treatment.

    3. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): It has 3 components that give it strong antidiabetic properties. The charantin reduces blood sugar levels; the polypeptide has insulin-like effects; and lectin that again has hypoglycemic effects.

    4. Bel (Aegle marmelos): Also known as wood apple, leaves of the plant are shown to have antidiabetic properties. 5 to 10 leaves can be chewed on a daily basis to help control blood sugar levels.

    5. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum): Consuming 10 g of fenugreek seeds soaked in water increases the amount of insulin produced, thereby increasing sugar breakdown.

    6. Neem: Chewing about 4 to 5 leaves in the morning on an empty stomach helps to control blood sugar levels. Alternately, neem leaves powder is available which can be dissolved in water and consumed.

  • MBBS, DGO, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MRCOG

    Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.

    Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.

    Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.

    1. A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
    2. Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
    3. Redness of your breast or nipple
    4. Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
    5. Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
    6. Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
    7. One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
    8. Hardened area under the breast skin

    Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.

    Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.

    1. Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
    2. Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
    3. Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
    4. Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
    5. Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
    6. Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
    7. Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.

    Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.

    1. Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
    2. Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
    3. Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
    4. Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
    5. Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.

    Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.

    1. Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
    2. In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
    3. Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
    4. Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
    5. Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.

    Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.

    1. Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
    2. Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
    3. Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
    4. In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).

    Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.

    1 Thanks
  • MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS, DGO

    Vulvar cancer is an invasive and cancerous growth, which occurs in the vulva (the external vaginal or reproductive tract opening in females). The main types of vulvar cancer include:

    1. Squamous cell carcinoma: This condition gives rise to abnormal growths that generally originate from the most common forms of skin cells known as squamous cells. They are characterized by open sores, scaly red patches, elevated growths with a depression in the centre or warts which might crust or bleed. They can cause disfiguring and sometimes can prove to be fatal if their growth is allowed.
    2. Melanoma: This is a form of cancer that is known to develop cells that contain pigment called melanocytes. It is one of the most dangerous forms of cancer and is more commonly found in women.
    3. Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma contributes to around 1- 2% of vulvar cancer. This form of cancer tends to be slow-growing lesions on the labia majora (external large vulvar folds), but is capable of occurring anywhere else on the vulva. The behaviour bears resemblance to basal cell cancers that occur in other locations. Their growth is local and the risk of deep invasion or metastasis (spreading of cancer) is low. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves excision. However, these types of lesions tend to recur if they are not removed completely.

    Symptoms of vulvar cancer include:

    1. Itching, bleeding or burning sensation on the vulva that is not relieved.
    2. Occurrence of skin changes such as rashes or warts, on the vulva.
    3. Pain in pelvis, particularly during sex or urination.
    4. Changes in skin colour of the vulva (abnormally red or white).
    5. Lumps, ulcers or sores that occur on the vulva which does not subside

    Treatment options of vulvar cancer include:

    1. Surgery: This is the most common form of treatment wherein, the cancer is removed without affecting the sexual function of the woman. Some of the surgical procedures include:

    • Laser Surgery
    • Wide local excision (small portion of the cancerous tissue)
    • Radical local excision (removing a major portion of benign tissues as well)
    • Ultrasonic surgical aspiration (tumour is broken into small pieces using fine vibrations)
    • Vulvectomy (removal of all or part of vulva)

    2. Radiation Therapy: This treatment procedure involves using radiations such as X-rays to target and destroy the cancer cells. The two forms of radiation therapy are external radiation therapy and internal radiation therapy.

    3. Chemotherapy: This form of treatment uses oral administration or injection of chemicals into the veins so that the growth of cancerous cells is stopped, either by elimination of the cells or by prohibiting cell division.

  • Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
    General Surgeon

    A tumor may be defined as an abnormal unwanted growth of tissue in any part of the body. This word need not immediately cause panic because the tumor may or may not cause a health threat. There are three types of tumors:

    1. Benign tumor: This is a noncancerous type of tumor. In our body, new cells are formed while the old ones called dead ones are disposed by our immune system. When this disposal of cells does not occur, the remaining dead cells form a lump, which is called a benign tumor. They are not dangerous since, they do not contain harmful fluids and do not spread. A person suffering from a benign tumor in the brain may have frequent headaches.
    2. Pre-malignant tumor: It is an initial disorder, or an earlier symptom of cancer manifestation. The inclination of this medical condition is that it will progressively become precarious. This is so because it is capable of conquering neighboring tissues and spreading as well. Leukoplakia is a form of premalignant cancer. They evolve as thick white patches inside the cheeks or on gums below the tongue. These patches are very difficult to be scraped off from the mouth. They are caused mainly due to chewing tobacco and smoking, and if left untreated can expand.
    3. Malignant tumor: These are the cancerous tumors, in which cells multiply abnormally and rapidly. They are unstable and travel along bloodstream, circulatory system and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. Sarcomas and carcinomas are the most common types of malignant tumors. While the former is related to connective tissues the latter is related to organs and glands.

    The most common procedure to name the type of cancer is to refer to their site of origin. Adenocarcinoma, refers to cancer in the adenoid glands. Similarly, a benign tumor of fatty tissue is called lipoma, where as a malignant tumor in the same area is referred to as liposarcoma.

    What is a biopsy? How does it relate to a tumor?
    A Biopsy is a medical procedure practised by qualified medical practitioners. This procedure helps in identifying the type of tumor within a patient. It aids the doctor to conclude the type of treatment to be given to any patient. This procedure is a definite diagnosis to the identification of cancer. A Biopsy is the removal of a sample of the abnormal, unwanted tissue for laboratory examination. Biopsies are of different types, and they may be performed using ultrasound, CT scan or MRI depending on where the tumor is.

    1. Excisional biopsy: In this method the entire lump of excess tissue is removed.
    2. Incisional biopsy: Here a sample of the abnormal tissue is removed surgically.
    3. Needle aspiration biopsy: Here the sample is extracted with the help of a needle.

    After extraction, the tissue layers are sent to pathological departments to check their composition, and cause of disease.

  • M.Ch - Plastic Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
    Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon

    One of the most common cosmetic procedures performed in the world today is that of breast augmentation or reduction. This is a fairly common surgery wherein depending on the requirement of the patients; the breasts are either made bigger with the help of implants or reduced in size by excising fat and tissue. Although a majority of these patients are female, there are an increasing number of male patients, who opt for male breast surgery as well.

    The need for male breast surgery-

    The requirement for male breast surgery arises due to the occurrence of Gynecomastia or the development of male breasts. In this condition, fat and glandular tissues are stored within the male chest in the pattern of female breasts, thus giving it a feminine look. This is a common occurrence among men and can be a cause of social embarrassment for the man as well as affecting his self-esteem. Some of the causes for gynecomastia or male breasts would be –

    1. Excessive Weight Gain.

    2. Hormonal changes within the body where testosterone levels drop due to conditions such as ‘Hypogonadism’ (in men, the inability of the testicle’s to function correctly) and estrogen levels increase.

    3. Medications used to treat other disorders such as certain anti -depressants, cancer medication, and anti-anxiety medications among others.

    4. Excess consumption of alcohol and certain drugs.

    5. Hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid secretion by the thyroid gland).

    It isn’t always just fat!

    While many people tend to blame male breasts due to the accumulation of fat, this may not be the case always. Even skinny or people with an athletic build may notice misshapen chest that has more of a feminine appearance and thus would like to correct that. This is obviously caused by hormonal factors and genetics of body shape as well rather than just being obese or overweight.

    Types of Male Breast Surgery-

    Male breast surgery revolves around breast reduction and contouring to give it a more flat and toned look. This can be achieved in either of these ways:

    1. Liposuction – This is a fairly common procedure and is minimally invasive; meant to suck out the fat through a small opening on the skin. With the help of liposuction, doctors can easily contour your chest to have a more masculine look by removing the excess fat. This procedure is a very popular one as it takes less time to recover and also isn’t invasive. However, this is used as an option for male breast surgery when the problem isn’t acute.

    2. Surgery to remove excess tissues and fat – If the male breasts have excessive glandular tissue and the problem is acute, a more extensive form of surgery wherein the glandular tissue is excised may be required. However, this is also not very invasive and you can get back to your regular routine within a few days after surgery.

  • MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS

    The pelvic floor is a group of muscles in your pelvic area. These muscles support the organs in your pelvis like a sling. The organs in this area include the bladder, uterus (women), prostate (men) and rectum (the area at the end of the large intestine where your body stores solid waste). By contracting and relaxing these muscles, you control your bowel and bladder movements.

    What is pelvic floor dysfunction?

    When you are unable to control the muscles in your pelvic floor to have a bowel movement, it is called pelvic floor dysfunction. People with pelvic floor dysfunction contract these muscles rather than relax them. Because of this, they cannot have a bowel movement or they have an incomplete one.

    It is important to be aware of the symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction as there is no comprehensive list of causes. However, it can be said that traumatic injuries to the pelvic area seems to have a rather higher preponderance among the causes of pelvic floor dysfunction, which is also known as PFD. While giving birth to a child is an experience that is life changing, the potential downside is that it can be one of the causes of pelvic floor dysfunction in women!

    Other symptoms include feeling the need to urinate often and then finding the process to be quite painful. Constipation which occurs in spite of a diet which contains enough roughage is a sign, as well, that it is about time that a person should schedule an appointment with the doctor.

    Medication is a possible solution and is usually in the form of a muscle relaxant of a low intensity. However, it is great for a person who has the misfortune of having pelvic floor dysfunction to know that there are solutions which are completely bereft of the need of any form of medication!

    Cure Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Reducing the effects of pelvic floor dysfunction can be quite simple, really. Warm baths and some exercises suggested on a subjective basis are quite common. This is a process called biofeedback.

    Biofeedback aims to retrain the pelvic floor so that there is far better functioning. The success of this method is well known to a specialist, it has vastly improved the pelvic floor dysfunction conditions of more than 75% of the patients significantly!

    The method works by observing the workings of the pelvic floor and then providing feedback regarding its coordination as it expands and contracts. Some of the many things which make this method truly great are that it is non-invasive and non-medical. As a matter of fact, taking into due account its success rate, people should really give it a shot before they try medication or surgery.


    Surgery is said to be effective in the case of rectocele. Nevertheless, this is the last resort as it is always better to sort out such problems sans having to resort to surgery. Multidisciplinary approaches which involve fields such as psychology are good options. Pelvic floor dysfunction is something that is a pain to have, but it really need not be!

    2005 Thanks
  • DNB (Psychiatry), DPM, MBBS

    Vaginismus is a condition characterized by significant pain in the vagina generally during sexual intercourse. This pain occurs on penetration due to the contraction of the vaginal muscles.


    The exact cause of Vaginismus is not exactly known to the doctors. But some researchers suggests that the pain might result from severe anxiety or illogical fears before sex.

    Vaginismus can be primary or secondary depending on the concerned woman’s previous sexual experiences. Vaginismus can be linked to an earlier sexually painful experience, sexual trauma or psychological factors. In some cases, the pain tends to exist without any direct physical cause. The causes of the pain might vary from women to women and might occur in some cases with only one specific partner and not with others.

    Sometimes the pain might stem from underlying infections or any other underlying complications.

    The symptoms of Vaginismus are as follows:

    1. Severe pain during intercourse.

    2. Severe pain during insertion of tampons or during any medical check-ups.

    The following treatments can be useful to treat Vaginismus:

    1. If the pain arises due to anxiety or fear, counselling sessions can help you to a remedy.

    2. If the pain arises whenever something penetrates the vaginal walls, progressive desensitization can be useful to treat the pain. The process aims to loosen the vaginal muscles so that you don’t experience any pain during sexual intercourse.

    Kegel exercises (at least 20 of them) can help in the initial stage to relax the vaginal muscles. After you exercise for a few days, you should try inserting one finger inside your vagina while doing the exercises. Try doing it gently and if it still hurts, try doing it with a lubricating jelly. This continuous procedure will help in the contraction of the vaginal muscles which eventually relax.

    1365 Thanks
  • MS - Counselling and Psychotherapy, Master of Arts in Psychology, Bachelor of Arts - Psychology and English Literature

    The Smartphone addiction has got all hooked. With millions of apps catering to your different needs, smileys, emoticons and memes instead of relying on words to express what you feel and getting to know the whole world at one tap, you feel severely addicted to your Smartphone. But, is that a healthy sign? On introspection, you will probably find that you spend more time over the virtual domain through the social networking sites rather than having a heart-to-heart with your family and friends.

    Of late, smartphones are being held responsible for causing depression as a result of increased isolation. Let’s find out whether the theory is well propounded or not.

    1. One of the major signs of depression is lack of adequate sleep. Sticking to your smartphone till the wee hours of the morning affects your level of concentration, resulting in anxiety and a bad temper.
    2. When you spend a lot of time on the gadgets, you slowly compromise on your thinking capacity. You take everything internet serves you as granted without clarifying. With every piece of information available on the internet, there is nothing left for you to imagine or create.
    3. Addiction to social networking sites is taking away all your creative potentials; and on one fine day, when you discover this, you might feel increasingly disillusioned, resulting in depression.
    4. One of the worst causes of depression is cyber bullying. The virtual world might welcome you with all kinds of threats and humiliation and this happens majorly on the social networking sites. As a result, you feel your self-confidence is at stake, resulting in severely low self-esteem and subsequent depression.
    5. Abandoning your smartphone completely is utopian, because they serve needful purposes as well. But, what you can do is limit the time you spend on the device and replace it with something creative. Otherwise, it might not be too late before you start silently sliding into depression.


    3024 Thanks
  • Post Graduate Diploma In Nutrition And Dietetics, B.Sc. - Dietitics / Nutrition

    With the change in lifestyle and stressful work profiles, a few ladies lean toward fasting with little alterations like tasting some water, tea or coffee. Few of them likewise consume fruits and dry fruits. In case you are fasting the altered way, you can begin your day with the same meal excluding dry fruits, fruits and coconut water.

    These things can be included later in the day when you truly feel the need. Abstain from drinking an excessive amount of tea or coffee. Likewise, abstain from eating anything sweetened and high in sugar items while you are fasting. As the time gap will be long between your meals, eliminating these foods will help you stay away from unnecessary stress on the digestive system. This is how you can fast the healthy way during Karva Chauth:

    1. Nuts: Have plenty of nuts, for example, almonds and walnuts as they build up your energy for the day and are highly beneficial for your health. These nutritious nuts are high in fats that are essential for the body (connected to anti-aging and bringing down cholesterol). They are high in protein, which will keep you satisfied for a longer period of time.
    2. Water: Drink two to three glasses of lukewarm water. In case the water is warm, it gets consumed quicker as it matches the surrounding body temperature. This is essential to fuel up your reserves at the time of your sargi.
    3. Tea: It is an individual decision to consume some fluid at night. For those of you, who might want to do this, ensure in case you are having tea, to drink it with plenty of milk. Generally having tea on an empty stomach will increase the acidity of the stomach and may bring about pain.
    4. Sargi: In the morning while you have sargi, maintain a strategic distance from extremely sugary foods. In case that it is an absolute necessity, have just a bit to taste. The guideline is that sweet foods have a tendency to disturb hunger later in the day. So stay away from those appetite enhancers by keeping away from a lot of sweet. Homemade paneer is a healthy choice as it is high in protein and will in this way give you energy.
    5. Breakfast: Go for a light breakfast in the morning to stay away from a migraine and feeling heavy-headed the entire day. You may pick products like fruits and whole grains for your breakfast rather than refined oats and bread.
    6. Organic Products: Desserts build your hunger even more. In this manner try staying away from desserts the entire day. Rather you can pick organic products, as they give you early satiety with healthy nourishment.
    3294 Thanks
  • DNB - Gastroenterology, DNB - Internal Medicine, MBBS

    A stomach ulcer or gastric ulcer refers to the defects or breakdown in the mucosal lining in the stomach. The stomach contains acid, which helps in digestion and any break in the tissue lining may result in severe pain or bleeding in some cases. The pain is usually felt in the abdomen.

    Stomach ulcers cause great discomfort and should be treated effectively. Here are the primary ways for treating stomach ulcers:

    1. Antibiotics: In the case of H. pylori infection, you should take a course of more than two antibiotics, to be taken twice a day and must be continued for a week. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin or metronidazole may be used in case of such stomach ulcers. However it is always recommended to consult a specialized doctor before consuming any of these medicines. After several weeks of using the antibiotics, you should get a test done for detection of H. pylori bacteria. If they are still present, you have to take different antibiotics.

    2. Proton Pump Inhibitors: Proton pump inhibitors or PPIs helps in the reduction of the amount of acid produced by the stomach. This prevents damage to the ulcer and lets it heal naturally. PPIs are generally taken for four to eight weeks. The most common PPIs which are used for treating stomach ulcers are omeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole.

    3. H2 Receptor Antagonists: H2 receptor antagonists reduce the production of stomach acid and function the same as PPIs. The most common H2 receptor for treating stomach ulcers is ranitidine.

    4. Antacids/ Alginate: All measures to treat stomach ulcers take several hours to show results. Your doctor may prescribe antacid medications for neutralizing the stomach acid. This will provide relief for the moment, but the relief is quite temporary and for a short span of time. By this time, the strong medicines most likely start working. There is a certain antacid medicine known as alginate. This develops a protective coating on the stomach lining. Antacids are available at all over the counter medicine stores and you should consult your doctor to get the best antacid which would work effectively on your stomach ulcer symptoms. You should take antacids before going to sleep or after taking meals.

    5. Natural Remedies: Stomach ulcer can also be treated at home using natural remedies. Medicines may sometimes cause further digestive complications, so home remedies are much more easy to follow and do not have side effects. The best way is to follow a proper diet, which is comprised of certain food items that help in curing stomach ulcers. You should consume bananas, honey, garlic, green leafy vegetables like cabbage, licorice and capsaicin.

    Stomach ulcers cause great pain and also bleeding in several cases. Proper treatment procedures should be taken in case of stomach ulcer. There are many medical remedies, as well as home remedies for treating stomach ulcers.

    1452 Thanks
  • MBBS
    General Physician

    Vitamin D is a crucial vitamin that is soluble in fat. Vitamin D is essential for the growth of your bone and it ensures increased flow of calcium into your bloodstream by promoting the process of its absorption from the consumed food. Poor concentration of vitamin D may result in the development of rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Vitamin D is important in maintaining the immunity of your system; deficiency of vitamin D gives rise to a number of health problems including cardiac disorders, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes and even cancer.

    Daily exposure to mild sunlight helps to synthesize Vitamin D in body. Dietary sources include milk, cod liver oils, fish, meat, fortified dairy and food products.

    The most reliable way to diagnose the deficiency of vitamin D is through blood test; it is the most effective method of measuring the level of vitamin D in your blood. The following are some dominant symptoms of vitamin D deficiency:

    1. Influenza: According to studies, vitamin D acts a guard against the attack of a number of respiratory infections which are widespread in children. Hence, lack of vitamin D in children is responsible for the development of various respiratory tract infections and diseases.
    2. Depression and Schizophrenia: The root cause of depression and various other psychiatric disorders have been linked to deficiency in vitamin D. It is extremely important for expecting mothers to maintain a sufficient level of vitamin D in their body, during the gestation period to reduce the risk of delayed brain development and other mental ailments in the new born babies.
    3. Cardiovascular disease: Cardiovascular ailments are more prevalent among people, who tend to suffer from vitamin D deficiency. Patients who suffer from cardiac discomfort have responded well to vitamin D treatment.
    4. Asthma: Intake of vitamin D supplements reduces the severity and discomforts that are associated with asthma and have also shown considerable reduction in the occurrence of asthma attacks.
    5. Periodontal disorders: Lack of vitamin D may result in the formation of numerous harmful bacteria in your mouth and may give rise to several oral discomforts in form of painful gum inflammation, bleeding and loss of tooth. Vitamin D aids in the formation of cathelicidins and defensins, which are effective in maintaining the overall oral health.
    6. Cancer: Types of cancer including prostate cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer are linked with vitamin D deficiency. Supplements of vitamin D are helpful in controlling the growth and development of breast cancer, especially the estrogen sensitive breast cancer.
    7329 Thanks
  • Dietitian/Nutritionist

    300 Calories is the average calorific value of our daily sugar intake. It's no wonder then that dietician and weight loss gurus across the world will advise you to quit added sugar as the first step of a weight loss program. Added sugar refers to processed sugar in the form of cubes, sugar crystals or powdered sugar and does not include natural sugars found in fruits, vegetables etc. Apart from cakes and sweets, we eat added sugar in a number of ways including a number of packaged foods like sauce and salad dressings.

    If you consume a lot of sugar on a daily basis, quitting added sugar could leave you with withdrawal symptoms. Quitting added sugar is not easy, but here are a few reasons it is well worth the effort.

    1. You'll have fewer pimples: Sugar has inflammatory properties. This can trigger systemic inflammation leading to the acne. Thus quitting sugar can instantly reduce the number of pimples on your face and give you clearer skin.
    2. It improves the health of your heart: Added sugar can raise insulin levels. This activates the sympathetic nervous system and increases blood pressure and heart rate. Stopping your consumption of added sugar can lower cholesterol levels and decrease the amount of triglycerides in the body. This lowers blood pressure and boosts cardiovascular health.
    3. A friendly weight scale: Replacing toffees with dry fruits will considerably reduce your calorific intake. Similarly switching packaged salad dressing for fresh homemade dressing can also make your salad healthier. Given that we eat added sugar in so many forms, making a conscious decision to quit added sugar can have a big impact on your daily calorie intake. Studies show that this simple step can lead to a weight loss of up to 10 pounds in six months.
    4. It'll make remembering names easier: Added sugar can hinder learning and memory. Over time, it can also damage communication between brain cells. Quitting sugar can boost both your short term as well as long term memory. You will also find it easier to focus on will be able to be attentive to something for longer periods of time.
    5. A good night's sleep: You don't just need 8 hours of sleep a day; you need 8 hours of restful sleep at the right time. Sugar makes blood sugar fluctuate and the crash that follows a sugar high can make you feel sluggish around mid-day. Many people find that if they have an afternoon nap, it becomes more difficult for them to fall asleep at night. Sugar also releases cortisol that interferes with sleep. Thus quitting added sugar can keep you alert through the day and help you fall asleep easier at the end of the day.
    40 Thanks
  • Diploma in Diet and Nutrition, M.Sc - Psychology, BHMS

    Diabetes is caused due to hormonal imbalance in our bodies. When the equilibrium between insulin and glucagon (hormones related to the sugar levels in the body) is disturbed, an individual suffers from diabetes. The disease is of two types: Diabete mellitus (Type-I and Type II) and Diabetes insipidus. When your body fails to release adequate insulin, the food that we consume is not properly converted into sugar or glucose. This is Type-I diabetes. On the contrary, if body releases defective insulin, one suffers from Type-II diabetes. Type-1 diabetes is sometimes called juvenile diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 occurs more frequently in children and young adults, but accounts for only 5-10% of the total diabetes cases nationwide. The basic symptoms of diabetes include changing sugar levels, excessive urination, thirst, weight loss and a lack of energy. Diabetes is caused due to a number of factors, ranging from environmental matters or hereditary links.

    Homeopathic Remedies for Diabetes
    Diabetes requires prolonged treatment. Long exposure to allopathic drugs can hamper your body organs due to its side effects. Therefore, it is advisable to take up homeopathic remedies, which have a long lasting effect on the patient. These medicines don’t cause side effects. Here are some of the remedies:

    1. Uranium nitrate: This compound reduces the sugar levels in the bloodstream and also keeps a check on frequent urination. It is prescribed for patients who develop the disease due to assimilative derangements. The symptoms that are looked for while prescribing medicines containing this compound include digestion problem, languor and debility, excess sugar in urine, huge appetite and thirst.
    2. Phosphoric acid: This compound is best for the treatment of diabetes that has a nervous origin. The symptoms that are looked for include excess urine and the colour of the urine is milky; poor mental force and general lethargy. The patient can also develop a bruised feeling in the muscles.
    3. Phosphorus: This compound is given to patients, suffering from diabetes and pancreatic diseases, especially tuberculosis or gouty diathesis. The symptoms include dry mouth, dark and watery stool and restlessness.
    4. Lactic acid: It is helpful for treating gastrohepatic type of diabetes. The symptoms that will have to be present in the patient include light yellow coloured urine, dry skin and tongue, thirst, nausea, and costive bowels.
    5. Insulin: Insulin therapy is an important as it helps in maintaining a balance in the sugar levels and keeps the urine free from sugar.
    3837 Thanks
  • B.Sc. Food & Nutrition, M.Sc. Food & Nutrition

    The obsession over getting the perfect body has gotten into everyone's psyche. Thanks to well equipped gyms and easily available home kits, this obsession is no longer a dream. But the gym trainers and bodybuilders suggest that in order to build muscles, following a healthy diet is also necessary. A healthy diet helps to develop the central muscle mass and burns the extra fat in the body.

    Here is a list of foods you should include in your diet which will help you to gain muscle:

    1. Eggs: Eggs are rich in proteins and help in overall development of the muscles, making it a must have inclusion in your dietary regime. Also, the good cholesterol found in the egg yolks helps to prevent atherosclerosis.
    2. Nuts: Nuts such as cashews, almonds or pistachios are a perfect blend of fats, fibres, and proteins. Every ounce of cashew or almonds contains 150-170 of top-class calories. Daily intake in a small amount will help you to get the calories without any significant weight gain.
    3. Lentils: Lentils are useful to develop the central mass of the body. A cup of ready-to-eat lentils has a protein content of 18 grams and an overall content of 40 grams of top grade carbohydrates. A diet consisting of green salad, lentils and brown rice is recommended by gym trainers for the development of body muscles.
    4. Spinach: Spinach contains rich amounts of the amino acid called 'glutamine', which helps in the development of the lean muscles. Besides, a daily intake of spinach might also help to build the overall muscle strength of the body.
    5. Apples: Apples contain certain polyphenols which help to build the muscles and prevent any form of tiredness in the muscles. Also, polyphenols are also useful in burning the extra fat which makes it an essential fruit to have before workouts. If you are not comfortable with apple, you might also try oranges as your pre-workout fruit, which perform more or less the same function as apples.

    Note: Besides the above mentioned ones, you can also include oatmeal, yogurt, organic milk, fat free chicken and beans in your dietary routine for muscle development, along with regimented body building schedules.

    3578 Thanks
  • Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

    Indoor plants are not just meant for embellishing your interior spaces. They have other qualities as well. They can interact with your mind and body and better your life with their healing qualities. Here's how they can benefit your health:

    1. They make breathing easy: Do you remember your old science lessons in school? Well, you must know that plants release oxygen into the atmosphere and absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Human beings do the reverse during respiration or breathing. During night, plants respire like us and absorb oxygen as photosynthesis halts. But there are few plants like orchids, succulents and epiphytic bromeliads do the opposite bit by releasing oxygen even at night. You can keep these plants in the bedroom to increase the oxygen supply around you. This helps your breathing and keeps you fit.
    2. Add moisture to the air: Plants release water in the form of vapour during photosynthesis and respiration. This leads to increase in the moisture content of air. They are known to release about 90% of the water consumed by them. Therefore, if you keep plants inside your house, your respiratory troubles will be reduced by a great extent. The moisture laden air around you will heal and help your respiratory tract. According to a study by the Agricultural University of Norway, the possibility of developing conditions like dry skin, sore throats and dry coughs is reduced.
    3. Natural purification of air: It has been claimed by researchers that plants can remove about 87 percent of toxins from the surrounding air in a day. These toxins are called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs include formaldehyde, benzene and trichloroethylene.
    4. Health booster: It influences the overall health of an individual. It has been found by researchers that surgical patients improve faster in rooms with plants. They feel energetic; have proper heart rate and blood pressure. Ayurveda Science tells us that a green and airy ambience is pleasing to the mind. It helps in insomnia, hyperacidity and is an excellent aphrodisiac!
    5. Increases concentration power: A study by The Royal College of Agriculture in Circencester, England, claims that indoor plants helps in increasing the concentration power in individuals. They make you relaxed and leave a positive impact on your mind. You are filled with optimistic energy and able to focus in life better. It can take away stress from your life. People who keep indoor plants in their houses are usually satisfied with life.

    Thus, indoor plants can bring positivity in your life. They can definitely give you mental and physical bliss. They are not just a splash of greenery with decorative significance. They are your companions for life and agents of good health. Keep yourself free from stress and strains of daily lives by maintaining your indoor garden. Remember, a single plant indoor can give you millions of reason to smile and cheer for.

    5410 Thanks
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