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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Please provide 7 month feeding plan of baby boy. Also how much water should we give to baby of 7 month.
Fever is returning in every 4 hrs for my 17 months old baby . We have been giving him ibugesic plus . Kindly advise asap.
Stomach aches and pains are common in babies, infants and parents are always in search of quick fixer to help their little ones get a relief instantly. Though instant reliefs do not come always, and there are colicky infants and babies with common stomach problems, yet some remedies and treatments always help.
Stomach pain in older kids:
The common home remedies in not so serious pains are as follows:
- Let the child rest and lie down. This may help to ease the pain in 20-30 minutes.
- Give the child some liquid to drink, which is soothing, like light tea, soup, water or diluted fruit juice.
- Let the child go to the toilet and encourage him or her to pass stool. This may help ease off the pain sooner.
- Avoid any bulk food intake in one meal and divide it into smaller meals through the day until symptoms go away.
- Don't give oily and fried food. Give easy to digest food, mostly boiled or light fried.
- Avoid giving a medicine without medical advice.
These steps generally help and the pain goes away without going to a doctor immediately. If the pain is severe and is persistent in any one part of the abdomen, then it may require immediate medical attention. Common causes may be appendicitis or gall stone problem or may be a case of acute jaundice, diarrhoea, food poison, etc. Pain on pressing one part of the belly, or high body temperature with pain, and serious vomiting are serious symptoms which you must not ignore and take the kid immediately to a medical centre or doctor.
Stomach pain in infants:
Stomach pains in infants are caused due to extra air entering the stomach while feeding. This can be avoided by burping the baby manually. There are a few burping techniques which your paediatrician and baby care giver will show you.
If you are with a colicky baby, then you would try administering the baby's nursing bottle first. There are new age nursing bottle designs, which keep off extra air from entering the stomach. The extra air mainly causes the stomach pain, and therefore, the bottle which prevents mixing of air with milk or water keeps the baby safe from colicky pains. Keep baby colic pain syrups at home ready, and give the baby a dose as and when required. It will eventually give the pain a relief. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pediatrician.
You look your best when you wear a smile on your face. Everyone prefers a smiling face over a frowned one. Since we are talking about smiles, one can never underestimate the role that teeth play in the beauty of a smile. Dental hygiene and care is mandatory if you wish to secure your beautiful smile for years to come.
However, the global statistics for dental care suggests that we do not care enough for our teeth. 60-90% of children who are in school and almost every adult suffer from dental cavities. Dental cavities are pretty common nowadays. And yellowing of teeth can now be seen in almost every other person. It spoils the smile and makes people conscious. By ensuring a few dental care habits in your daily routine lives, you can avoid yellow teeth.
Let us discuss the tips and tricks to avoid yellowing of teeth:
- Say no to specific foods: Yellowing of teeth is caused by food choices including coffee, red wine, sodas, juices, sports drinks, white wine, coloured candies and other artificially coloured foods. It will help if these foods are consumed in less quantity and frequency as they are the major contributors towards discoloration of teeth.
- Water after every coloured drink: Here is a habit that you must inculcate in your routine, whenever you consume any of the above mentioned food items. Post every drink or food intake which can cause tooth-staining, top it up with a glass of water. When you swirl or gargle the water in your mouth, you remove the acids that get accumulated in your mouth. It is one of the simplest preventive measures one can implement to avoid tooth stains.
- Dental Hygiene: Our parents and dentists kept reminding us all the time to brush twice a day and gargle with water post every food intake but did we listen to them as kids? No we did not. Proper brushing, flossing and going for dental checkups at regular intervals are sure shot ways to keep your teeth healthy for majority of your lifetime. One must develop these habits quite early in life to gain benefits from it.
- Whiten those Yellow teeth: You might be at that stage of your life where inculcating the above mentioned habits won't do much good. The damage might already have been done. Your teeth are probably yellowish already and you have a history of dental cavities. In this 21st century, there are ways to whiten your teeth artificially with the many alternatives available in the market. One can opt for a solution, which can be done at home itself or go for a laser whitening which is now possible at a dentist clinic.
So there is still hope for those who are unable to share that smile with the world due to the yellowing of teeth. Nothing is irreparable here and the health of your teeth lies in your hand.
Dear Dr. My son is 6 year old. Now he is in 2nd standard since April 2017. From last one year, he is not writing anything in all subject. Teachers always complains about it. But he is not listening to teachers as well as us. He talks & understand well. We tried a lot at home for writing practice, but no results. His concentration towards writing is almost Nil. Please give the suggestion that how to come out from this problem.
i had loss hearing since 2yrs ago. doctors told me that my ears sensoneural nerve was damaged and there is no chance to get back. is it possible to hear again? please.. help me
My 8 years baby suffering with stomach ache. We gave hot water. Some home remedy zira honey. Finally she vomited after an hour but still she didn't get relief. Please suggest us what medicine we can give.
My son is 9 months old every day he use to go motion once in morning. But 2 day often he is going for motion little by little and crying due to pain what may be the reason? How to cure it?
Hi my daughter is 9 months old and she wakes up a lot in the night, every 1 hour she gets up and cry, any reason? Suggestions?
I have 2 month baby. She is on breast feed. We had sex yesterday without any precaution. Then I am much worried. Please suggest any tablet which we use for 72 hrs for contraceptive. Please suggest me.
My son is 2.5 Years old, he is suffering from cough he become healthy after medication but after a month he become sick again. please suggest.
My son harshit is 1years 10 months old. Doctors have suggested that he has hemoglobin count of 6. So need 1 pint of AB negative blood. So my question is" is there any way to increase hemoglobin count by syrup or any other method. What alternate blood can be given as AB negative is not available in my hometown.
My child not well before three day she is suffering from fever this fever night only come fever and showring please tell the way.
As young children learn language skills, it's normal for them to have some difficulty saying words correctly. That's part of the learning process. Their speech skills develop over time. They master certain sounds and words at each age. By age 8, most children have learned how to master all word sounds.
But some children have speech sound disorders. This means they have trouble saying certain sounds and words past the expected age. This can make it hard to understand what a child is trying to say. Speech sound disorders include articulation disorder and phonological process disorder. Articulation disorder is a problem with making certain sounds, such as" sh" phonological process disorder is a pattern of sound mistakes, such as not pronouncing certain letters.
About articulation disorder
- Articulation disorder is the inability to form the certain word sounds correctly past a certain age. Word sounds may be dropped, added, distorted, or swapped. Keep in mind that some sound changes may be part of an accent, and are not speech errors. Signs of an articulation disorder can include:
- Leaving off sounds from words (example: saying" coo" instead of" school")
- Adding sounds to words (example: saying" puhlay" instead of" play")
- Distorting sounds in words (example: saying" thith" instead of" this")
- Swapping sounds in words (example: saying" wadio" instead of" radio")
About phonological process disorder
- Phonological process disorder is a regular pattern of certain word speech mistakes. The mistakes may be common in young children learning speech skills, but when they persist past a certain age, it may be a disorder. Signs of a phonological process disorder can include:
- Saying only one syllable in a word (example" bay" instead of" baby")
- Simplifying a word by repeating two syllables (example" baba" instead of" bottle")
- Leaving out a consonant sound (example" at" or" ba" instead of" bat")
- Changing certain consonant sounds (example" tat" instead of" cat")
Causes of speech sound disorders
- Often, there is no known cause for a speech sound disorder. But some speech sound errors may be caused by:
- Injury to the brain
- Intellectual or developmental disability
- Problems with hearing or hearing loss, such as a history of ear infections
- Physical abnormalities that affect speech, including cleft palate or cleft lip
- Disorders affecting the nerves involved in speech
Diagnosing speech sound disorders
First, your child's hearing should be checked. This is to make sure that he or she isn't simply hearing words and sounds incorrectly.
If hearing loss is ruled out, you may want to contact a speech-language pathologist. This is a speech expert who evaluates and treats children who are having problems with speech-language and communication.
By watching and listening to a child speak, the speech-language pathologist can determine whether the issues are part of normal growth and development or are a speech sound disorder. The pathologist will evaluate your child's speech and language skills, keeping in mind accents and dialect. Speech-language pathologists can also assess if a physical problem in the mouth is affecting your child's ability to speak.
Treating speech sound disorder
- The pathologist can then recommend a therapy plan to help your child overcome his or her disorder. Speech-language pathologists work with children to help them:
- Recognize and correct sounds that they are making wrong
- Learn how to correctly form their problem sound
- Practice saying certain words and making certain sounds
- The pathologist can also give you activities and strategies to help your child practice at home.
- If your child has a physical defect in the mouth, the pathologist can also refer your child to an ear, nose, throat doctor or orthodontist if needed.
A positive outlook
Early recognition and diagnosis of speech sound disorders can help children overcome speech problems. They can learn how to communicate well and comfortably.
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.