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Management of Surrogacy
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
Management of Postnatal Care
Adiana System Treatment
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If you are having problems conceiving, you are not alone; around one in seven couples has difficulty.
Infertility is often thought of as a female concern, but in fact in a third of the cases, it is because of male problems, such as a low sperm count.
Male infertility is a condition wherein a man is unable to cause a successful pregnancy in a perfectly fertile woman. Male infertility usually stems from deficiencies in the semen (relating to poor sperm count or low sperm motility).
On the other hand, female infertility is as a condition wherein a woman is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term or conceive after an entire year of having unprotected sexual intercourse.
What causes infertility?
Causes of Male Infertility:
Blockage or obstruction either in the production of sperm or its motility leads to infertility. This problem is caused by various factors such as prostate infections or vasectomy (a surgical procedure used for birth control in men).
Difficulty in the production of sperm, either due to genetic or chromosomal causes, can lead to this condition. Damage to the testes or the condition of undescended testes can also result in this disorder.
Hormonal problems caused due to anabolic steroid (a synthetic steroidal hormone with effects similar to those of testosterone) abuse or pituitary tumors (tumors of the endocrine gland) are other factors responsible for male infertility.
Other factors that may play a part in infertility include:
having had inflamed testes (orchitis)
a past bacterial infection that caused scarring and blocked tubes within the epididymis as it joins the vas
having received medical treatment such as drug treatment, radiotherapy or surgery – for example to correct a hernia, undescended testes or twisted testicles
lifestyle factors such as being overweight or having a job that involves contact with chemicals or radiation.
Male fertility is also thought to decline with age, although to what extent is unclear.
Causes of Female Infertility:
Ovulation disorders: Ovulation disorders account for about 25% cases of female infertility. This happens either because of under-secretion or other problems in the secretion of the reproductive hormone by the pituitary gland.
Tubal infertility: The fallopian tubes allow the eggs to travel from ovaries to the uterus. Any blockage or obstruction of these tubes results in infertility, owing do the fact that the eggs or the ova do not reach the uterus. Certain factors such as pelvic inflammation (infections of the uterus) can result in the blockage of the fallopian tubes.
Other factors that may play a part include:
age – female fertility declines sharply after the age of 35
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
gynaecological problems such as previous ectopic pregnancy or having had more than one miscarriage
medical conditions such as diabetes, epilepsy, and thyroid and bowel diseases
lifestyle factors such as stress, being overweight or underweight, and smoking.
Treatment Methods for Males:
Surgery can correct blockage or obstruction in the testes.
Gonadotropin treatment is a treatment method to develop sperm production. This includes injectable medicines which comprise of both the hormones, Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This mode of treatment has been found to improve sperm motility, morphology and count.
Varicocele treatment method is the enlargement of a varicose vein (swollen or twisted vein) in the scrotum (testicles). The objective of this treatment is to correct abnormal sperm shape.
Treatment Methods for Females:
Fertility stimulating drugs: Fertility restoring drugs are known to induce ovulation in women who have ovulation disorders. They tend to work like hormone stimulators such as the luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) which trigger ovulation.
Surgical process: There are surgical treatment methods available to boost female fertility. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgery that reduces or corrects abnormalities related to pregnancy
Is licking vagina of partner and putting tongue deep inside the vagina harmful for health? if it is harmful than what all precautions are required to have oral sex on female. Please advice.
What are some signs or symptoms of swallowing disorders?
Several diseases, conditions, or surgical interventions can result in swallowing problems.
General signs may include:
- Coughing during or right after eating or drinking
- Wet or gurgly sounding voice during or after eating or drinking
- Extra effort or time needed to chew or swallow
- Food or liquid leaking from the mouth or getting stuck in the mouth
- Recurring pneumonia or chest congestion after eating
- Weight loss or dehydration from not being able to eat enough
As a result, adults may have:
- Poor nutrition or dehydration
- Risk of aspiration (food or liquid entering the airway), which can lead to pneumonia and chronic lung disease
- Less enjoyment of eating or drinking
- Embarrassment or isolation in social situations involving eating
Most swallowing problems can be treated, although the treatment you receive will depend on the type of dysphagia you have.
Treatment will depend on whether your swallowing problem&nbsp;is in the mouth or throat (oropharyngeal, or 'high' dysphagia), or in the oesophagus (oesophageal, or 'low' dysphagia).
The cause of dysphagia is also considered when deciding on treatment. In some cases, treating the underlying cause, such as mouth cancer or oesophageal cancer, can help relieve swallowing problems.
Treatment for dysphagia may be managed by a group of specialists known as a multidisciplinary team (mdt). Your mdt may include a speech and language therapist (slt), a surgeon, and a dietitian.
High (oropharyngeal) dysphagia
High dysphagia is swallowing difficulties caused by problems with the mouth or throat.
It can be difficult to treat if it's caused by a condition that affects the nervous system. This is because these problems can't usually be corrected using medication or surgery.
There are three main treatments for high dysphagia:
- Swallowing therapy
- Dietary changes and
- Feeding tubes
You may be referred to a speech and language therapist (slt) for swallowing therapy if you have high dysphagia.
An slt (speech language therapist) is a healthcare professional trained to work with people with feeding or swallowing difficulties.
Slts use a range of techniques that can be tailored to your specific problem, such as teaching you swallowing exercises.
You may be referred to a dietitian (specialist in nutrition) for advice about changes to your diet to make sure you receive a healthy, balanced diet.
An slt can give you advice about softer foods and thickened fluids that you may find easier to swallow. They may also try to ensure you're getting the support you need at meal times.
Feeding tubes can be used to provide nutrition while you're recovering your ability to swallow. They may also be required in severe cases of dysphagia that put you at risk of malnutrition and dehydration.
A feeding tube can also make it easier for you to take the medication you may need for other conditions.
There are two types of feeding tubes:
- A nasogastric tube - a tube that is passed down your nose and into your stomach
- A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (peg) tube - a tube that is implanted directly into your stomach
Nasogastric tubes are designed for short-term use. The tube will need to be replaced and swapped to the other nostril after about a month. Peg tubes are designed for long-term use and last several months before they need to be replaced.
Most people with dysphagia prefer to use a peg tube because it can be hidden under clothing. However, they carry a greater risk of complications compared with nasogastric tubes.
Minor complications of peg tubes include tube displacement, skin infection, and a blocked or leaking tube. Two major complications of peg tubes are infection and internal bleeding.
Resuming normal feeding may be more difficult with a peg tube compared with using a nasogastric tube. The convenience of peg tubes can make people less willing to carry out swallowing exercises and dietary changes than those who use nasogastric tubes.
You should discuss the pros and cons of both types of feeding tubes with your treatment team.
Low (oesophageal) dysphagia
Low dysphagia is swallowing difficulties caused by problems with the oesophagus.
Depending on the cause of low dysphagia, it may be possible to treat it with medication. For example, proton pump inhibitors (ppis) used to treat&nbsp;indigestion&nbsp;may improve symptoms caused by narrowing or scarring of the oesophagus.&nbsp;
Botulinum toxin can sometimes be used to treat achalasia. This is a condition where the muscles in the oesophagus become too stiff to allow food and liquid to enter the stomach.
It can be used to paralyse the tightened muscles that prevent food from reaching the stomach. However, the effects only last for around six months.
Other cases of low dysphagia can usually be treated with surgery.
Endoscopic dilation is widely used to treat dysphagia caused by obstruction. It can also be used to stretch your oesophagus if it's scarred.
Endoscopic dilatation will be carried out during an internal examination of your oesophagus (gastroscopy) using an endoscopy.
An endoscope is passed down your throat and into your oesophagus, and images of the inside of your body are transmitted to a television screen.
Using the image as guidance, a small balloon or a bougie (a thin, flexible medical instrument) is passed through the narrowed part of your oesophagus to widen it. If a balloon is used, it will be gradually inflated to widen your oesophagus before being deflated and removed.
You may be given a mild sedative before the procedure to relax you. There's a small risk that the procedure could cause a tear or perforate your oesophagus.
Find out more about gastroscopy.
Inserting a stent
If you have oesophageal cancer that can't be removed, it's usually recommended that you have a stent inserted instead of endoscopic dilatation. This is because, if you have cancer, there's a higher risk of perforating your oesophagus if it's stretched.
A stent (usually a metal mesh tube) is inserted into your oesophagus during an endoscopy or under x-ray guidance.
The stent then gradually expands to create a passage wide enough to allow food to pass through. You'll need to follow a particular diet to keep the stent open without having blockages.
If your baby is born with difficulty swallowing (congenital dysphagia), their treatment will depend on the cause.
Dysphagia caused by cerebral palsy can be treated with speech and language therapy. Your child will be taught how to swallow, how to adjust the type of food they eat, and how to use feeding tubes.
Cleft lip and palate
Cleft lip and palate is a facial birth defect that can cause dysphagia. It's usually treated with surgery.
Narrowing of the oesophagus
Narrowing of the oesophagus may be treated with a type of surgery called dilatation to widen the oesophagus.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord)
Dysphagia caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord) can be treated using specially thickened feeds instead of your usual breast or formula milk. Sometimes medication may also be used.
I am 27 year old and my husband 30 year old. We got married from 1 and half year since I m not pregnant. We does intercourse without any precautions. I want to conceive soon. Please suggest me what to do to conceive soon. Should I take some remedies or anything else?
My wife has irregular period cycles. Last 50 days she did not get periods. After 40 days v done pt but was negative. V had sex after thst without condom but v do not allow semen to inside. R there any chances of pregnancy now.
I'm 18 year old and my bodyfriend ejaculated on my pant. To be on the safer side I had an ipill within 20 minutes. I had the i pill period after 5-6 days but then from that day till today I have not had my period. It's been more than 1 month. I had some bloating and cramping also. Also I had acne problem but it's all improving also having some back ache. I just want to get my period as soon as possible cause I'm very stressed please help me.
Hi doctor I am 30 year old man married for the last 2 years and my wife is 29 years. We are planning for a baby. Just wondering if you can give me some tips that will help us bring up a healthy baby. I have a hectic work schedule and end up working for 12 hours daily as my profession of hr demands. Also could you please advise if a need to follow certain diet. I am on the obese side can it affect our baby planning. My wife also have poly cystic overy (pco. Thank you for your advise in advance.
I'm asking this question on behalf of my wife and child. Our baby is three months old and she is facing a nipple confusion due to which my wife is facing a low BM. We had our daughter on July. It was a c-section delivery. After tat our daughter was admitted in NICO for 5 days due to bilirubin. He's health became complicated and she lost weight. My wife was breastfeeding her but prid was not gaining much weight. So our pediatrician advised us to get her to bottle milk. (Similac advanced stage 1). Pls advice. What can be done to make sure our baby is breastfeeding again and is it possible to increase the BM. Cause she is really stressed and worried about the baby's health.
Paraphilias are emotional disorders defined as sexually arousing fantasies, urges or behaviors that are recurrent, intense, occur over a specific period of time, and cause significant distress involving non-consenting partners, partners who are suffering or being humiliated (simulated or real) or through the use of an object.
There are a number of causes that result in Paraphilic disorders. Some of them are:
- Brain injury
- Biological factors
- Humiliating factors
In most cases, one or more events occurred during childhood that led the individual to associate sexual pleasure with that event (or object) thus resulting in the development of a paraphilia.
Symptoms of Paraphilia:
- Humiliating another person
- Beating or spanking
Symptoms of paraphilia can include preoccupation to the point of obsessiveness that may intrude on the person's attempt to intimate with the person of similar age. Paraphilia sufferers may experience depression or anxiety that is temporarily relieved by engaging in paraphilic behavior, thus leading to an addictive cycle.
How do health professionals diagnose paraphilias?
Usually providers of mental-health care help make the diagnosis of paraphilias, including licensed mental-health therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, and social workers.
Common Treatment of Paraphilias:
Treatment modalities currently used fall into three categories: surgical castration, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy.
- Pharmacological interventions consist of antiandrogens.Cyproterone and medroxyprogesterone acetates are the two antiandrogens more commonly used.
- Psychotropic drugs may be effective solely in men with a definite obsessive-compulsive disorder component.
- Group therapy helps in breaking through the denial so commonly found in people.
- Cognitive therapies described include restructuring cognitive distortions and empathy training. Also social skills are a better way to treat patients with these types of disorders.
Physicians must be aware that not every therapist treats people with paraphilias. There may be a need for consultations with other professionals, such as a neurologist (if neurologic signs are present), an attorney, or even a member of the clergy.
What are the most important medical screening tests for women and at what age should they have them?
Hair is one of the most noticeable aspects of a human being, whether you are a man or a woman. However, the increasing use of chemicals and other ingredients in hair care products tends to cause more damage to hair than benefits. Ayurveda offers great solutions for healthy hair without the side effects associated with chemical related products.
Some Ayurvedic tips to keep hair healthy:
Shampoo itself is a derivative of the word champoo, which is an indian concept of soothing or gently massaging the scalp before washing it off. Let's look at some of the ayurvedic tips which may help you get better hair and shine and keep it healthy throughout.
A. Special Ayurvedic oils for massaging on scalp: The best options are usually sesame, brahmi and the most commonly available coconut oil. Massage it on your scalp regularly at least twice a week and leave it overnight before washing it off the next morning.
B. Make sure diet is corrected: Ensure that the food you eat is a part of a balanced diet and it is preferable to avoid junk food altogether. Stay away from carbonated sweetened beverages as well as smoking and drinking. Some of the spices and vegetables that will be helpful in restoring hair health would be:
- Cooking in olive oil or ghee instead of cheap vegetable oils is also beneficial
C. Taking care of digestive or bowel issues: If you suffer from digestive or bowel related issues, then it would be wise to correct that first by the use of laxatives or other medications.
D. Taking care of pitta issues: The pitta, if aggravated, can cause hair fall. There are many techniques in ayurveda which can be used to balance it.
E. Usage of certain herbs in controlled amounts: Usage of the following herbs in controlled amounts can be very good for the health of your hair.
- Aloe vera - aloe vera is the new wonder drug, which is effective in treating many ailments and it is very good for skin and hair as well, whether consumed as food or applied to the hair as an extract.
- Bhringraj - paste made of bhringraj applied to the hair before washing can be very good for the health of the hair.
- Methi - another spice which can be grounded made into a paste and then applied to hair and is known to produce great results.
- Amla - amla is very good while being eaten as it contains vitamin c and fortifies hair health from the inside. Amla paste or extract massaged on hair is also very good for its health.