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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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My mri report says have a 8cm x 5cm dermoid cyst in my right ovary, pod region. Right fallopian tube is mildly dilated. Left hydropinx. Intramural fibroid in uterocervical junction. Wt are the best possible solutions of these without surgery. And also what these problems mean in simple terms.
Hello I had a scan on 11th day my egg size was 18*25 in left ovary. Anyone please tell me what is the meaning of 18*25 mm? whether it means there are 2 eggs in my ovary or 1 egg. Please explain.
I am a newly married n I am not having my periods on time I conducted pregnancy test but it was negative.
Often referred to as silent cancer, pancreatic cancer has little or vague symptoms in the early stages. Unexplained and significant weight loss is a classic symptom during the initial stages along with symptoms such as yellow skin/eyes, itching, dark urine, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Treatment usually involves evaluation of what stage the cancer is in, the complications that are involved and identifying the right surgical method.
The two major types of surgery include potentially curative surgery and palliative surgery.
- Studies have revealed that partially removing the affected parts of the pancreas and surrounding areas does not increase lifespan by a substantial amount. Hence, potentially curative surgery is recommended by surgeons only if it is ascertained that the whole cancer can be removed. It is a very complex surgery and the recovery time is substantial. The possible benefits and risks need to be evaluated very carefully before going ahead with this form of treatment.
- Curative surgery is typically preferred to treat cancer that is located in the head of the pancreas since sometimes it can be found early enough to be removed, but the downside is that the method is used only if the entire cancerous growth can be removed.
- If the surgeon finds that curative surgery might not be of help, especially if the cancer has spread too far to be completely removed, the next best option would be palliative surgery. As the name implies, the surgeon would opt for smaller operations aimed at relieving some of the symptoms, this would not cure the cancer as such but would help manage the symptoms.
- Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy) is the most common form of surgery adopted to treat cancer located in the exocrine pancreas or pancreatic NETs. The Whipple procedure involves the removal of the head of the pancreas and sometimes even the body as well. The nearby structures including the gallbladder, bile duct, small intestine, lymph nodes and sometimes parts of the stomach may be removed too. Then, they are re-attached to the small intestine to allow the bile and digestive enzymes to pass through the small intestine and finally, the small intestine pieces are re-attached to allow the food to travel through the digestive tract.
- The procedure is highly time-consuming and can take several hours to complete. It requires sufficient surgical experience and skill. The area around the pancreas differs from person to person, making it difficult to perform surgery through the various blood vessels and duct arrangements in the body. If treated at major medical facilities the death rate is under 1%, while in smaller hospitals or if performed by inexperienced surgeons the death rate may be significantly higher.
Hence, when diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, it is generally recommended to go for surgeons who perform many such surgeries each year to get the best possible treatment.
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Hello mam im 20 week pregnant. I hd a open surgery of fibroid at june 2015 so I want to know that possible to hv normal delivery?
After delivery i'm not interested in sex my husband has an irritative due to my behaviour is it any problem.
Hello doctor I'm 21 weeks pregnant since from 8 days not getting proper sleep nd enough sleep. What I have to do to get good sleep. please help me it's 8 days over but not getting sleep in night as well as day also. Please advise
- Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes.
- People with zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
- There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.
- The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.
- The virus is known to circulate in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in uganda and the united republic of tanzania. Outbreaks of zika virus disease have been recorded in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
- Genre: flavivirus
- Vector: aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours)
- Reservoir: unknown
Signs and symptoms
The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
During large outbreaks in french polynesia and brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of zika virus disease. Recently in brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in zika virus infections in the general public as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast brazil. Agencies investigating the zika outbreaks are finding an increasing body of evidence about the link between zika virus and microcephaly. However, more investigation is needed before we understand the relationship between microcephaly in babies and the zika virus. Other potential causes are also being investigated.
Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the aedes genus, mainly aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
Zika virus disease outbreaks were reported for the first time from the pacific in 2007 and 2013 (yap and french polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the americas (brazil and colombia) and africa (cape verde). In addition, more than 13 countries in the americas have reported sporadic zika virus infections indicating rapid geographic expansion of zika virus.
Zika virus is diagnosed through pcr (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples. Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, west nile and yellow fever.
Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for zika virus infection. Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people.
This can be done by using insect repellent; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows; and sleeping under mosquito nets. It is also important to empty, clean or cover containers that can hold water such as buckets, flower pots or tyres, so that places where mosquitoes can breed are removed.
Special attention and help should be given to those who may not be able to protect themselves adequately, such as young children, the sick or elderly.
During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the who pesticide evaluation scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.
Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.
Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.
Who is supporting countries to control zika virus disease through:
- Define and prioritize research into zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
- Enhance surveillance of zika virus and potential complications.
- Strengthen capacity in risk communication to help countries meet their commitments under the international health regulations.
- Provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control including through a number of who collaborating centres.
- Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
- Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing aedes mosquito populations such as providing larvicide to treat standing water sites that cannot be treated in other ways, such as cleaning, emptying, and covering them.
- Prepare recommendations for clinical care and follow-up of people with zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.