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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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For a 5 year old kid suggest some medicine to increase immunity as he is always having cough and cold.
My son age 21 month had burned his leg when he was 15 month old with hot boiling water and the whole skin had came out. Now the skin becoming hard nd become darker in some place and whiter in some place, tissue are swallowed. please suggest how to recover the normal skin and reduce the darkness and also whiteness of the skin.
My baby boy is 10 month old and he don't have good diet and doing potty 4 times in a day. What's the problem.
Hi doctor. My daughter age is 3.4 years old. Doctor telling mucopolysaccharides type 3B telling. But is telling no treatment. But is normal stage and mild MPS. But is hyperactive and not speaking. Wt I can do no one guiding me. I fully confused help me. I have only one child.
Can you please help in interpreting Perkin Elmer & NT Scan Test results. Down Syndrome Final Risk- 1: 55129. Edwards' Syndrome Final Risk-1: 10. Patau's Syndrome Final Risk-1: 10.
My baby is 3 months old and he drinks a better quantity of milk but she also spit a.lot like some times curd. And sometimes very instantly after feeding why this happens so. Why. She do like this is there any solution. Pls answer.
Dry allergic cough persistent for over 4-5 weeks. Sputum tested negative for TB, but culture contains Kleibsilla SP. Medicine contains, Inhaler and medicine for allergy. Although better but not completely recovered. What to do?
The tooth may look a tiny structure, but is a very complicated one. Structurally, it has very high concentrations of minerals and vitamins, all essential for optimal dental health. Reduced or increased amounts of these substances can lead to obvious defects in the teeth, which may impair aesthetics and sometimes even the functioning of the tooth.
While calcium is one mineral that would immediately come to mind, there are a lot of other vitamins and minerals too which play a significant role both in tooth formation and in optimal dental health. Listed below are some of these, along with their role in dental health.
- Vitamin A: Often associated with vision, vitamin A is essential for production of good amount of saliva which maintains healthy mucous membranes. Reduced saliva increases predisposition to decay and gum disease and also increases bad breath.
- Vitamin D: Needless to say, with the strength of the jaw bones, a good amount of calcium is required to boost bone mineral density.
- Vitamin C: The gums have connective tissue fibers which help bind the tooth to the jaw bone. For good strength of the connective tissue, vitamin C is important. Therefore, vitamin C deficiency can lead to tooth mobility and even tooth loss in severe cases.
- Vitamin B complex: There are too many people who would have popped a multivitamin to ward off mouth sores. Niacin and riboflavin especially are essential for optimal mucosal health and reduce inflammation.
- Vitamin K: This has multiple roles to play. It helps in improving the body's healing process, blocks substances that break down bone, promotes bone strength, and reduces bleeding disorders.
- Minerals: There is a long list of minerals that are essential for optimal dental health, as below:
- Calcium: From strong enamel to jaw bone, calcium is extremely important for the tooth to be fully formed. Calcium deficiency can result in hypoplastic teeth that are more prone for chipping and decay.
- Potassium: Needed to improve bone mineral density. It also works in conjunction with magnesium and prevents from the blood turning too acidic. Acidic blood can suck out calcium from teeth and bones.
- Fluoride: Proven to be the anti-decay magic medicine, fluoride reduces the incidence of tooth decay. Fluoride gels are applied for children to promote remineralization of enamel which may have initial caries.
- Phosphorus: Provides support to calcium and potassium in bone formation.
- Iron: Required for keeping red blood cell count at a good level and fighting infections.
- Iodine: This trace mineral is required for absorption of calcium and potassium that is essential for tooth formation.
- Zinc: Naturally found in saliva, it fights against plaque formation and subsequent infections.
For optimal dental function, ensure your diet has these essential nutrients.
Q1. What exactly is Laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is an alternative to 'Open' surgery wherein the abdomen is opened by tiny 'key hole' incisions and surgery is done. 'Scopy' means the use of an endoscope or telescope to see inside the abdomen. This is attached to a camera and a light source and the inside of the abdomen is projected on to a monitor. The surgeon performs surgery looking at this screen. The surgeon makes a total of 2-4 small cuts on the abdomen ranging from half to 1 cm through which the telescope and other thin surgical instruments are passed into the abdomen. When the uterus is removed , known as hysterectomy, there is also a cut at the top of the vagina where the uterus is attached.
Q2. What kind of gynaecological surgeries can be performed by Laparoscopy?
Most surgeries done in gynaecology can now be performed by Laparoscopy and do not require the large incision as for open surgery. Laparoscopy can be done sometimes only for diagnosis and is called Diagnostic Laparoscopy, as in checking whether the tubes are open or not and to look for any causes of infertility or pain outside the uterus. In women who are unable to conceive, Diagnostic Laparoscopy is often combined with Hysteroscopy (endoscope inside the uterus, inserted from below, via the vagina). When laparoscopy is done to perform some surgical procedure inside the abdomen it is called Operative Laparoscopy. This may be for simple procedures like sterilization, minor adhesions, drilling ovaries; or for intermediate or major reasons like fibroids, endometriosis, removal of ovaries or tubes or both or removal of uterus, for staging of cancers or radical surgeries for cancer. However, about 5% of all surgeries including those for cancer or very large tumours may benefit from open surgery.
Q3. Why does an expert surgeon recommend Laparoscopy over Open Surgery?
Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages above open surgery: the incisions are much smaller (open surgery incisions are 8-10 cms long), therefore pain is much less; requirement for pain killers (which can have side-effects like sleepiness, impaired judgement) is lesser; hospital stay is shorter; complications fewer; requirement for blood transfusions infrequent; recovery in terms of physical, emotional and mental state is much better and quicker; return to work is faster with consequent lesser loss of working and earning days. Surgery with laparoscope is more precise because it is magnified view. Further vision is much better because it's like having your eye behind the structure because you can see with the telescope at places where the surgeon's eye cannot reach.
Q4. If the cuts on the abdomen are so small in Laparoscopic surgery, how do you remove the uterus or a large tumour from inside the abdomen?
Quite often if the tumour is not malignant and contains fluid, it is punctured to collapse it into a smaller size. If it is solid, it can be cut into smaller pieces inside the abdomen using a special instrument. The collapsed or cut structures can be removed gently through the 1 cm cut on the abdomen which may be increased a bit if required. After hysterectomy, the uterus can be removed easily from below, through the vagina.
Q5. Will there be much pain or discomfort after Laparoscopic Surgery?
There may be some pain and discomfort in lower abdomen for one day to few days after Laparoscopic surgery but this is much less as compared to open surgery because the incisions on the abdomen are much smaller and there is much less tissue handling inside the abdomen by fine instruments instead of rough, big, gloved hands which can cause tissue injury in open surgery. There may be some pain in the shoulder following laparoscopy. This is not serious and is due to the gas used in the surgery to make space for instruments.
Q6. When can I be discharged from hospital?
Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or with simple Operative Laparoscopy you can expect to be discharged from hospital latest by the morning after surgery. In most other cases of intermediate or even major surgery, discharge is generally 1-2 days following the surgery unless there is some health issues prior to the surgery or any complication during the surgery. The complication rates for Laparoscopic surgery are not more than for open surgery and depend upon patient factors like anaemia, diabetes, obesity and skill of the surgeon.
Q7. When can I perform routine household activities or return to work after Laparoscopic Surgery?
Recovery after surgery depends upon many factors: presence of health problems before surgery; why the surgery is required; what surgery is being done; problems or complications of surgery, anaesthesia or blood transfusions. If all is well, one can perform routine household activities by 1 week, provided one doesn't feel tired. Although there may not be any harm, it may be unwise to be normally active within 48 hours of procedure. Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or Operative Laparoscopy for simple procedures, one can return to work in 1 week. For other procedures, a 2-3 week off from work is reasonable. It depends on the type of work you are returning to. Avoid too rapid return to work if it is manually hard or requires standing for long durations of time. Sometimes a surgical procedure brings on a well needed rest and break from a lifetime of work. Mostly, when you return to work depends upon your own body and its signals of tiredness. You need to listen to those signals.
Here are some treatments and symptoms of fibroids