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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I am 24 years old. I have a personal question. Few days ago when I was trying to masturbate I found blood in my fingers. I never saw this when my husband did it. Is it just due to a nail scratch or something serious?
Hi, I am 32 year old female, my esr is 46 mm/lst hr. Serum prolactin level is 94. 13 serum testesterone is 35. 94 ngm/dl. Kindly let me know is there any problem in my report ?
The body produces a number of chemicals called hormones which are essential for the regulation of various functions including growth and metabolism. These hormones are produced by endocrine glands which are located in various parts of the body. One such important gland is the pituitary gland which produces the important growth hormone. This is essential for regulating optimal growth during the growing years and for maintaining proper amounts of body fat, muscles, and bones in the later years of life.
Causes: Deficiency of the growth hormones can occur due to a number of causes, some of which are listed below. It can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life.
The congenital issue could be due to problem in the pituitary gland structure, leading to complete absence or reduced secretion of the hormone.
With age, there is a decrease in the amount of secretion. However, infections, injuries, brain tumors, surgery and radiation can also lead to altered amounts of secretion.
Symptoms: While growth hormone deficiency can occur at any age, symptoms differ depending on the age when the deficiency sets in.
In the early ages:
- Lower rate of growth for a given age
- Delayed developmental milestones
- Delayed onset of puberty
- Short stature/reduced height
- Younger looking compared to other children their age
- Fat deposition around the waist
- Delayed dental development
When the deficiency sets in during the later years, there is
- Low energy levels, constant tiredness
- Decreased strength
- Decreased exercise tolerance
- Decreased overall muscle mass
- Thin and dry skin
- Increased fat deposition and weight gain around the waist
- Changes in social behavior including alternate cycles of anxiety and depression
- Lack of motivation
- History of pituitary tumors
- High levels of fat and cholesterol
The diagnosis depends on the age of the person
- Blood tests are carried out to check the hormone levels in circulation
- In children, in addition to the hormone levels, x-rays to see the status of growth plates is very helpful.
- An insulin hypoglycemia test where insulin is given intravenously to see the levels of the growth hormone after 30 minutes.
- Total cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglyceride levels can be used to supplement the above tests.
- CT scan and/or MRI of the brain may be needed if tumors are suspected.
Treatment: Once diagnosed, replacement therapy is given as shots a few times a week under the skin. This restores normal growth and helps in controlling the symptoms in adults too.
In cases of tumor, radiation or surgery may be required, but most cases are managed with hormone replacement.
Watch out for the symptoms if your child has delayed developmental milestones and early intervention can help restore growth and function to normal levels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
What are the early symptoms of pregnancy? What should a girl do if her periods gets delayed by almost 90 days without getting pregnant?
My friend is not having periods after having sex a week ago and she had taken unwanted 72 after that. Is it normal or she need to be worried about pregnancy? What can be done to avoid pregnancy in such cases?
I got 5 days early period. I have regular period every month. I want to know is this early pregnancy symptoms doctor? The period is not crazy heavy and its colour light brown. Few quantity blood is come then its stop. M very confused.
When you decide to donate an organ that could make someone normal again, you are actually giving the gift of life, even after you are long gone. Organ donation is the preservation of organs after someone's death, and a cause supported by many people around the world.
Read on to find out everything there is to know about organ donation!
- What is Organ Donation?: Organ donation is the process of pledging your organs through recognised institutions, so that the same may be used after your demise. This pledge usually allows the transplant of healthy organs as well as tissue that can be used to benefit someone who has been going through life without the said organs or without properly functioning ones. While some donations like the kidney as well as some part of the lungs can be done while the donor is still living, most of these transplants happen after the person's death.
- Types of Donation: There are three ways in which one can donate organs. The first is brain stem method where the person's brain activity has stopped due to an injury. In such a case, the heart and other organs may still be working due to life support system like a ventilator. The next method is circulatory death where a cardiac arrest gives rise to the complete loss of function in one's heart and lungs, which can lead to a state where the person cannot be revived. The third kind is living donation like kidney transplant or a small section of one's liver or lungs.
- Importance of Organ Donation: The importance of organ donation cannot be stressed enough. This potentially lifesaving act can help in bringing back someone's sight or give them a heart that beats normally. With organ donation like kidney transplant, one will not need to go through dialysis again. Also, organ donation can save much time, money and effort in painful treatments and give the person a whole new lease of life. It is also important because it ensures that the vital organs are used by a needy person even after the death of the donor.
- Importance of Physical Health: The physical health of the person is important in such cases because the donation should not have negative implications for the wellbeing of the patient. Through a system of donor assessment, the donor is checked for infections and other ailments including HIV so that the same are not passed on to the patient.
- Organs that you can donate: Starting from the eyes to the kidney, lungs, heart, pancreas, intestines, bones, as well as bone marrow and even the skin and corneas, one can donate a number of organs.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
If you have coronary artery disease, the arteries in your heart are narrowed or blocked by a sticky material called plaque. Angioplasty is a procedure to restore blood flow through the artery.
You have angioplasty in a hospital. The doctor threads a thin tube through a blood vessel in the arm or groin up to the involved site in the artery. The tube has a tiny balloon on the end. When the tube is in place, the doctor inflates the balloon to push the plaque outward against the wall of the artery. This widens the artery and restores blood flow.
Doctors may use angioplasty to:
- Reduce chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart
- Minimize damage to heart muscle from a heart attack
Many people go home the day after angioplasty, and are able to return to work within a week of coming home.
Sir, my period happen on 29th but this month I do not get my period , 12th I tested pregnancy test but it was negative what can I do now?
With increasing globalization and lifestyle changes, even general practitioners are getting more and more young patients willing to adopt contraceptive measures. An optimum clinical choice of contraceptive can only be done through a mutual discussion between the physician and patient taking into consideration both clinical aspects and patient's choice. This article gives a brief general summary of the methods of contraception.
Contraception is the process of taking steps to ensure about not becoming pregnant after having sex. There are different types of contraceptive measures. They all have pros and cons. Different methods will be right for different couples, or right at different times in life.
Types of contraceptives:
* percentages mentioned within brackets are failure rates
It involves the use of estrogen and progesterone to prevent fertilization; associated with a 2-3% failure rate.
Oral contraceptive pills suppress the action of fsh/lh from the pituitary gland, they also suppress the lh surge, alter the cervical mucosa to inhibit penetration by spermatozoa, and they inhibit atrophic change in the endometrium.
Complications: venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cva, mi, htn, amenorrhea, cholelithiasis, hepatocellular adenoma. Risks increase with smoking.
Contraindications: dvt, pe, cvd, cva, pregnancy, cancer, abnormal lfts
Monophasic (fixed combination: take estrogen and progesterone on days 1-21 and placebo on days 22-28. Increased estrogen increases the side effects of a headache, weight gain, nausea, and edema decreased estrogen and progesterone increase the risk of breakthrough bleeding and increases the failure rate.
Multiphasic: low-dose estrogen with varying doses of progesterone on days 1-21.
Progestin-only pills: not as effective and can cause breakthrough bleeding.
Levonorgestrel: lasts up to five years.
Medroxyprogesterone: lasts three months.
Decreases the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer and decreased the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
It involves the insertion of a small device into the uterus with the hopes of inhibiting implantation, altering tubal motility, or inflaming the endometrium.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices are associated with a relatively low failure rate (2-4% pregnancy rate) but do suffer from a higher rate of complications (e. G, four times increased the risk of ectopic pregnancy).
Intrauterine device (iud) with progestogen: it releases progesterone and must be replaced annually.
Iud with copper-t: it contains copper and can last up to 4-6 years.
Increased blood loss and duration of menses, increased dysmenorrhea
Expulsion of iud, pregnancy, perforation of the uterine wall when inserted, increased risk of tubo-ovarian abscess (esp. Among younger nulliparous females with greater than ;1 sex partner). Pid is not as common with the newer iuds but still a significant risk factor.
Indicated for: multiparous women greater than 35 years who smoke.
Concerns about pelvic infections and subsequent fertility often limit the use of iucds to women who are at low risk for sexually transmitted disease and to those less likely to desire further children, i. E, monogamous multigravid patients.
It involves the use of an artificial device to inserted into the vagina or fitted to the penis with the intent to retain the products of intercourse.
Condoms: condoms have a 2% failure rate in consistent couples and a 10% failure rate in occasional users. They are best indicated for std prevention.
Vaginal diaphragms: they have a 15-20% failure rate, but when combined with a spermicidal jelly and left in for 6-8 hours post-coitus failure rate declines to 2%. Diaphragms are associated with side effects of bladder irritation and cystitis, also colonization with s. Aureus if left in too long.
Cervical caps: they must be properly fitted and can be left in for a longer time than the diaphragm.
It has a 15- 20% failure rate and involves the use of sponges and spermicides.
Spermicides contain surfactants to disrupt cervical membranes; placed in the vagina up to 30 minutes before intercourse.
It involves the avoidance of intercourse from an onset of menses to 2-days post ovulation.
This method involves manipulation of parts of male and female anatomy such that conception is prevented by failure and gametes to combine.
Vasectomy: lesser than 1% failure and can be successfully reversed in some cases.
Tubal ligation: lesser than 1% failure rate. Increase risk of ectopic.
Emergency contraception pills - emergency contraception can be used if one had sex without using contraception; or if someone had sex but there was a mistake with contraception.
Emergency contraception options are usually very effective if started within 3-5 days of unprotected sex. The earlier you take this pill, the more effective it is. It works either by preventing or postponing ovulation or by preventing the fertilized egg from settling in the womb (uterus).
A proper patient counseling informing the success rate and complication of contraception should be an integral part of the treatment regime.
She has a cramping from 3 days but hasn't got a period till now. A white fluid discharge from the genital area with a painful breast. Pregnancy test also shows negative but period got late from 1 day which never happened before. What to do now?
*Avoid excess exposure to the sun
*Drink up to 2 to 3 litres of water
*Don't over-wash your face
*Get adequate sleep
*Eat healthy food, specially vitamin riched vegetables & fruits
*Keep stress away.
I am 24 year old female. I am pregnant but my tummy is not grow too much. Please tell me what should i do?
Dear Doctor, I love licking vagina, I lick it for a longer time and I am obsessed to it. Is it a normal practice if I continue to do so? 2) is is OK if I keep on sucking her boobs daily. I do it for a longer time she says the size will increase. I'm confused? please help.
Here are some tips to help you look after your teeth.
- Brush at least twice a day.
- Use fluoridated toothpaste.
- Brush thoroughly.
- Floss your teeth daily.
- Limit acidic drinks like soft drinks, cordials and fruit juices.
- Limit sugary foods.
- Protect your teeth from injury.
- Try to save a knocked out tooth.
Irregularity in the menstrual cycle is one of the most common issues to be fixed since the hormones responsible for the menstrual cycle is affected by several factors and systems of the body. According to a report published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in 2011, it came to the fore that frequent missing of periods over an extended period is a common problem affecting over 5 percent of women at any given time. But what’s more important is that most women suffer from irregular periods all through the reproductive span of their life.
LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) produced by pituitary gland stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone and will cause the release of the egg. When there are fluctuations in LH, FSH, estrogen, and progesterone, the menstruation cycle gets irregular. For successful treatment of irregular periods, it is crucial to determine the cause. A few predominant causes of irregular periods are:
- High levels of stress: When you are stressed out for a long time, your body learns to save energy by stopping ovulation. If you experience a traumatic event or you undergo excessive day to day stress, it can suddenly cause the adrenals to work hard which can interrupt the production of estrogen, thyroid hormones, and other reproductive hormones. Restrictive eating and over-exercising can also lead to hypothalamic amenorrhea, a condition wherein the menstruation stops for several months altogether.
- Poor diet: If your daily diet lacks antioxidants, vitamins, protein, and minerals, then there could be an adverse effect on the thyroid levels and the adrenal glands. Fried and processed foods along with sugary items can raise the adrenal fatigue and cortisol which, in turn, hinders the functionality of other necessary hormones. If you are suffering from irregular periods, you should take foods rich in antioxidants, proteins, and antioxidants.
- Extreme loss of weight: When the body mass index or BMI reaches below 18, you will start missing your periods due to low body fat. Body fat is crucial for creating estrogen, and lack of this hormone also causes issues such as anorexia and bulimia. But it is important to note here that not all women suffering from irregular periods are underweight.
- Thyroid disorders: The fluctuations of thyroid hormones often cause an irregularity of periods. According to some experts, thyroid problems are one of the leading causes of irregular menstruation. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause symptoms like alterations in cortisol and estrogen levels.
- Food allergies: If you are sensitive to gluten or have celiac disease which has remained undiagnosed, it can cast an impact on the hormone levels. As these conditions may cause nutrient deficiencies, it can affect the gut health and add stress to the adrenal glands. As a result, all these together disrupt the secretion of sex hormones and cause irregular menstruation.
Several treatments are available to treat the causes that would slowly bring back your menstruation cycle to normal.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!