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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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The heart is a muscular organ and beats at regular intervals. This is known as heart rate, which indicates a person’s overall health. In a normal healthy individual, it ranges from 60 to 100 depending on overall health status. A heart rate outside of these ranges is usually a cause for concern.
Bradycardia is when the heart rate is below 60. While this could be a sign of fitness and health in some, it could also mean an underlying cardiac condition in others. Low heart rate is seen in many athletes, who normally have a heart rate below 60, with no symptoms or problems.
However, in others, slow heart rate can be an indication of an underlying heart problem. The electrical system in the heart could be affected, leading to alteration in blood supply to the heart and other vital organs. This needs further investigation and management to restore normal cardiac function.
Causes: Some of the reasons for reduced heart rate include:
- Normal aging process, as with all body functions, aging slows down the heart’s electrical function, leading to reduced heart rate
- Heart conditions like coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack, and infections of the heart muscles (endocarditis or myocarditis)
- Pulmonary conditions like sleep apnea
- Hormonal conditions like hypothyroidism
- Metabolic conditions like increased potassium
- Increased iron accumulation in the body
- Medications like beta-blockers and digoxin
Symptoms: While bradycardia does not cause symptoms in some, in others, where it has an associated medical condition, the following would be seen too:
- Extreme levels of fatigue, with near-fainting episodes
- Regular bouts of dizziness
- Shortness of breath with even minimal activity
- Weakness, tiredness, and low energy levels
- Chest pain bouts
- Lack of mental energy and confusion
- Memory problems
Complications: If left untreated, bradycardia can cause:
- Fainting spells, where the patient may just collapse in the midst of an activity
- Heart failure, where the heart is not able to pump enough blood
- Sudden cardiac death
Risk factors: If you have any or some of the following, do not ignore bradycardia.
- Age (more common in older adults)
- Heavy alcohol abuse
- High levels of emotional stress
Treatment: Once diagnosis of bradycardia and underlying disease is confirmed, treatment will be two-pronged.
- Correct underlying condition like hypothyroidism, electrolyte imbalance and infections.
- Work on managing chronic conditions like coronary disease, diabetes, and obesity.
- Prepare the patient to watch for episodes of bradycardia and ways to manage them.
While bradycardia per se is not a concern, other conditions should be managed so the heart keeps working to its optimal level. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cardiologist.
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition that affects your brain cells which produce dopamine and thus hampering all kinds of motor functioning and other emotional responses. After the disease is diagnosed, medication and therapy can help to provide relief from the symptoms to a large extent but a permanent cure is not possible.
The disorder does not have a definite set of causes. A small percentage of the cases have been related to hereditary factors and others have a range of environmental causes associated with them.
1. Genetic factors:
Specific gene mutations and gene variations have been proved to cause Parkinson's, such as SNCA, PARK2, PARK7, PINK1 and LRRK2. These make or recycle proteins which are linked to the disease.
Research shows that men are at a 1.75 times greater risk of developing the condition than women are. Also, age plays a role with most cases occurring after the age of 60.
2. Environmental factors:
Regular exposure to inorganic insecticides, pesticides, herbicides and heavy metals or other toxins may cause the disorder. In rare cases, Parkinson's disease occurs in the aftermath of a severe head injury or immune disorders.
The symptoms can be classified into two broad categories-
1. Motor symptoms:
- The hand tremors when in resting position
- The grip loosens
- Walking slows down
- Facial muscles freeze partially
- Speech is slurred
- Balance is disturbed
- Swallowing is painful
- Urination is abnormally frequent
- Dementia-like symptoms are seen
- There is involuntary twitching of the fingers and toes
- Repetition of the same movement in quick succession is nearly impossible
2. Non-motor symptoms:
- Dental problems
- Vision impairment
- Skin disorders
- Panic attacks
- Excessive secretion of saliva
- Extreme weight loss or gain
- Sexual problems
- Loss of sense of smell
- Lowering of the pitch of the voice
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
When my mensuration cycle completed every month with proper bleeding i got a red brown color spot just 5 to 6 days .What is it indicates?
Hello sir I am srija .my age 26 years. I have severe period pain in every month with three days bleeding. L have regular menstrual cycle with normal bleeding. I am suffering with this problem since 13 years. Please give me solution for this problem. Other wise give good doctor name for this in Hyderabad city.
What should be the hemoglobin level during pregnancy? Could you please tell me also how to improve that so that normal delivery get happen.
Hello doctor. I'm 7 weeks pregnant. I'm feeling hungry often and tired. This is my second baby. Is it normal?
It suits women who are producing low levels of hormones for ovulation, or who are not ovulating at all. These females are given medication (as tablets or through injections) to stimulate there hormones.
How does Ovulation Induction work?
First, we’ll confirm your ovulation cycle by:
- Taking blood samples to measure hormone levels at specific stages of the cycle,
- Carrying out a transvaginal ultrasound to see the development of follicles in the ovaries, and the thickness and appearance of the lining of the womb.
The Ovulation Induction cycle
Day 1: (of your menstrual cycle) Call the clinic to arrange an appointment for a blood test.
Day 2-4: Start taking medication.
Day 10 or 11: Visit the clinic for a blood test to determine your hormone level. /an ultrasound.
Day 14: (approximate) Attend the clinic for an ultrasound test. This will determine if you are about to ovulate.
For women who don’t have a normal menstrual cycle, it may take some time to ovulate. In fact, it is not unusual for ovulation to occur much later in their cycle (after Day 14). You would then need to continue attending the clinic until you ovulate.
There are various treatments to treat ovulation disorders.
These medications may cause multiple follicle development, with the risk of multiple pregnancy. For this reason you need to undergo regular ultrasounds to determine the number and rate of growth of these follicles. If more than one follicle develops, your fertility specialist will discuss the risks of multifollicular ovulation.
After the follicle has developed we may use another injection of synthetic human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to trigger the release of the egg from the follicle.The fertile time is for 36 hours from the time of trigger.