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People who suffer from Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections.
Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contains the virus, which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion.
Mentioned below are a few issues that a HIV positive woman have to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment.
- Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression.
- Contraception: It is very important that the contraception a HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control, but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.
- Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulvar cancer in HIV positive women.
- Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women.
I am diabetic from 2010 and taking metformin 500mg sr and glimepiride 2 mg with acarbose 25 mg twice a day before breakfast and dinner now my stool is more hard than normal my age is 60 year my sugar levels is remains in normal parameters. Please advise me.
I have a small penis size. 23 year old so really worried for future. What can be done to make the size of my penis bigger.
HIV, which is short for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, penetrates your body and directly attacks your immune system. In this process, the virus weakens your body's natural defense mechanism against diseases and infections. A compromised immune system makes the body prone to minor infections, which healthy people would generally overcome. The virus itself doesn't cause any physical symptoms. It only serves to ease the entry of other bacteria and viruses into the body.
The following are some of the ways HIV affects your body:
1. Immune system - The human immunodeficiency virus destroys CD4 cells, the white blood cells that help the immune system ward off foreign substances. If left unchecked, HIV can develop into AIDS. During such time, the virus may damage the immune system to an extent that it wouldn't be able to ward off minor infections that a healthy immune system would. A person with HIV could thus suffer from fever, chills, sweats, shortness of breath, white spots in the mouth, fatigue, skin rash and weight loss from time to time.
2. Respiratory system - As HIV develops into AIDS, the body can contract infections such as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma. These conditions lead to serious respiratory problems. PCP is found to be one of the most common infections among people with HIV. 85% of the people would develop the infection if the condition is left untreated.
3. Skin problems - As in healthy individuals, many skin conditions can also occur in people with HIV or AIDS. But a compromised immune system heightens the condition and causes difficulty in treatment. Dermatitis, psoriasis, and hives are common conditions. They are also prone to a rare type of skin cancer known as Kaposi's sarcoma.
4. Gastrointestinal system - Gastrointestinal disorders are the most common ailments for people diagnosed with HIV and AIDS. Problems faced include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. 50% of the people suffering from HIV encounter gastrointestinal disorders at some point of their illness. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a sexologist.