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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Antenatal Care Management
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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When endometrial tissue goes out of the uterus in women, then endometriosis occurs. In most of the cases, lower tummy and pelvic areas of women show the prominent symptoms of this disease. Symptoms of this disease can be either severe or mild but immediate medical diagnosis is required so that unwanted symptoms can be effectively prevented.
Surgery, hormone treatment and painkillers are the most prominent treatments that can deal with the concerned trouble, but you can also follow a few natural therapies in this respect. Excessive intake of contraceptive pills can be one of the leading reasons for endometriosis, but you can also inherit this from your family or ancestors.
List of the symptoms of Endometriosis:
- Painful periods: If pain continues throughout the periods, then you get yourself checked as you may have developed endometriosis. These pains can even be quite severe making the situation quite troublesome to bear. If you find that you are facing unusual menstrual pain, then you should not delay and rather immediately consult your nearest gynaecologist.
- Bleeding periods: Sometimes, bleeding periods can be one of the clear symptoms that can help you to recognize the arrival of endometriosis. Therefore, if you notice excessive bleeding, then you should consult any specialized doctor immediately.
- Pregnancy difficulty: Reduced fertility might create a greater trouble for conceiving, and thus you might get deprived bearing children. This is one of the most prominent or highlighting symptoms of endometriosis. Endometriosis clumps interrupt egg passage as a result of which the eggs cannot reach the fallopian tube via ovary. You can take the help of your gynaecologist so that the clumps can be reduced with the help of proper treatments.
- Pelvic area and abdomen pain: You will often experience a worse kind of pain, especially in the pelvic and abdomen areas during and before periods. Sometimes, the pain might even linger after the menstrual period is over. There are many women who take medications for reducing this kind of pain, but this is not the right procedure, rather proper treatment is needed for getting complete recovery on a permanent note.
- Painful sex: You will face a lot of troubles while making intercourse or sexual interaction with your partner, and this pain can be even severe at times. If you are facing painful sex for a long time, then you should immediately report the same to any experienced medical professional.
It is common to go nuts when your newborn begins moaning! You'd need to have the nerves of a bomb-squad professional not to give it a chance to get to you. In any case, with a little experience, that is exactly what you'll create (or near it).
Likewise, don't accept that your baby is crying since she's genuinely tragic or upset. "It's anything but difficult to feel along these lines since that is the reason we cry. Nonetheless, newborn children do it to impart a wide range of things - that they're drained, icy, wet, exhausted, hungry, or overstimulated. Instead of stressing that something is truly wrong, consider crying her method for conversing with you." As you build up a routine with your baby, you'll slowly have the capacity to make sense of what she needs just by the sound of her cries.
Numerous new moms may feel overpowered and ponder:
Take comfort; numerous new moms feel a similar way. These worries are basic and superbly ordinary. You can find a way to deal with the stretch of being another mother.
Rest: Get as much rest as you can, wherever and at whatever point you can. Rest when the baby dozes. Get a brisk rest in the traveler's seat amid an auto ride.
Eat Healthy Foods: The right foods can give you more vitality. Do whatever it takes not to overburden on caffeine. Rather, eat healthy foods and drink lots of water.
Work out: You might not have sufficient energy to do long workouts. In any case, even a couple of minutes here and there spread for the duration of the day can help you have more vitality! Take baby for a walk.
Expect an influx of emotions: Absence of rest, included stretch and stress can abandon you having an inclination that you're on an exciting ride of emotions all around the same time. Relax because of realizing that you're not the only one!
IVF (in vitro fertilisation) and surrogacy are alternative methods of having a baby and can be resorted to when a couple cannot conceive the natural way. There are three things you must keep in mind before making a choice between IVF or surrogacy:
Surrogacy is opted for when the woman is unable to conceive by natural means and when there's no possibility of her getting pregnant whatsoever. Surrogacy can be of two types- full surrogacy and partial surrogacy. On the other hand, IVF works towards the treatment of infertility in one or both the partners, enabling the woman partner to conceive the child.
IVF involves the fertilisation of a woman's eggs by the sperm of the intended father in a laboratory dish. The developed embryo (or fertilised egg) is then implanted in the woman's uterus.
Risks of surrogacy include multiple births, ectopic pregnancy (implantation of the fertilised egg in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus, leading to miscarriage) and birth defects in the child, to name a few. As for risks associated with IVF, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (swollen and painful ovaries), multiple births, ectopic pregnancy and stress can take place if IVF is opted for.
Surrogacy requires the fulfilment of complex legal processes, such as determining eligibility, matching profiles of surrogates with intended parents, finding of a potential surrogate and more, which require proper legal counselling. Besides the cost of surrogacy in India is higher than IVF.
IVF does not involve any such processes and is easier to carry out. The low cost of IVF in comparison to surrogacy makes it a much more viable option. Based on these factors, you can make the choice of a procedure that is best suited for you. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
The cyclical change in the uterus and ovaries of the female reproductive system is called the menstrual cycle. It includes changes in the physiology of the uterus along with the change in hormones as well. This cyclical change is what allows a woman to get pregnant. This cycle allows the formation of ovocytes and helps to prepare the uterus for implantation.
The commencement of period is called the menarche. It normally starts from the age of twelve to fifteen years. The time between the first day of the period and the first day of the next one is usually twenty one to forty five days in young adults and twenty one to thirty five in older women. The entire cycle is mainly governed by hormones like oestrogen, progesterone, Luteinizing Hormone etc.
Hormonal changes play a big role in the menstrual cycle. It consists of three phases
- Menstrual stage (1-7 days)
- Proliferative stage
- Secretory stage
In the menstrual stage, the thick endometrial lining of the uterus will start to shed and will come out of the vagina in the form of blood and mucous. This may last from four to seven days. The levels of both progesterone and estrogen remain low in this phase.
In the second stage, i.e, the proliferative stage, the amount of oestrogen gradually rises and the menstrual flow reduces and eventually stops. The Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) is produced in the brain that stimulates your ovaries to produce mature eggs. The eggs are present in a follicular bag, which allows the secretion of oestrogen. Hence the amount of oestrogen is the least on the first day and increases gradually. At the same time, the uterine lining starts to thicken. This is the phase in which the egg is produced and in the presence of sperm, gets fertilised.
You may notice a thin slippery discharge around these days that makes it easier for the sperm to travel and survive in the uterus. You are most fertile in this stage, around on the 14th day of the cycle when ovulation occurs. The egg survives for around 24 hrs, whereas sperm can survive for about 2-3 days.
In the secretory phase, if the egg is not fertilised, the levels of oestrogen and progesterone fall. The thick lining that has been produced starts to shed and that commences the menstruation. If the egg is fertilised, then it may implant itself to the uterine wall and produce the pregnancy hormone called human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Infertility is an increasing problem in contemporary times. More and more women and men are detected with infertility and opt for artificial and medical procedures to conceive a child. However, even today it is seen that the numbers of infertile women are more in comparison to infertile men. There are several reasons why infertility develops in women. Some of the major causes of infertility in women are discussed below.
- Ovulation disorder: There are several reasons as to why a woman may experience irregular menstrual cycles. Some of them are high-stress levels, weight balance issues, late marriages and the like. But in these cases, the underlying cause is absence or scanty ovulation. Thus, if you experience slight irregularity in your monthly cycles, it is best to consult a doctor and get evaluated. It is best to keep weight in normal range and reduce stress.
- Blocked fallopian tubes: These tubes are channels, which connect the ovary ( which produces eggs called ova ) and the uterus. During normal conception, the sperms travel from the vagina into the uterus and then reach the fallopian tubes in which the ovum is available after ovulation. At times, these fallopian tubes get blocked which results in the inability of the sperms to reach the egg. This leads to infertility. Blocked fallopian tubes can be treated and if you are diagnosed with the issue, it is best to start the treatment as early as possible.
- Endometriosis: This condition develops when the endometrial lining of the uterus is found abnormally spread in the pelvis over ovaries, and other organs. Due to this “ectopic” endometrium, in women with endometriosis, the periodic bleeding is also accompanied by bleeding from these abnormal sites, and this causes the pelvic organs to malfunction and get stuck to each other. Women who have endometriosis have severe dysmenorrhea ( periodic pain), dyspareunia (pain during sex) and constant tummy aches, chocolate cysts in ovaries, and infertility. This condition also needs urgent treatment otherwise, the stuck organs make infertility treatment difficult.
- Unhealthy eggs: The health of the egg is determined by factors such as hormonal levels, low or high-stress levels, anger and anxiety levels, environmental factors, hormone production in the body and the like. Thus, any of the said factors might affect the health of the egg produced and make it unhealthy in nature. Unhealthy eggs would render the woman infertile in the long run.
Thus, these are some of the causes of infertility in women. In case you are having trouble in conceiving, it is advisable to opt for a thorough check up by your gynecologist. Sometimes you may be required to take help of artificial reproductive technologies like IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination) and IVF (In Vitro Fertilitsation).
A preterm labour is referred to a condition when the cervix opens up within 37 weeks of pregnancy. An ideal pregnancy lasts for a span of 40 weeks. If preterm labour is caused due to preterm contractions, the baby is born earlier. This results in serious health risks for the baby. At times it requires long intensive care for the baby to ensure no mental or physical damage happens in the long term.
What are the symptoms of pre-term labour?
While some women show evident signs of pre-term labour, some women present symptoms that are more subtle. Some unmistakable symptoms of pre-term labour include regular contractions, sense of tightness in the lower abdomen, vaginal discharge, diarrhoea, constant backache, bleeding from the vagina, watery discharge from the vagina, pain in the abdomen and abdominal cramps. One or more of these symptoms should be immediately reported to the doctor to negate the chances of any miscarriages or serious complications.
What are the risk factors?
While there are no proven risk factors of preterm labour, lots of factors have been tagged with a pre-term labour. Some of the notable ones include:
- Little pre-natal care
- Premature birth in previous pregnancies
- Giving birth to more than one baby at a time. This is especially applicable while giving birth to a triplet.
- A stressful event such as a personal loss or events related to extreme emotions
- Bleeding from the vagina during pregnancy
- Any infection of the genital tract
- Any complications related to the placenta, uterus and cervix
- Any birth defect related to the vagina
- Chronic health conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure
- Putting on weight more than the recommended level
- An excess of amniotic fluid
- Consumption of illicit drugs or smoking at a heavy rate
- The shorter length of the cervix than the normal one
What are the complications involved?
Most common complication of preterm birth lungs is not well developed which can lead to respiratory distress in babies. Pre-term labour cannot be stopped with any medical procedures. If pre-term labour is caused due to smoking or an infection, the same can be addressed. Any pre-term labour that eventually leads to giving birth can confront with complications such as low weight, problems related to the vision of the baby, behavioural problems and learning disabilities.
Diagnosis and tests:
A doctor will closely monitor the symptoms a woman is facing. In the case of regular contraction, a close look at the cervix helps a doctor to decide the condition of a patient. To be assured a doctor might recommend a full pelvic exam, ultrasound test, uterine monitoring, and maturity of amniocentesis. A test of the vaginal secretion further gives the doctor enough evidence about the possibility of a pre-term labour.
Trying to get pregnant can go either ways for most couples that is it can be a breeze, or it can be a difficult process that ends up with lots of fertility clinic visits. While in some cases, the reasons for not being able to conceive may come down to male infertility, there are many cases where the reason may be female infertility too. In many other cases, both male and female infertility may be the cause.
Let us discuss female infertility in more details here.
When can it be called Infertility?
When a couple is not being able to conceive even after trying for a period of over a year, then a case can be made in favour of infertility. Infertility can result from females in at least one third of the cases, as per various medical studies. While the actual cause may be difficult to diagnose, there are many available treatments that one can use in order to fix the underlying issues.
When to Start Worrying?
Female infertility comes with many symptoms, while the main symptom may be the inability to conceive, the other symptoms include excessively long menstrual cycles that show signs of slowing down only after 35 days or so, or even cycles that are too short where they appear within 21 days. Irregular and absent periods can point at the lack of ovulation which is the main sign of infertility. Other than that, there are no outward signs of infertility as such apart from pelvic pain and cramping or heavy bleeding during periods. If you are 30 years of age, or younger, then you may want to see a doctor regarding irregular and absent periods, or the lack of conception even after trying for a year. Also, if you are between 35 and 40 years of age, you can discuss the inability to conceive with your doctor, after efforts for six months. If you have been trying to conceive and you are over 40 years of age, then the doctor will put you through tests on an immediate basis.
The Requirements for Conception?
In order to conceive, you will need to ovulate on a normal basis and have regular menstrual cycles as well as intercourse. Also, your fallopian tubes and uterus must be in normal working condition without any infections and other conditions.
There may be many causes for female infertility including ovarian faults like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypothalamic dysfunction, premature ovarian insufficiency and excessive prolactin in the ovaries. Also, pelvic inflammation disorders that lead to damage of the fallopian tubes and other uterus related issues like endometriosis can lead to female infertility. Other causes of infertility include thyroid dysfunction, uterine anomalies. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Having a child is one of the best things that can happen to a woman. While giving birth to a child is a very happy scenario, something called ‘postpartum menstrual pain’ can act as a damper. Postpartum menstrual pain occurs during the first period post-delivery. To understand it in a better way, here is a detailed overview that should help you out:
Period after childbirth
Periods usually return after 7-8 weeks of the delivery, provided there is no breast feeding. If you breast feed, then the timing of the period can vary. In some cases, a woman misses out on her periods for the entire duration of breast feeding; whereas in others, the period returns irrespective of whether she is breast feeding or not.
Once the periods start post-delivery, tampons are recommended against. Women who are breastfeeding don’t usually have their periods due to hormonal changes in the body. Hormones that induce periods are suppressed by the hormones which are responsible for the production of breast milk. The entire process of ovulation gets suppressed, thus leading to the absence of menstruation.
Difference in periods
Once your periods begin after the delivery, it will be different from the ones you have had before childbirth. As the body adjusts to the menstruation process post childbirth, one generally experiences the following symptoms:
- Stronger cramps
- Heavy menstrual flow
- Formation of small blood clots
- Pain during periods
Postpartum menstrual pain happens because of the following reasons:
- Pain in the vagina: The childbirth process may lead to swelling and stinging in the vagina. Painful periods will persist till the swelling subsides.
- Contractions of the uterus: Post childbirth uterus contractions are common as it comes back to its regular size; this may be a source of the pain.
- Breast feeding: Breast feeding can also trigger menstrual pain as it results in the release of ‘oxytocin’, which causes contractions in the uterus.
This problem of painful periods doesn't last longer. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
There are many questions a woman may have in mind for her gynecologist but never asked them. Here are 15 such questions along with their solutions.
1. Does my vagina smell unpleasant?
You should shower it with water and gently wipe it with a wash cloth before any test. Applying perfume makes the smell even worse.
2. What to do in case the feet stink?
You should wear fresh and clean socks before going for the test and getting in the stirrup which is a metal device for convenience of gynaecological tests.
3. In case of a period, should I cancel my test appointment?
A gynaecologist is not afraid nor disgusted by blood as blood is a part of the specialist's profession. If you have heavy bleeding, you can call up the nurse for suggestions.
4. What if the doctor or nurse judges my body?
Your gynaecologist does not care about your body and is more concerned about your problems and how to solve them.
5. What if my legs are unshaved?
Your gynaecologist really does not care about your legs or underarms or any part of your body. Your problem is the only concern for the doctor.
6.What if my shaved hair looks ugly?
As stated before, the gynaecologist is only concerned about your problem and nothing else. Use a sharp razor to prevent bumps or ingrown hair.
7. What is the speculum?
It is a device used by your gynaecologist for opening your vagina in order to observe the cervix or look for infections on the vaginal wall.
8. Why do I urinate in my pants if I sneeze, laugh or cough?
This is a common phenomenon for women who have given birth and is easy to treat.
9. Is my vaginal discharge normal?
Having a small amount of white vaginal discharge is quite normal.
10. What does the gynaecologist check inside my vagina using hands?
The bimanual exam is done using the hands to detect problems in the uterus.
11. What if I do not like birth control means?
There are over 50 methods of birth control and many pills you can choose from.
12. Can I ask about my sexual problems?
Absolutely yes, as it is quite an important issue.
13. Can my partner or family accompany me to the test?
Yes, they can but during the time of the test, they should leave the room.
14. Can I discuss my relationship problems?
Your gynaecologist should know about any issue you are having.
15. If I am having forced sex, should I tell?
Such matters should be conveyed immediately.