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Myopia is a refractive defect in vision, which mainly occurs when light does not focus on the retina of the eye. Myopia, also called shortsightedness is the condition where distant objects look obscure or are blurred. This is because light is focused in front of the retina rather than onto it, which causes blurring of the distant objects.
American Optometric Association estimates that almost 30% of people suffer from myopia globally.
- Children are diagnosed with myopia usually between 8 to 12 years of age. During this phase, a child experiences a growth spurt, and the body undergoes several changes. The eyes are no exception to this rule as the shape of the eyes change too. However, in some children this change can manifest as eye problems like myopia.
- In Adults, myopia is a secondary problem caused by primary problems like diabetes.
- Constantly staring at a computer/mobile screen at a stretch can tire out your visual apparatus. Once this happens, the eyes will try to adjust and consequently, myopia occurs.
- Genetic predisposition
Refractive surgery is an effective method, used for correcting your vision. There are various surgical procedures meant for adjusting the eye's focusing capability. This is done by altering the shape of the cornea (the transparent layer forming the front of the eye), or clearing the front portion of your eye. Another procedure includes embedding a lens inside your eye. LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is a widely performed surgery used to reshape the cornea of the eyes. Other procedures include Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), Laser-assisted sub epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) and Epithelial laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (Epi-LASIK).
This is further divided into two main procedures-
- Surface Treatment where the skin on the surface of the cornea is removed and then the laser is applied on the surface of the stroma. The laser corrects myopia and modifies the shape of the cornea.
- Flap treatment also called laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), employs a blade or a special laser in order to cut a thin flap on the surface of the cornea, which is then peeled backwards, and the laser is applied on the body of the cornea. At the end, the flap is replaced.
While suffering from myopia, the images are focused in front of the retina due to a longer eye or steeper corneal curve. After surgery, the images are pushed directly onto the retina or closer.
- Overcorrected or undercorrected vision
- Loss of the corneal flap or the need of a corneal graft
Benefits of the Surgery-
Refractive surgery is a good option for the patients because-
- It reduces the dependence on glasses or contact lens
- They do not cause any eye disease
- Offers a safe and stable refractive eyesight
A comprehensive eye evaluation is to be done to evaluate the physiological and anatomic condition of the eye. The doctor also prescribes certain eye drops that should be routinely applied.
Implantable Contact Lens-
The ICL (Implantable Contact Lens) is a ‘refractive error solution’ for those who wish to remove power for high quality vision correction. It is also used to correct the widest range of myopia.
ICL is a soft contact lens implanted into the eye through a small incision. The procedure takes only 5-10 minutes. Since it is like a permanent fixture of the eye, there is no need to remove it frequently, unlike any normal contact lens, which requires a lot of maintenance.
- It is less painful and needs no hospital stays
- Provides good quality and sharp vision
- Can be easily removed or replaced
- It is invisible from the outside
- Recovery and healing is faster
Implanted in over thousands of people worldwide, the amazing improvement in vision quality after using ICL has proved its capability over the last 15 years. Some people also consider ICL as an alternative to LASIK because the ICL takes refractive surgery beyond the limits of LASIK. Hence, the ICL is not just an alternative; it is a good choice for superior quality of vision.
I am 54 years have a family history of 5 out of 7 bro & 1 out of 4 sister of RP. Since the age of 18. Now have much of sufaid mota nearly blind. Sister totally blind at 60. Is there any advantage of operating sufaid motia .Please guide. Thanks.
While Myopia and Hypermetropia are refractive defects in vision, they are diametrically opposite in nature. The former is about distant vision problems while in the latter, you have trouble with nearby objects.
Both are common eye conditions that mainly occur when light does not focus on the retina of the eyes.
Also called nearsightedness, in this condition a distant object is not easily discernible. There is no problem while looking at closer or nearby objects. This is because light gets focused onto the front portion of the retina rather than onto it. Due to this, things in the distance appear fuzzy or blurred.
The retina, located at the back of the eye, is the screen upon which the lmage/light reflection falls. The light is then converted into electrical signals and sent to the brain. The brain then decoded these images.
A myopic or nearsighted eye has incorrect focus because of its abnormal shape. Sometimes it is too long, while sometimes the cornea (the transparent covering on the front of the eye which is rounded) itself is rounded.
Hypermetropia or farsightedness is a condition when you can see distant objects clearly but nearby objects appear blurred.
A flat cornea is a major cause of farsightedness. This can also happen if your eyeball is shorter than normal. Because of this, light focuses beyond your retina instead of on it.
Signs of nearsightedness are-
- Squinting of the eyes
- Eyes that hurt occasionally
- Children have problem seeing the blackboard
The signs of farsightedness are-
- Squinting while trying to see better
- Aching or burning feeling in the eye
- Headache or too much stress on the eyes while focusing on something close
Diagnosis and Treatments-
An Optometrist can correct both myopia and hypermetropia by advising patients to use prescription glasses or contact lenses specifically designed to counteract these abnormalities.
For shortsightedness, a minus powered concave lens (curved inwards) is used which is placed in front portion of the myopic eyes and the image is gradually moved back to the retina. As a result, the image clarifies. Some patients use contact lenses that provide clearer and wider vision glasses.
For long-sightedness, a convex lens (bend outward) is placed in front of a hypermetropic eye and the image is re-positioned to allow the image to focus correctly on the retina.
It is therefore, necessary to adhere to proper care and health standards to safeguard your health of your eye. Contacting a good eye doctor will enable you to determine which method will work the best, according to your own circumstances and condition.
Myopia is also known by the name of nearsightedness. It is one of the most common refractive disorders of the eye. Over the years, it has become more prevalent. According to a recent study conducted by the National Eye Institute (NEI), myopia has grown more prevalent from 25 percent in 1972 to around 40% percent in 2004 in United States.
The exact cause of the prevalence of this disorder in USA is not known. However, many doctors are of the opinion that eye fatigue due to overuse of computers can be the primary reason behind the spread of this disorder. It could also be affected by genetical links.
Myopia Symptoms And Signs:
It is time to take care of your eyes if you have difficulty in reading the sign boards on road or seeing objects from a distance. This could be a sign for myopia if you are able to see things clearly from a closer distance. There are several symptoms of myopia, including strain on eyes, headaches and squinting. If these signs don’t vanish after wearing lenses or spectacles, you must visit your ophthalmologist.
What are the factors that cause Myopia or Nearsightedness?
It occurs at a time when the eyeball of the patient is too long. The lens of the patient will be too long as compared to the focusing power of the cornea or the eye lens. This condition leads to the focusing of light rays at a point in front of the retina. The rays don’t focus directly on the retina’s surface. Myopia can also be caused if the lens of the eye is too curved. Myopia can also be caused due to a combination of factors. The problem may start from childhood. You are also at the risk of developing the problem if your parents have had the problem.
Myopia is not a rare disorder of the eye. People living with myopia have several options of its treatment. It can be rectified or corrected with the help of spectacles and contact lenses. It can also be corrected by refractive surgery. The kind of treatment to be chosen depends upon the degree of your myopia. You will be asked to wear lenses or spectacles for a prescribed amount of time, depending upon the degree of your disorder.
If you are suffering from myopia, the doctor will prescribe you to wear spectacles or lenses of a certain power that will be preceded by a minus (-) sign.
Myopia is increasing worldwide probably because of wider use of mobile, including junk food or fast food consumption, inadequate sleep and ocular hygiene etc., apart from genetic aetiology. Various treatment are available and refractive surgery result are approved worldwide with progressive improvements in technology. There is no conservatives treatment to get rid of glasses like eye excercises. Walking bare foot on grass or applying saliva etc. Only recommended treatment of myopia is laser surgery for removal of glasses. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Your eyes are one of the most important parts of your body. They are delicate and essential. But, there are instances of it getting injured. Corneal abrasion or scratched eye is one of the most common injuries related to the eye. It causes discomfort to the eyes. It also leads to reddening of the eye and makes it hypersensitive to light. Corneal abrasions are caused due to loss of corneal cell in the upper region of the cornea. The top or upper layer is known as corneal epithelium.
Cornea is the front part of the eye. It’s task is to help in focusing of light and enables us to see objects. A good and healthy cornea is needed and a must for having good eyesight. Thus, it is always advisable to visit an ophthalmologist immediately after you notice a corneal abrasion or meet with an accident that has led to corneal injury.
What Are The Factor That Causes Corneal Abrasions?
There are a number of ways that can result in corneal abrasion. It should be kept in mind that anything that comes in direct contact with the eye can lead to corneal injury. It is a painful scratch on the clear part of the eye or cornea.countless ways to get a corneal abrasion. Objects ranging from tree branches, paper, make up tools, finger, pet, debris in the workplace to sports toll, anything can cause an injury to the eye.
Most of the corneal abrasions are n’t caused due to traumatic incidents that are noticeable. Your cornea might get affected by sand, dust and any other tiny object. The chance of corneal abrasion increases with dry eyes. The problem gets worse at the time of waking up from sleep. If your eyes are dry, it will get hurt as the lids can tear and dislodge a part of the cornea. It is a myth that contact lenses protect your eyes. They can also be the cause behind corneal abrasion.
Symptoms Of Scratched Cornea:
It is important to know that the cornea is one of the most sensitive parts of our body. Any injury in the cornea can be really painful. Other symptoms may include redness, tearing, headache, blurry vision, etc.
Treatments For Corneal Abrasion:
The treatment depends upon the severity of the injury. Minor injuries can be cured with the help of non-preserved lubricating drops. It fastens the natural healing process. These are also treated with the use of antibiotic drops. The healing may take some two to three days times.
Treatment for a corneal abrasion depends on the severity of the wound and the cause. Minor abrasions sometimes can be treated with non-preserved lubricating drops to keep your eye moist and comfortable while your eye's natural healing process takes place. In critical cases, an antibiotic ointment might be asked to use for a longer period.
Cleaning the eye with ringer lactate and the pad. The affected eye is very important to allow cornea to re-epithelise. Padding may be needed for 48 hrs depending on loss of epithelium. Certain medicine like dilating the pupil and pain liver may be needed for a day or two depending on severity. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!