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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I am 4 days due to period, but m feeling cramps in lower abdomen and feeling wet down is that sign of pregnancy or periods.
My left ovary is 10.45 cc and right is 10 cc. What does this mean? What is the measurement in cm? The report showed there is predominant solid stroma and peripherally arranged small follicles. What do these mean?
Hi doctor, I am 39 years old and having 9 years old son. W are planning for second baby since 1 yr. But unable to conceive. Since 3 yrback I was naturally conceived. But due some cyst problem in my right ovary I abort my pregnancy with medicine. Since now I am unable to conceive. Also every month my periods comes 5-6 days prior or 7 days prior. So kindly suggest what is the reason behind it.
I am 8 week 5 days of pregnant and I am a thyroid patient using 75 mg now. I have checked my thyroid report now tsh level is 13.6 pls suggest me the dose?
Ovarian cyst. It is in left side of Overy. About 3 cm in diameter. I am giving her siocare (Albert David ) syrup. Kya ye thik kar sakta hai. Agar nahi to please thik hone k liye dawa prescribe karen. .
Hi sir, I need help from you side. I am having a high bp (hypertension) from last 2002 year and I am presently taking medicines (stamelota beta and telma-h) one dose per day. I have a baby of 5 years and five years back at the time of pregnancy faces the problem of high uncontrolled bp and gave birth in 7 months pre-matured baby by operation weight 1kg. Need suggestion that can I plan or not for second baby bcoz some doctors said that you can go for that but its a risk plan. please give me better suggestion that should I plan or not and have to make any changes in medicine. Thank you. please suggest.
Nephrotic syndrome is a type of kidney disorder wherein, the body passes out the excess amount of proteins through urine, owing to the damage caused to the tiny clusters of blood vessels in the kidneys. The symptoms include putting on excessive weight as a result of fluid retention, foamy urine and severe swelling around the region of the feet, ankles and eyes.
The main feature of nephrotic syndrome is that the kidneys leak a lot of protein. Normally, urine contains virtually no protein. In nephrotic syndrome the urine contains large amounts of protein. What happens is that filters in the kidneys (the glomeruli) become 'leaky' and protein, instead of remaining in the blood, leaks out into the urine. Protein in the urine is called proteinuria.
The other key features of nephrotic syndrome are:
- A low level of protein in the blood as a result of protein loss in the urine. Although there is a drop in many of the proteins normally found in the bloodstream, the main protein that leaks from the blood into the urine is called albumin. A low blood level of albumin is main feature of nephrotic syndrome.
- Fluid retention (oedema). This is a consequence of the low level of albumin in the bloodstream, and other complex factors not fully understood.
- A high blood level of cholesterol and other fats (lipids). This is due to the change in the balance of various protein levels in the blood due to the protein leakage.
- Normal kidney function, at least initially. This means that the 'waste clearing' function of the kidneys is not affected - at least not at first. However, some of the conditions that cause nephrotic syndrome can progress to cause chronic kidney disease.
- Other typical symptoms and signs of nephrotic syndrome are discussed later.
Common causes behind it
Minimal change disease (also known as nil disease) leads to the abnormal functioning of the kidneys.. Most common cause almost 90% of children have this entity. No body knows why the Minimal change disease nephrotic syndrome occurs. Other reasons for nephrotic syndrome are infections, autoimmunity mediated and few medications.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the name given to a collection of kidney-related findings in your child’s body. These include:
- proteinuria—high levels of protein in the urine (based on your child’s age and size)
- hypoalbuminemia—low levels of protein in your child’s blood, since it’s being passed out of his body in his urine
- edema—swelling. This happens because the proteins in your child’s blood act as a sponge to keep fluid in the blood. With fewer proteins to do this, the fluid may leak out of the blood into your child’s tissues, causing them to swell, especially around the stomach area.
- high cholesterol (blood fat) levels—low levels of protein in the blood stimulate the body to overproduce certain kinds of blood fats
- While nephrotic syndrome is not a disease, it can be the first sign of disease that can damage the kidney's tiny blood-filtering unit (glomeruli) where urine is made.
Here’s what you need to know about nephrotic syndrome:
- In the vast majority of children, NS is idiopathic, meaning that doctors don’t yet know what causes it.
- Nephrotic syndrome always affects both kidneys.
- It usually appears between the toddler and elementary school years, although it may appear later.
- There are thought to be two forms of nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD) and focal sclerosis (FSGS).
- MCD is much more common in children, and likely to respond to therapy.
- FSGS is a more aggressive disease, and may lead to kidney damage.
- Most children with NS outgrow it by young adulthood.
Pediatric Nephrotic syndrome is mainly treated by high dose steroids. So we classify Nephrotic syndrome as Steroid sensitive Nephrotic syndrome and Steroid Resistant Nephrotic syndrome. As long as the Nephrotic syndrome is steroid sensitive, kidneys usually do not fail and eventually the child recovers. Other aspect of management of Nephrotic syndrome in kids is, that is a relapsing and remitting disease in more than 2/3 of patients, so parents must be making a Nephrotic diary as suggested by the doctor so that the relapse of disease is picked before the swelling appears. Target of Nephrotic syndrome treatment is to make the child grow normally and using steroid sparing agents in kids with frequent relapses and Steroid dependence else they can develop high blood pressure, short stature, cataract, glaucoma and diabetes which all are irreversible. Never start or stop the steroids on your own considering the side effect profile. All vaccines including oral polio drops are not to be given in children receiving daily dose steroids. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
I am a 21 year old female. I have been having severe itching and discomfort around my vaginal opening for almost a week now. This happens every morning till noon. I also have urges to urinate frequently during this time but when I do, only drops of urine passes. I have no pain or burning. Please suggest me a cure.
Mam are beta hcg tests always accurate. I did on 16 day of my missed period and less then 1.2 .but no periods i.e m 29 days late .why.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, also known as PID, is characterized by an infection that occurs in a lady's reproductive organs. Usually this occurs as a result of a complications arising from a STD. The disease causes severe damage to the ovaries, fallopian tubes and the uterus. It is one of the bigger causes of infertility in women.
The cervix which is the entry to the uterus has the function of stopping bacteria that are present in the vagina from spreading to the other organs. Once infected by a STD, the cervix can no longer perform its function of preventing the bacteria from spreading to other organs. PID develops when the infection spreads from the cervix to the upper areas of the genital tract.
There are certain factors which increase the chances of being affected by PID:
- Being sexually active
- Already affected by STDs such as gonorrhea
- Past history of PID
- Having multiple sexual partners
Women may experience pain while urinating and engaging in sexual intercourse, coupled with sore feeling in the stomach along with nausea. Abnormal vaginal discharge and a rise in body temperature are common symptoms as well.
Once the disease has been diagnosed by a doctor, a treatment plan is devised. The treatment options that you can avail of are:
- Medications: If the symptoms are mild, then the doctor will prescribe antibiotic medications. Usually the antibiotics are administered by mouth unless the symptoms are severe, when the drugs are administered intravenously. Your partner would also require medications if you happen to be diagnosed with PID, so that he/she does not catch it.
- Surgery: Surgery is recommended by the doctor in case of tissue inflammation and the presence of pus (abscess). The aim of surgery is to get rid of the abscess to prevent any further infection.
In addition to the treatment methods, there are certain precautionary measures that you can adopt to be safe:
- Have protected sex.
- Try and stick to one sexual partner.
- Visit your gynecologist for regular checkups.