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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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A Pap smear test helps in detecting the signs and onset of cervical cancer. This test helps in pointing at the presence of any suspicious cells that may require further examination and testing with the help of an oncologist. You will enjoy a negative result in case you have a normal reading during the examination process and no further treatment will be required. Yet, you will be asked to go through the test on a regular basis. But here is what happens if you have an abnormal reading.
- Positive Result: You are said to have a positive result, if you have any unusual or abnormal cells were found during this Pap Smear Test. While this may not necessarily mean that you have cervical cancer, it can show what kind of abnormal cells are present in this area of your body. The doctor will check for the following things after a positive result.
- ASCUS: This is also known as Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance. This is a liquid based test that will seek to study the thin and flat squamous cells that may be found on the surface of a perfectly healthy and normal cervix. This test will check for the presence of any virus that may lead to the development of cancer and to determine the level of risk to the patient. Further, if there is any high risk virus, then further treatment and testing will be required.
- Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion: When some of the cells that have been extracted during the Pap Smear test turn out to be precancerous, then they are Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions. In many cases, it takes a few years for these lesions to turn cancerous especially when the changes are low grade, which pertains to the size, shape and other features of the same. If a high grade lesion is detected, then diagnostic testing in the form of imaging tests may be required.
- Atypical Glandular Cells: These mucus producing cells grow within the cervical opening and usually spread into the uterus as well. While they may appear abnormal, it is difficult to tell whether or not they are cancerous, especially in the early stages.
- Squamous Cell Cancer: This is an almost certain reading of the growth of cancer in the cervix. When a reading from the Pap Smear includes such a finding, the doctor will recommend immediate evaluation.
- Colposcopy: Once you have had a positive reading with any of the above findings, the doctor will perform this procedure with sample tissue extracted during a biopsy. This will be done with the use of a special magnifying tool known as a colposcope to examine the cervix, vagina and vulva tissues.
I am in physical relationship frm past 3 years starting I used to take I pill for unprotected frm that day I am having irregular periods and gaining my weight my question is do fortut prbms will be faced like in future will I able to conceive child.
I got my periods in dec. Jan was skipped and it came on feb. Got skipped for 1 month. Happening for the first time. Not sexually active. And I got red and white pimples on the upper side of my shoulders. What's happening? Please help.
I am a 27 year old female I HV 8 months baby by normal delivery. But now I have hair loss problem what should I do?
I am 33 weeks pregnant and I have pain in my leg last two days and I am uncomfortable to sleep in the night because of pain and I feel baby movement only after noon is it normal or some problem? other wise my all report is fine till 32 weeks.
Keep your face clean. Use a mild face wash at least twice a day. Drink lots of water.
People with oily skin avoid oily food, butter, cheese and other dairy products.
Don't rub your face whenever you sweat, dab it.
When acne are present, do not touch them, press them or pick on them, this doesn't help at all. On the contrary, it leaves marks which are difficult to clear.
Avoid rubbing and scrubbing your skin.
These simple tips make the further treatment easy and more effective.
I'm 5 weeks pregnant And I have mild abdomen pain for 2 sec And I have White discharge Is this a problem or normal?
I have been married for 2 months now and I missed my periods this month I need to know whether I can be pregnant.
I am pregnant for 2 months, I am facing constipation. Taking some folic acid medicine, what can I eat to reduce my problem.
Hi! My age is 23. I had unprotected sex on 19th June and took Unwanted 72 within 2 hrs. I was expecting my period on 23-25th June but now on 24th June I have got only one drop of blood (probably spotting) and extremely painful stomach cramps continuing till 26th June. During this entire week I had severe headache several times and vomiting once on 2nd day of taking pill. I am worried if the pill has worked or not? Are these early sign of pregnancy?
I am really worried as I am having clots of blood from last 15 days I had my period on 14 previous month but this month they were from 11 from then I am having clots of blood even now in a very small quantity but daily .I did my usg and tsh t3 t4 all of them are ok except that my usg shows a very small paraovarian cyst which acc to doctors is a water ball and will vansh away with time by itself. But why are these clots then? Wat is the actual problem please tell me asap.
I am 20 yrs girl. I will feel always tied and backache during my menses period plus normally I have digestion problem. Motion is not free to go. What can I do? I don't want tablets or any treatment. I need to clear by eating day to day foods so wat are the things I should add?
I have done my lower abdominal scan and the report says simple left ovarian cyst measuring 83 x 58 mm.
The lungs are made of tubes through, which air passes in and out for exchange of gases, taking in alveoli. It is a disease of alveoli to which finer air conducting tubes are attached. Over a period of time, with age and exposure to various agents, these tubules get obstructed. The amount of air that can pass through these is reduced, leading to reduced oxygen supply to the lungs and thereby the various body organs.
The symptoms of COPD can be easily understood if we realize how COPD is caused. The progressive blockage of the air tubes causes less oxygen to reach the tissues, which is the most essential agent for all tissues and organs to function. Reduced supply produces a generalized limitation in physical activity. There are two main components to COPD - chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The symptoms indicative of COPD are as follows:
- Chronic cough: Also referred to as smoker's cough, the cough is relentless and does not subside with regular cough treatment. This is one of the first indications of COPD.
- Mucus buildup: There is constant buildup of mucus which gets expelled during coughing. The person never feels completely clear of mucus, and the regular cough expectorants do not help relieve the symptoms.
- Fatigue associated with limited activity: As noted earlier, the reduced capacity of the organs limits their activities. Therefore, regular activities like walking short distances or climbing stairs can induce fatigue.
- Shortness of breath: The above fatigue is associated with shortness of breath, even with small physical exertion. A person with COPD will see marked tiredness and reduced ability to perform routine chores and feel a tightness in the chest.
- Wheezing: Passage of air through the obstructed air tubes produces a whistling sound or wheezing. It is more pronounced when there is mucus accumulation in the airways.
Rarely, Frequent respiratory infections, more frequent flu attacks, swelling of the feet and ankles, cardiovascular disease, weight loss, and morning headaches.
While there is no cure for COPD, once it sets, the following are some ways to slow its progression and reduce severity of the symptoms:
- Bronchodilators: Dilate the air tubes and ease flow of air
- Corticosteroids: Help reduce inflammation and thereby improve airflow through the tubes
- Flu vaccination: Helps curb the frequent flu attacks
- Antibiotics: To contain infections
- Pulmonary rehabilitation: A combination of breathing exercise and patient education to improve lung function.
- Oxygen therapy: In very severe cases, oxygen may be required.
- Lifestyle changes: Eating healthy foods, preventing exposure to dust and smoke, quitting smoking, breathing exercises, bi-annual medical check-ups to monitor lung functions are essential.
Knowing that you have COPD is the first step towards managing COPD, which can be managed effectively.