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Which moisturiser will work best for your skin type?
Moisturisers are extremely essential during winters for keeping your skin soft and hydrated. The chief function of moisturisers is to ensure that the outermost layer of your skin can hold water to prevent the skin from becoming dry and charred. But, any moisturiser you choose randomly might not be effective for your skin. For making the most of your moisturiser choose one that is suitable for your specific skin type. Read on to find about the correct type of moisturisers required for each skin type.
1. Dry skin
Dry skin becomes even drier during the winters and requires a heavier, oil-based moisturiser with hydrating ingredients to remain soft. Additionally, if your skin is too dry or cracked, using products containing mineral jellies like petroleum jelly will be beneficial. This is because these products are known to minimise evaporation of moisture from your skin.
2. Oily skin
Acne and breakouts mostly occur on the oily skin, so it will be best to choose a light, water-based moisturiser if you have this type of skin. Moreover, try to opt for a product that is non-comedogenic in nature, which will ensure that you do not get clogged pores due to the moisturiser.
3. Normal skin
Normal skin can be characterised by perfect natural oil balance and an even tone. For keeping your skin soft you need to keep this natural balance intact, which can be done by using a water-based product containing lightweight oils or ingredients derived from silicon. Additionally, ensure that your moisturiser gives your skin a light non-greasy feel.
4. Sensitive skin
Sensitive skin is generally prone to skin irritations, itching, redness and rashes. If you have sensitive skin, then look for a moisturiser that contains ingredients known for generating a soothing effect like chamomile or aloe. Moreover, ensure that the product is free from potential allergens like fragrances or dyes and acids to prevent side effects such as skin irritation.
5. Combination skin
Combination skin is the toughest type of skin to maintain. People with this type of skin have an oily t-zone consisting of the nose, chin and forehead along with the cheeks having dry skin. To keep combination skin hydrated you need to use a heavy moisturiser on the cheeks and an oil-free water-based product on the t-zone. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
As complex as it may sound, Keratosis Pilaris is a harmless, non-contagious type of skin disorder, which primarily affects people with dry skin. This disease has the potential to convert a person’s once smooth skin into skin as rough as sandpaper.
A number of light-coloured small bumps start appearing on the skin and in most cases, they tend to appear on the upper arms, thighs and buttocks of the affected person. In certain cases, there may be some swelling or redness, which comes along with the bumps. The skin loses its original glow and colour.
As mentioned above, people with dry skin suffer from Keratosis Pilaris. Also anyone with extra sensitive skin who is prone to be allergic to various substances tend to fall prey to this disease. Often Keratosis Pilaris is inherited from other family members as well. Persons suffering from asthma and eczema have higher chances of getting affected by Keratosis Pilaris.
But what leads to such a condition? A protein in our body called ‘keratin’, which protects our skin from various infections, is the main cause behind Keratosis Pilaris. Although there is no particular reason for excess building up of keratin in our body, too much of it under the skin leads to blockages of hair follicles and growth of rashes.
For people who are scared of medical tests, it may be a relief to know that Keratosis Pilaris does not need any sort of testing. Treatment of Keratosis Pilaris is a time taking process and immediate results may not be seen after applying a particular lotion or cream. However, sometimes it gets cured on its own without any medication.
To start off, the amount of time which is spent in water should be limited. In addition to this, there are other steps which may be taken. For example, while taking a shower, hot water should be substituted by warm water. Also, it is vital to ensure that the skin is adequately moist. Two ways of going about doing this are using moisturizers and making use of a humidifier. Make sure you use mild soaps for regular hygiene and for your shower.
Who gets Keratosis Pilaris?
Anyone can get Keratosis Pilaris. It is estimated to affect between 50-80% of all adolescents and approximately 40% of adults. Females may be more frequently affected than males. Age of onset is often within the first 10 years of life and can particularly get worse during puberty. Keratosis Pilaris may however begin at any age. A large percentage of patients have other people in their family with the same condition. It has commonly been seen in twins. Keratosis Pilaris is also seen in atopic dermatitis patients and patients with very dry skin.
One big relief when it comes to having Keratosis Pilaris is the fact that there is little risk at all if a person has it as it is not threatening. That being said, the sooner it is under control, the better! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist and ask a free question.
How treatment is carried out in Mesotherapy
Skin complexion varies and is caused by the skin pigmentation known as ‘melanin’, produced by cells called melanocytes, which gives skin the colour. The more amount of melanin, the darker the complexion. Melanin has a protective effect against sun exposure, as it reduces damage caused by the sun on the skin. It is proven that people with a darker complexion (with more melanin) are less prone to damage from sun exposure.
What are they? Freckles are cells that contain more amount of melanin compared to the surrounding areas. It is a common sight where some people have small, tiny black/brown spots on their faces. These spots may also be present on the hands, elbows, neck, back, etc., but are most obvious in the face. These are known as freckles.
Causes: Freckles are very common, and they are triggered by exposure to sunlight. The melanocytes absorb the sun and produce more melanin, thereby causing freckles. They are a natural reaction of the skin to the sun.
It runs in families, and children are likely to have freckles if the parents had them.
It also depends on complexion – fair people are more prone to have freckles than dark people.
Tanning, whether done by the sun or in a salon, also increases the chances of having freckles.
In some people, the freckles appear in the summer and disappear in the winter.
While some precancerous lesions may start off as tiny brown spots and be mistaken for freckles, freckles per se are not cancerous.
Management: While there are stories that freckles are angel kisses, they are not true. Freckles do not bring any good luck charm and can be prevented and avoided to improve overall skin and esthetic appeal.
Prevention is the first option, and if you are genetically disposed to have freckles, it is best to take measures that can reduce freckles. Avoiding or reducing sun exposure and using good sun protection can help in reducing the number of freckles and the darkness of the freckles.
Freckles can be treated by one of the following:
Topical Creams- Though widely used, these contain bleaching agents which act on the entire skin and not just the freckles. Retin-A is one of the widely used products.
Laser- Considered the best method for freckle removal, a beam of the laser is used to get rid of the unwanted melanocytes which produce melanin. This not only reduces freckles, it also improves skin tone and colour.
Cryotherapy- Liquid nitrogen is used to freeze the melanin-producing cells, thereby removing freckles.
If you have freckles, try these measures for getting rid of them. Once that is done, preventing freckle formation with limiting sun exposure and sun protection is extremely essential. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
Impetigo is a type of skin infection commonly seen in children and rarely in adults. It is contagious in nature; bacteria like staphylococcus aureus and at times, streptococcus pyogenes, are responsible for the occurrence of this infection. Generally, the face, hand and neck regions of the children get affected. Impetigo can be classified into two kinds: non-bullous impetigo or impetigo contagiosa and bullous impetigo.
Non-bullous impetigo appears like red sores, which burst rapidly, leaving behind a brownish yellow crust and is more contagious in nature. Bullous impetigo, on the other hand, is generally painless and the blisters are fluid-filled.
The causes of impetigo are as follows
1. Warm and humid climate may trigger impetigo
2. Contact with an infected child can spread the infection to a healthy child.
3. Cuts or injuries can be responsible for impetigo
4. Sports like football and wrestling can also sometimes lead to impetigo.
5. Insect bite and skin rashes
6. Prolonged use of diapers
7. Skin problems like eczema or burns
8. Skin inflammation may also result in impetigo.
9. At times, animal bites may also result in impetigo.
Impetigo is generally noticed in children belonging to the age group of two-five years. Some of the most common symptoms of impetigo are mentioned below
1. Blisters that are filled with fluid
2. Red colored sores can pop out on the infected region
4. Lymph nodes may become swollen
5. Pus may come out from the sores
6. Sometimes the sores may look like pimples
Impetigo, though easily curable, must not be ignored as it can spread rapidly to the other parts of your body. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Here are causes, prevention and treatments of patchy or uneven skin tone
Dermatitis Herpetiformis is a condition in which there are constant and painful eruptions of rashes and subsequent itching. They mostly develop on the knees, scalps, buttocks and the back. This rash is indicative of your allergy to gluten. A strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is essential for people suffering from this disease. The primary cause of dermatitis herpetiformis is celiac disease.
Gluten is a protein which is present in wheat and rye. People who have allergy to gluten are said to be suffering from Celiac disease. Dermatitis Herpetiformis, in turn, occurs in people who suffer from Celiac disease. An antibody called immunoglobulin, made to combat with gluten proteins reacts with gluten causing violent eruptions of rashes and subsequent bouts of itching.
There are various, perceptible symptoms of dermatitis herpetiformis. Some of them are:
Sensation of Burning: Before visible rashes appear on the body, your skin may suffer from a constant sensation of burning. The area where it does take place is where the rashes erupt later on.
Outbreak of Rash: One of the most common conditions symptomatic of dermatitis herpetiformis is an outbreak of rashes in the elbows, shoulders and scalp. These rashes are an extreme cause of discomfort as they itch continuously. If you notice rashes on these parts of the body that recover themselves only to erupt again later, chances are high that you are suffering from dermatitis herpetiformis.
Bumps: Along with rashes, another important symptom of dermatitis herpetiformis is the eruption of even sized bumps all over the body. They are filled with liquids which have the ability to heal themselves but they quickly re-appear, leaving behind a purple color mark on the body.
Though various treatments have developed to treat dermatitis herpetiformis, there are many medical complications that this disease entails. Some of them are:
Intestinal Cancer: Celiac disease causes damage of the intestines. Therefore if you are suffering from it for a long time, the continuous inflammation of the intestine causes intestinal cancer.
Anemia: If you are suffering from dermatitis herpetiformis, the intestines refuse to absorb nutrients. If such a condition persists, chances are you may suffer from anemia and deficiencies of certain vitamins.
If you wish to discuss about any specific skin problem, you can consult a specilized dermatologist and ask a free question.
Here are some general queries related to hair fall.
Here are some queries related to laser hair reduction.
Here are treatment , procedures and do's and don'ts of acne.
Acne is an inflammatory skin disorder which is prevalent in both males and females. When the sebaceous glands present on skin produce excessive sebum, the hair follicles present on skin get clogged leading to the formation of acne.
Acne can be triggered by a number of factors. Here are some of the common triggers for acne:
- Genetics: If one or both parents have acne, their children have high chances of suffering from it as well. Genes influence the sensitivity of your skin towards hormones such as androgens and progesterone that trigger acne. They also influence the production of anti inflammatory chemicals in the skin and skin's response to bacteria.
- Stress: The severity of acne can be correlated to the levels of stress a person is facing. While scientists are yet to figure the exact relationship between stress and acne; it is known that the cells that produce sebum or oil also act as stress receptors. Studies suggest that when a person is under stress, these cells produce excessive sebum that clogs pores on the skin leading to pimples.
- Hormones: Hormones play an important role in skin health especially when it comes to women. Androgens or the male hormones present in both men and women, trigger acne by over stimulating the oil glands. Women may also see an increase in pimples during menstruation. This is due to the fluctuating levels of progesterone that stimulate the production of sebum.
- Medication: Acne is one of the side effects to a few types of medication such as corticosteroids and anticonvulsants. However, this is not seen very often. On the other hand, drugs that contain hormones such as androgenic steroids almost always cause an acne breakout. Treatment for acne depends on the severity of the condition and its persistence. Mild cases can be easily treated with over the counter medication, but if your acne is severe and not affected by these medications, it best to consult a dermatologist.
Dandruff is not something that you can catch from someone else. It is an embarrassing condition but also a major cause for hairfall and hair weakening. It is estimated to affect as many as one in five individuals in india. You're said to suffer from the problem of dandruff when the skin renewal cycle of your scalp accelerates all of a sudden. This brings about the development of patches of dead skin on your scalp surface and the resultant dry, skin flakes called dandruff.
The causes of this very common problem can be:
- Having dry skin can also cause dandruff to develop, which are less oily and smaller in nature.
- Even irritated oily skin, more commonly known as seborrheic dermatitis can cause you to suffer from these white skin flakes. The problem can be easily identified by its distinguishing yellow or white flakes over the red greasy skin surface.
- Not shampooing your hair regularly can cause skin cells and oils to build up in the scalp leading to the outbreak of dandruff.
- Sensitivity to certain hair care products and the presence of Malassezia (a type of fungus) are other causes that can lead to dandruff problems.
Oiling your hair is the most effective measure that you can take against this scalp problem. While the ideal time to do this is at night so that you can wash it off the next morning, one should also remember that hair oil shouldn't be left on the hair for over 24 hours. Additionally, dry scalp makes it very easy for dandruff to develop as the oil-secreting glands found in the scalp's epidermal layers produce low or no natural oil. Application of oil helps in keeping the scalp nourished as well as enables glands to produce oil. But leaving it on for more than the recommended hours can intensify your dandruff problem and further accelerate the hair fall process.
Oily skin is a condition that can be characterized by shine on the skin and a large number of pores. The oil in question is a result of overactive sebaceous glands that produce excessive sebum. This can result in acne and blackheads. It is important to take care of oily skin to prevent breakouts.
Mentioned below are tips to assist you in your skincare regimen:
- Diet: Diet plays an important role in the health of your skin, so consuming too many oily and fried foods can increase the chances of getting acne and pimples on your skin. Eat more vegetables and fruits to keep your skin healthy.
- Stay hydrated: Drinking water regularly helps in replenishing the lost fluids from your body and it also improves overall body health.
- Use warm water to clean your skin: Cleaning your face with warm water opens up the pores and clears the dirt from; thus removing the layer of oil from the face more effectively than cold water.
- Face masks: You may use face mask, such as sandalwood or fuller earth to get rid of the excessive oil on the skin. In addition to removing oil, it also cleans and removes impurities from the skin.
- Limit scrubbing: You should restrict exfoliating your face 2 to 3 times a week as too much exfoliation may result in excessive oil production. Over scrubbing may cause the skin to lose its natural oils and turn dry.
- Use medicated pads: To freshen up your face, use wet tissues or medicated pads to soak up the oil, which shall help in freshening up your face.
- Choose makeup wisely: It is not recommended to use heavy makeup if you have an oily skin. Instead use water based makeup that is light and oily skin friendly.
The skin has a protein called keratin that protects it from infections and other harmful toxins. For various reasons, mostly unknown, but likely genetic, there could be a build up of this keratin leading to small, light-colored, hard bumps under the skin that can feel like sandpaper. This condition is medically known as keratosis pilaris. These pillars of keratin block the hair follicles that open onto the surface of the skin, and when a number of follicles are blocked, it leads to dry, bumpy feeling. In common words, it is also referred to as chicken skin, chicken bumps, or goose bumps.
- Occurrence: The onset is usually in the first decade of life, continues to grow in number in teenagers (80%), and slowly subsides as they grow older (40% of adults). People with dry skin are more likely to have these bumps than people with oily skin. The most commonly affected areas include upper arms, thighs, buttocks and very rarely on the face.
- Cause: This is a genetic disorder, and the bumps are due to excessive formation and buildup of keratin due to faulty genes. There could be surplus skin formation under these follicles or hair follicles trapped under these bumps. There could be a small area of inflammation and redness around the bumps.
- Weather Correlation: Keratosis pilaris is more common and evident during the winter months when the skin is normally drier than in summer months. Some people could have this condition lifelong, with only manifestation seen in winters and complete absence of bumps in the summer months.
- Symptoms: The condition is usually asymptomatic, except for the dryness, and does not cause itching or medical harm. The esthetic concern, especially if in upper arms, is the only concern. Some people could be affected by the hard, bumpy feeling of the skin. There are no long-term medical symptoms or harmful effects of this condition though.
- Treatment: No treatment is required; however, moisturizers may be required to prevent the bumps from drying up. In very severe cases, creams may be used to remove dead skin cells and to prevent plugged follicles. Alpha hydroxy acid, salicylic acid, or lactic acid containing creams can be used to remove the dead skin cells. These also help moisturize the skin and reduce dryness. Vitamin A containing creams can be used to unplug the hair follicles.
- A word of caution though: These creams can cause itching and redness. Since this condition is prevalent in children, these creams need to be used only if absolutely essential and with medical prescriptions. The condition is harmless and self-limiting, so no treatment is mandatory. Patient education is of utmost importance in these cases.
Folliculitis is an ordinary dermatological condition which causes inflammation of hair follicles of the skin. This condition, which occurs due to both bacterial and fungal infections, causes small red or white pimples to form around the hair follicles. The infection, if left untreated, can spread and turn into rough, coarse sores which may take a long time to heal.
The Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is responsible for causing the infection, which leads to this commonly occurring condition. In some cases, folliculitis can be also caused by viruses and fungi which had perhaps penetrated the ingrown hairs causing subsequent inflammation. This condition is categorized and diagnosed as a superficial or deep infection depending on the amount of hair follicles involved.
- Friction caused by shaving or tight - fitting clothes
- Heat and sweat, due to prolonged exposure to the sun
- Skin conditions like acne
- Tightly wrapped bandages or dressings on the skin
- Clusters of tiny red or white bumps in and around the hair follicles
- Reddened and inflamed skin
- Itchy skin and rashes
- Pus-filled blisters that may crust and later break
- Swelling on the skin
Anyone, whether young or old, may develop folliculitis. But, there are certain factors that increase the risks of the condition. The following are some of them:
- Conditions like HIV or AIDS that reduces the immunity in your body
- A pre-existing condition of acne or dermatitis
- Being obese
- Medications and ointments with side effects
- Improper shaving
Many a times, people ignore this condition, presuming that it will heal with time. But if left untreated, complications such as large itchy patches of skin, increased swelling and heightened inflammation of hair follicles may occur.
Fungal infection in the nails is caused by an overgrowth of fungi in your nails. When the growth of fungus happens on the fingernails or toenails, it is known as onychomycosis or tinea unguium.
Here are the probable causes of why you might get a fungal nail infection:
- Problems in your circulatory system
- Artificial nails
- Swimming in public pools
- Nail injuries
- Skin injuries surrounding the nail
- Fingers or toes, which have been moist for an extended period of time
- Immune system problems
- Wearing shoes which have enclosed toes
It is also worth noting that fungal infections happen much more frequently in your toenail as compared to your fingernails, this is because of two main reasons. Firstly, that the fungi can grow very easily on your toenails because of the position as your shoes are dark, warm and moist and therefore, perfect for the growth of fungi.
The second reason for more fungal infections on your toenails as compared to your fingernails is because toes have less blood flow than fingers, thus making it harder for the immune system to fight off the infection.
Fungal infections in your nails are one of the easier infections to diagnose. This is because there are several symptoms which indicate you have this condition.
Here are some of those symptoms:
- Scaling underneath your skin
- White or yellow streaks on your nails
- Corners of the nail may crumble
- Flaky surface of the nail
- Yellow spots at the bottom of the nails
- Loss of nail
- A nail breaking off from the rest of the nail
- An odor from the nail
- Brittle or thick nails