Routine Eye Checkup
Computed Corneal Topography Procedure
Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment
Visual Field Testing
Orbital & Optic Nerve Decompression Procedure
Treatment of Leg Length Inequality
Lasik Surgery Treatment
Laser Refractive Surgery
Laser Cataract Surgery
Patient Review Highlights
The cornea is a highly organized and advanced tissue present in the eye. It is one of the few tissues in the body that doesn't contain any blood vessels. It nourishes itself from the aqueous humor (or tears). The cornea has three different layers with two membranes embedded in it. Every membrane has its own set of functions.
Here is a list of 10 important facts about the cornea and corneal diseases:
- The cornea plays a pivotal role in helping the eye to focus on the light rays that enter it. Approximately 70 percent of the focusing power comes from the cornea. The cornea, along with the lens, is responsible for reflection and refraction in the eye.
- The epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea. It restricts the entry of foreign particles into the eye and absorbs oxygen. This membrane is followed by the Bowman's membrane. The third layer is known as the stroma. It is responsible for the eye's elasticity and strength. The fourth layer is called the Descemet's membrane. This is a protective layer that safeguards the eye from any injury. The last layer is known as the endothelium. The primary task of this layer is to pump excess fluid into the other layers of the eye.
- Tears play a key role for an eye to function properly. Tears have three layers, namely lipid, aqueous and mucin. It helps the eye to heal any possible wounds and infection.
- The cornea, for the most part, heals by itself. Deeper injuries of the cornea can result in vision loss. Some of the common symptoms of corneal diseases are light sensitivity, pain in the eye, redness and reduced vision.
- The most common of eye allergies are caused due to pollen. This often happens when the weather is dry or warm. Some common symptoms include burning sensation, redness, tearing and stinging.
- The eye encounters a condition called 'dry eye' wherein the quantity of tears reduces, thereby creating a problem for lubrication. An ophthalmologist should be immediately consulted if this condition is encountered.
- Corneal dystrophy is a condition that clouds the cornea. It is a gradual progression and often affects both the eyes. It is usually inherited and can affect healthy individuals as well.
- Keratoconus is an eye condition that thins the cornea over a period of time. It is mostly prevalent among young adults. This condition results in changing the shape of the cornea and development of an outward bulge.
- Shingles is a recurrence of the viral infection caused by the Vatic El - La Zoster Virus. This virus has the capability to remain dormant inside the eye. It can become active after many years of dormancy and affect the cornea by travelling through the optic nerve. Doctors mostly prescribe an oral antiviral treatment to avoid inflammation.
- Some advanced treatment for corneal diseases includes corneal transplant surgery, anterior lamellar keratoplasty and endothelial lamellar keratoplasty
Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.
What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:
- Immune system attack from the body
- Eye bruises
- Eye infection or tumor within the eye
- Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye
What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.
What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?
One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.
What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.
The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.
Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.
One of the most common ailments that affect elders the most is cataract. Cataract develops gradually and can occur in one or both eyes and if not treated in time can cause blindness. Most cataracts are not visible to the naked eye, but in some cases, a dense cataract can make the pupil appear white. A cataract can be defined as a dense, cloudy build up of protein masses on the eye lens. This obstructs the light falling on the retina and does not allow the retina to form a clear image.
Advancing in age is one of the most common causes of cataracts. Along with this, there are several other factors that play a role in the development of cataracts as well. These include smoking,exposure to ultraviolet radiation, long term use of steroids, trauma, radiation therapy and diabetes. Anything that triggers an overproduction of chemically altered oxygen molecules in the body can increase your risk of suffering from this condition. Hypertension and a family history of cataracts can also put you at a higher risk of developing cataracts. Poor nutrition or a diet that is deficient in antioxidants can also put you at a high risk of suffering from this condition.
Cataracts can be categorized on the basis of where and how they develop in the eye. This categorization is based on location:
- Nuclear Cataract: These develop in the middle of the lens and turn the center of the eye yellow. Nuclear cataracts are typically associated with aging.
- Cortical cataract: These develop around the edges of the nucleus and are wedge shaped. Gradually, spokes emitted from these wedges work themselves towards the center of the eye.
- Posterior capsular cataract: These are among the faster growing cataracts and develop at the back of the lens.They are also known as subcapsular cataracts. Cataracts triggered by diabetes or the prolonged use of steroids usually fall in this category.
Categorization based on how they develop:
- Congenital cataract: These are present at birth or develop within the first year of a baby's life. Congenital cataracts are rare.
- Secondary cataract: These are triggered as a side effect of medications or diseases like glaucoma and diabetes. Prolonged use of steroids like prednisone can also lead to the development of such cataracts.
- Traumatic cataract: Cataract that is developed as a result of an injury to the eye is known as traumatic cataracts. They have a very slow rate of development.
- Radiation cataract: It develops as a side effect of radiation therapy used to treat cancer.
Even something as small as an eyeball, has multiple parts within it. The retina at the back of the eyeball is responsible for the clarity of vision. The central area of the retina is known as the macula. Macular degeneration is the deterioration of this part of the retina. Macular degeneration is age related and is considered as an incurable condition. People suffering from macular degeneration experience blurred vision, black spots and may eventually lose central vision while retaining peripheral vision.
There are two types of macular degeneration; wet and dry. The dry form of this disease is more common than its wet form. Of these, the latter causes more serious vision loss. Dry macular degeneration leads to white or yellow deposits on the retina leading to further degeneration. In the wet form of this disease, blood vessels beneath the retina start growing towards the macula and may pull it away from the base when they break or leak fluid.
There are three stages of age related macular degeneration (AMD):
- Early AMD: This is diagnosed by the presence of deposits on the retina. In most cases, ether is no vision loss at this stage but regular check-ups are essential.
- Intermediate AMD: A comprehensive eye exam will show the presence of larger deposits or pigment changes in the retina. At this stage, slight vision loss may be experienced.
- Late AMD: People suffering from late AMD have noticeable vision loss. Though this disease is linked to aging, the exact triggers for macular degeneration are unknown. It is understood to be a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. The presence of certain genes and their variants has been associated with a number of cases of this disease. Studies also show that caucasians are at the highest risk of suffering from this disease. Depriving cells in the retina of oxygen can also increase a person's risk of contracting this disease. Other risk factors for this disease are obesity, smoking, high blood pressure and a light eye colour. The side effects of certain drugs can also induce this condition.
Macular degeneration is considered to be incurable, but certain forms of treatment can improve vision and slow down the rate of deterioration. Treatment prescribed by a doctor depends on stage of the disease and whether it is wet or dry. Studies suggest that a diet rich in Omega-3 fatty acids can prevent AMD and lower the risk of its progression.
There are many common measures people take to improve their eyesight or to improve their vision, including wearing glasses, lenses, and many more. Here are some effective exercises, which can prove to be highly beneficial to improve your eye health:
This is the most common and also one of the easiest to do. It requires you to just look up, hold for two seconds, look down, hold for two seconds and then repeat this procedure for each corner of your eye, which means top-left, top-right, bottom-left and bottom-right corners.
This is simply rotating your eyes in circles. Roll your eyes in the clockwise direction for one minute and then roll your eyes in the anticlockwise direction for one minute.
3. Focus switching
This particular eye exercise is probably the most useful one to improve eye health. In this eye exercise, you have to hold something at a reading distance and cover the other eye. You then have to find something that is at least twenty feet away and trace its shape with one eye closed. With one eye closed, trace more shapes, which are twenty feet away.
This exercise is also very simple to perform. All you have to do is cover your eyes with your palms. Once you have done this, just wait and see that there are no bright flashes of light. If you see that there is a bright flash of light, just wait till they go. This is used primarily to distress the eyes.
5. Deep blinking
This is also an incredibly useful exercise for distance vision. What you have to do is to place some large letters are at a fair distance and then sit on a chair. You have to then close your eyes and tighten all your muscles for 5 seconds. After 5 seconds are over, you have to open your eyes and then you have to see the letters for a second or two. The more number of times you do this, the more clearly you will be able to see the letters after reopening your eyes.
However, these eye exercises are not universally accepted by all doctors.
Ebooks maybe are a lot easier to carry, and with the emerging trend of Kindles, it may appear to be more convenient than paperbacks, but the smell of new books, the texture of its pristine pages, is unparalleled to the inanimateness of ebooks. But that is not just why you must choose paperbacks over ebooks.
Read on to find out why paperbacks work well over ebooks for better eye health:
- Does not involve light-emission: The backlit electronic devices, strain your eyes, causing redness, irritation and watering. Most doctors advise that exposure to light during the evening, especially from artificial sources should be minimal. On the other hand, books do not emit any harmful rays, making it the obvious choice if you want to take good care of your eyes.
- Do not hamper body clock: Our system has a tendency to adapt itself to the rhythm of life by responding to the surrounding light. However, the blue light in reading devices disrupt the release of melatonin or the sleep hormone, causing inadequate, less deep sleep, and fatigue and irritation the following morning. Thus, not giving enough time to your eyes and body for revitalizing. On the other hand, studies have shown that people reading books sleep better and timelier than those reading on devices.
- Proximity to device not required: The admonition of not sitting too close to the television's screen glare is nullified by reading devices where a certain level of proximity is required for comfortable reading, which harms our eyes. But paperbacks do not have any such risk involved as there is no glare that would affect our eyes.
- Does not induce disrupted winking: Electronic devices often trigger a tendency to not blink and stare at the screen constantly for longer than advisable. That does not give the lenses in your eyes the momentary rest that the eyes require in order to replenish themselves.
Exercises to improve eye health:
There are many common measures people take to improve their eyesight or improve their vision. These include wearing glasses, lenses, sunglasses and many such measures. Here are some effective exercises which prove to be highly beneficial in increasing your eye health:
- Stretching: This is the most common and also one of the easiest to do. It requires you to just look up, hold for two seconds, look down, hold for two seconds, then repeat this procedure for each corner of your eye, which means top-left, top-right, bottom-left and bottom-right corners.
- Flexing: This is simply rotating your eyes in circles. Roll your eyes in the clockwise direction for one minute and then roll your eyes in the anticlockwise direction for one minute.
- Focus switching: This particular eye exercise is used for accommodation and is probably the most useful one. In this eye exercise, you have to hold something at a reading distance and cover the other eye. You then have to find something that is at least twenty feet away and trace its shape with one eye closed. With one eye closed, trace more shapes which are twenty feet away and this may improve your eyesight.
- Palming: This exercise is also very simple to perform. All you have to do is cover your eyes with your palms. Once you have done this, just wait and see that there are no bright flashes of light. If you see that there is a bright flash of light, just wait till they go. This is used primarily to destress the eyes.
- Deep blinking: This is also an incredibly useful exercise for distance vision. All you have to do is to place some large letters at a fair distance and then sit on a chair. You have to then close your eyes and tighten all your muscles for 5 seconds. After the gap of 5 seconds, open your eyes and see the letters for a second or two. The more time you do this the more clearly you will be able to see the letters after reopening your eyes.
Finally, a warning has to be given that these eye treatments are not universally accepted by all doctors.
Related Tip: "How Should You Exercise Your Eyes Everyday?"
Hello Dr. Im currently using specs. And I feel so worried that I got my eyes swallowed due to this. Can I opt for laser surgery. I'm 18 years old. Is it safe. Is it so costly?
Iwas frustrated with my eyes it was always paining and always water are coming from eyes and also getting head ache.
I am 21 years old male and I am suffering from eyesight problem due to allergy. I am using glasses regularly but I am tired of these glasses. Kindly suggest me some medicine to cure my eyes allergy.
I am 28 year old male. I have low eye sight in my both eyes [L: -13.50 Syl 1.75 R: -11: 00 Syl 1.00]. I consulted about this to the doctor. The doctor advised me for ICL. I have a few question in my mind before operating ICL. 1. Is it for life time? 2. What is the success percentage in India? 3. After ICL operation doctors give some precautions to the patient, but my question is here that this is only precautions I have to taken or this is for life time? What is your suggest about ICL.
I am 19 year old. I think due to my eyes I'm suffering from headache regularly but doctor says my eyes are normal. When I wash my face I feel relax from headache. What should I do to cure this headache?
Your eyes are your windows to the world, so it's important to take good care of them. Things like seeing an eye doctor regularly, getting enough sleep, and giving your eyes regular breaks while you are using a computer can help keep your eyes in good health. If you are having problems with your vision, you should schedule an appointment with an optometrist as soon as possible. Keep reading to learn about some of the things you can do to help keep your eyes in good shape.
1. Visit an eye care practitioner regularly. These are trained professionals who specialize in looking after the health of your eyes. They can be ophthalmologists (eye doctors), opticians or optometrists. To keep your eyes in good health, have your eyes checked regularly or when you are having problems with your vision. Learn more about your eyes and ask your eye doctor questions when you have them. Learning more about your eyes and how to prevent eye diseases will help you to feel more in control of your health.
- If you don't have any vision problems, you should visit an eye care practitioner every 5-10 years during your 20s and 30s.
- If you don't have any vision problems, you should visit an eye care practitioner every 2-4 years between the ages of 40 and 65.
- If you don't have any vision problems, you should visit an eye care practitioner every 1-2 years after the age of 65.
2. Take your contacts out at the end of the day. Avoid wearing contact lenses for more than 19 hours. Wearing contact lenses for too long can cause permanent vision damage as well as extreme discomfort to your eyes.
- Never sleep with your contact lenses in unless your doctor specifically instructs you to do so. Your eyes need regular supplies of oxygen, and lenses block the flow of oxygen to the eyes, especially during sleep, so doctors recommend a normal break from wearing contact lenses for your eyes during the night.
- Do not swim in contact lenses unless you are wearing tight fitting swimming goggles. It's better to use prescription goggles if needed. It is fine to wear them in the shower providing you keep your eyes closed and avoid getting soap or shampoo in them.
- Always follow the instructions about using the contact lenses and the solutions from the manufacturer and your eye care practitioner. Also always wash your hands before handling them.
3. Remove your eye makeup at the end of the day. Always take time to remove your eye makeup before you go to bed. Never go to bed with your eye makeup still on. If you go to bed with mascara or eyeliner on, it can get into your eyes and cause irritation.
- Sleeping in your eye makeup can also cause the pores around your eyes to become clogged, which can lead to styes or (hordeolum). A severe sty can require antibiotics or even need to be removed by a doctor.
- Keep makeup remover pads near your bed for times when you are too tired to go through your nighttime cleansing routine.
4. Use allergen-reducing eye drops sparingly. Using an allergen-reducing eye drop during allergy season may help 'get the red out' and sooth itchiness, but daily use can actually make the problem worse. It can cause something called rebound redness, which results in excessive eye redness because eyes no longer respond to eye drops
- Allergen-reducing eye drops work by constricting the blood flow to the cornea, which deprives it of oxygen. So while your eyes don't feel inflamed and itchy anymore, they're actually not getting enough oxygen from the blood. That's not ideal because the eye muscles and tissues need oxygen to function. The lack of oxygen can even result in swelling and scarring.
- Read the labels of eye drops carefully, especially if you wear contacts. Many eye drops cannot be used while wearing contacts. Ask your eye care practitioner what kind of eye drops are okay to use with contacts.
5. Wear UV protective sunglasses. Always wear sunglasses when you are outside and the sun is shining. Look for sunglasses that have a sticker that specifies that the lenses block 99% or 100% of UVB and UVA rays.
- Prolonged exposure to UV rays can harm your eyesight, protection in youth can help prevent loss of eyesight in later years. Exposure to UV rays has been linked to cataracts, macular degeneration, pinguecula and pterygium, harmful conditions for the eyes.
- Since the damage to eyes from UV rays builds up over a lifetime, it's important to shield children from harmful rays. Make sure your children wear hats and protective glasses when they are out in the sunlight for prolonged periods.
- Be sure to wear sunglasses even if you're in the shade. Even though shade lessens UV and HEV exposure significantly, you're still exposing your eyes to UV rays reflected off of buildings and other structures.
- Never stare directly into the sun even if you are wearing UV sunglasses. The sun's rays are very powerful and can damage the sensitive parts of the retina if exposed to full sunlight.
6. Wear goggles when appropriate. Be sure to wear goggles or another eye protective wear when working with chemicals, power tools, or any place with harmful airborne particulates. Wearing goggles will help protect your eyes from any large or small objects that might hit you in the eye and cause damage.
7. Get plenty of sleep. Inadequate sleep may contribute to eye fatigue. Symptoms of eye fatigue include eye irritation, difficulty focusing, dryness or excessive tears, blurred or double vision, light sensitivity, or pain in the neck, shoulders, or back. Make sure that you get enough sleep every night to help prevent eye fatigue. Adults require about 7-8 hours of sleep per night.
8. Exercise regularly. Regular exercise can help prevent other diseases such as diabetes. By getting at least 30 minutes of exercise three times per week, you can reduce your chances of developing serious eye diseases like glaucoma and macular degeneration.
9. Place cucumber slices on your eyelids to reduce puffiness. Press cold cucumber slices gently against eyelids for 10-15 minutes before going to sleep at night to help treat and prevent eyelid and under eye puffiness.
- Green tea bags may also help prevent puffiness if applied to the eyes. Soak the tea bag in cold water for a few minutes and place over eyes for 15-20 minutes. The tannins in the tea should help reduce inflammation.
Sir. I have eye sight. Both eyes are -5.5. Now I am going to laser treatment. Please tell me about laser treatment.
I am suffering from cataract in my eye and I am not able to see anything clearly what is the solution for this.
When Sheena (42), a banking professional, got to know that her mother (72) has been diagnosed with a cataract formation in both her eyes, she didn't know how to react. The thought of 'second opinion' was constantly running through her mind, making it difficult for her to concentrate at work, just then an acquaintance informed Sheena about all the misconceptions she had about Cataract Surgery and the treatments available. Probably, for Sheena, Cataract Surgery still meant the way it used to be during her grandparents' time - waiting for surgery until the cataract ripens, the process of undergoing pain, wearing black tinted glasses for over a month, no TV, and endless list of precautions to be followed post operative. Infact, there are numerous people like Sheena who still are ignorant about the Blade-Free Laser Cataract Surgery.
Read Also : Food Habits You Should Avoid For Healthy Eyes
Apart from being blade-less, through this Femtosecond Laser Cataract Surgery, it takes less than 1 minute to finish the surgical process! What's more? Well, this latest technique also offers a totally prick-less, painless, bloodless, stitch-less and a bandage free solution to the patient. And, the results are immediate and effective.
Let's debunk the misinformation about Cataract Surgery and help you get to the truth.
Myth#1 Cataracts 'grow' on top of the eye.
FACT:False! Cataracts are a clouding of the eye's lens, and the lens is within the eye, not on its surface. Therefore, during the surgery, the clouded lens of an eye is removed and replaced with an artificial/synthetic lens with a process called Intraocular Lens (IOL) implantation.
Read Also: Signs That You Need An Eye Exam
Myth#2 Cataract Surgery is scary and painful.
FACT: Not true. Infact, it is one of the safest surgeries possible. Though it can be slightly uncomfortable but shouldn't be painful. Usually four out of five people say that the surgery was easier than they had expected.
Myth#3 I'll need reading glasses after Cataract Surgery.
Fact: Not necessary! New generation Multifocal and 'monovision' replacement lenses correct vision at various points, near and far, and can sometimes reduce the need for glasses too.
Myth#4 A cataract must be 'ripe' before it can be removed.
FACT: In the past this was true, however, with modern cataract surgery, a cataract does not have to 'ripen' to be removed. You can go ahead with a cataract removal surgery as soon as it begins to affect your vision and quality of life.
Myth#5 Only older people develop cataracts.
FACT: Cataracts are common among people over 65 years of age; however, cataracts can occur in people who are younger resulting from conditions such as diabetes, certain medications and other eye problems. In some cases cataracts can be present at time of birth; called congenital cataracts.
Myth#6 Cataracts can spread from one eye to the other.
FACT: False! Cataracts can develop in one eye or both of them, but they do not spread.
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