Minimally Invasive Hip Correction Procedure
Minimally Invasive Knee Correction Procedure
Rotator Cuff Injury Treatment
Scoliosis Correction Surgery
Treatment Of Meniscus Injury
Acl Reconstruction Procedure
Column Traumatology Procedure
Treatment of Mckinzie Treatment For Spine
Pelvic Rehabilitation Techniques
Rf Neurotomy Procedure
Treatment of Rheumatic Complaints
Treatment Of Lumbago
Custom Splinting Bracing Procedure
Treatment of Joint Dislocation
Joint Mobilization Procedure
Treatment of Disc Prolapse
Joint Replacement Surgery
Treatment of Limping Child
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Cartilage is a fine, rubbery elastic tissue that acts as cushion between the bones in the joint spaces. It is a connective tissue and enables the joints to move freely and smoothly. It acts as a shock absorber and reduces the friction between the joints. This cartilage could either be damaged as a result of injury or degeneration as part of normal ageing process. Either of this causes friction during joint movement, causing painful, stiff movements and in some cases, even swelling of the joint spaces.
There is also a covering around the joints known as synovium. When there is a cartilage damage, this synovium is irritated, leading to increased secretion of synovial fluid, which can cause swelling in joints. There is also reduction in the range of motion of the affected joint.
Most commonly affected joints include knees, hips, shoulders, elbows and ankles. Other than degeneration that happens with ageing, cartilage damage is mainly caused by injury or trauma including fall/impact, joint dislocation, infection, ligament tear, meniscus tear, and inflammation (gout, arthritis, etc.)
Read on to know some of the most common causes for cartilage damage and ways to manage it.
Age and trauma are the main reasons for cartilage damage.
Direct blow: A heavy blow directly to any joint leads to damage (accident, sports injury, etc.).
Ageing: With constant wear and tear, joints that are under constant stress are prone for damage.
Obesity: This is also a common cause leading to chronic inflammation and breakdown of the joints.
Limited mobility: For whatever reasons (including sedentary lifestyle), lack of movement can cause cartilage damage.
The presenting symptoms of a person with any affected joint would be pain, discomfort and stiffness with movement. In addition to history and physical examination, MRI and arthroscopy can be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Start with a conservative approach and gradually switch to more advanced treatments. Conservative approach includes a combination of pain killers, steroid injections, and exercise (at a clinic or at home). If these do not work, the following surgical options are available:
Debridement: The affected cartilage is smoothened and the loose edges are removed to prevent rubbing and irritation. It is done using a shaver.
Marrow Stimulation: Using the marrow cells, more cartilage production is stimulated. Using tiny drills, holes are drilled to form a blood clot, which triggers formation of new cartilage.
Mosaicplasty: In areas of localized damage, healthy cartilage from an unaffected area is placed.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation: Cartilage that is grown in a lab for one to three months are placed into the knee or affected joint to allow for healthy tissue growth. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Osteoporosis is a condition which usually results due to a decrease in bone density. In this condition, the bones become weak and brittle. Fractures are a common result of osteoporosis. Usually, symptoms or signs do not show up until the condition progresses to its advanced stages.
Since osteoporosis is usually irreversible and incurable, preventing the fractures is considered to be extremely important.
Who is at risk of osteoporosis?
All men and women have some risk of developing 'thinning' of the bones (osteoporosis) as they become older, particularly over the age of 60. As mentioned above, women are more at risk than men. The following situations may also lead to excessive bone loss and so increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. If you:
- Are a woman who had the menopause before 45 years of age
- Have already had a bone fracture after a minor fall or bump
- Have a strong family history of osteoporosis.
- Have a body mass index (BMI) of 19 or less (that is, you are very underweight)
- Have irregular periods
- Have taken, or are taking, a steroid medicine (such as prednisolone) for three months or more
- Are a smoker
- Have an alcohol intake of more than four units per day
- Lack calcium and/or vitamin D (due to a poor diet and/or little exposure to sunlight).
- Are mostly inactive
Ways To Treat Osteporosis
Osteoporosis in women can be treated using Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). The therapy makes use of either a combination of progestin and oestrogen or simply, oestrogen. However, it is possible that certain combinations have side-effects that might give rise to other medical conditions. Therefore, proper consultation with an orthopedist is an essential pre-requisite so that the condition of osteoporosis as well the side effects may be addressed before proceeding with Hormone Replacement Therapy.
There are a number of medications that can be used which have long-term effects on osteoporosis. However, the schedule for intake of these medicines should be followed diligently. Failing to adhere to the schedule could lead to serious complications. For example, the intake of Risedronate medications (prevent bone loss) should be scheduled once every month, failing which can cause ulcers in the food pipe. Raloxifene has effects which are similar to oestrogen but does not exhibit any serious side effects. Teriparatide can be used to treat osteoporosis in people who have a high risk of suffering from bone fractures.
Don't rely entirely on medication as the only treatment for your osteoporosis. These practices also are important:
- Exercise. Weight-bearing physical activity and exercises that improve balance and posture can strengthen bones and reduce the chance of a fracture. The more active and fit you are as you age, the less likely you are to fall and break a bone.
- Good nutrition. Eat a healthy diet and make certain that you're getting enough calcium and vitamin D. Being underweight or losing a lot of weight unintentionally is associated with poorer bone health and a higher risk of fracture — even if you're taking a bisphosphonate.
- Quit smoking. Smoking cigarettes speed up bone loss.
- Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.
A shoulder dislocation occurs when the bones of the upper arm snap out of your shoulder blade, generally after suffering a major injury. The joints of the shoulder are the most flexible body joints, thereby, making them more prone to dislocation. In most of the cases, a dislocated shoulder can be fixed within a few weeks’ time with the help of proper diagnosis. There is a high chance of suffering from dislocations over and over again. A dislocated shoulder, if not treated immediately, can lead to further complications such as damage to the blood vessels and nerve around the affected area or tearing of the associated muscles or ligaments.
What can cause a shoulder dislocation
You can experience a dislocation in your shoulder joints due to the following reasons:
- Shoulder dislocation can occur if you play any kind of contact sports such as football or hockey. You are more susceptible to a dislocated shoulder if the sports or physical activities you engage in regularly involve the risk of suffering from falls such as gymnastics or volleyball.
- A dislocated shoulder is a common occurrence if you have suffered a major motor vehicle accident that might have affected your shoulder.
- You can also suffer from a dislocated shoulder if you have survived a fall in the recent past such as tripping from a ladder or similar injuries.
Symptoms of a dislocated shoulder
You are suffering from a dislocated shoulder if you exhibit the following signs and symptoms:
- Abnormal enlargement of the affected area or bruising
- Severe pain around the shoulder area due to a recurrent muscle spasm in the shoulder joints
- Extreme pain while moving the joint
- A sense of numbness or a tingling sensation near the affected area, for example, in areas around the neck or the arm
- Visibly deformed shoulder joints
Treatment for shoulder dislocation
The treatment for shoulder dislocation depends on the severity of the injury. The following treatments can be implemented with suggestion from the doctors:
- If you had recurrent instances of dislocated shoulders, your doctor might suggest a surgery to remedy the damaged blood vessels and nerves around the area.
- Depending upon the intensity of the pain, the doctor might implement a general manoeuvre procedure to relocate your shoulder bones. After the procedure is conducted, you will feel your pain significantly reducing.
- Your doctor can also recommend you to wear a sling around your shoulder area to regulate the movement of the shoulder joints for the first few days to about 3 weeks, depending upon the intensity of the pain.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
The human spine is endowed with tremendous strength and flexibility, but it is also prone to severe injuries. Due to the presence of a vast network of nerves in the spinal cord, particularly in the lower region, injuries can become gravely complicated with a large scope for permanent damage. Heavy lifting, sudden movements and twisting can lead to spinal injuries and must be avoided while working out in the gym.
There are simple precautions that you can take to protect your spine from accidents and injuries while doing heavy lifts in the gym. Not only will these precautions ensure that your spine is protected from any harm, but they also yield a range of health benefits in the long run.
Following are a few precautions that can be taken from spinal protection:
- Check the object before lifting: It is important that you check the weight of the object before performing the lift. Test it out by pushing it with your hands or your feet very lightly to see how heavy it is and determine whether or not you should be lifting it.
- Perform a warm up exercise: This is one of the most essential factors for preventing exercise-related injuries. Pace around and stretch all your muscles before you start lifting. This will keep your muscles from suddenly stiffening or locking while you do the lift.
- Ensure that the weight is well balanced: Unbalanced weights greatly increase the risk of injury. You should always make sure that the weight you are lifting is evenly balanced on all sides and that the packing is proper so that it does not move around when you lift or have pieces falling off it.
- Maintain proper posture: One of the most important aspects of lifting in the right manner is to maintain proper body posture. You must always avoid arching your back or reaching out while you lift as that will surely lead to injury.
- Move slowly: Sudden jerks and movements are sure to lead to injury when lifting weights in the gym. Slow and smooth movements are recommended as they keep you from straining your muscles. There is no need to rush through your workout. Always avoid twisting while performing a lift.
- Create enough space: There has to be enough room all around you while you are lifting. This will ensure your safety while you are working out. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
Inflammation or swelling can be caused due to body's natural response to injury or disease. And arthritis is a disease in which the joints in your body swell. The inflammation or swelling can cause discomfort in the form of pain, stiffness as well as difficulty in movement.
Some of the common causes of arthritis are:
- Infections in the joint.
- Genetic makeup in which arthritis can be a hereditary trait
- Imbalance in the immunity system
- Physically taxing work life or injuries caused in an accident
Risk factors associated with arthritis:
- Obesity - Excess weight can put a lot of pressure on the joints, on the knees and hips in particular. Hence, obese people have more chances of developing arthritis than fitter people.
- Age - The risk of arthritis can increase with age. Types like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout are more common in the old age.
- Joint injury - Joint injury caused due to accidents or due to sports activities can trigger arthritis. People with previous joint injuries can develop arthritis in that joint.
- Family history - You can be prone to develop arthritis if it runs in the family. It can occur due to its hereditary trait hence making you more vulnerable to the environmental factors which contribute to developing arthritis.
- Gender - Your sex is an important factor as women are more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis while men are prone to suffer from gout.
Tips to deal with arthritis:
- Take Vitamins and olive oil: Vitamins are crucial, especially A, C and D. Vitamin A can be found in carrots. vitamin D can yet again be found in fish while vitamin C can be found in strawberries, mangoes, pineapples and oranges. Olive oil is also useful because it contains polyphenols which reduce the chances of developing arthritis.
- Control your weight: This is very important, especially for your knees. It has been proven by researchers at John Hopkins University that if you are 10 kg overweight, then 30 to 60 extra kilograms of weight fall on your knees.
- Take Omega-3 fatty acids: Research proves that the regular consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids, present in fish, result in decreased risks of rheumatoid arthritis. Omega-3 fatty acids are also found in foods such as olive oil and walnuts.
One part of the human body is essential for the efficient functioning of another. The hip joint provides support to your overall body weight while you are at ease or in motion. Suffering from medical problems pertaining to the hip can impede free movement; walking, running, stooping, sitting or even lying down will cause immense pain and discomfort in such a situation. While certain bodily disabilities come with old age and are in most cases unavoidable; some others can actually be controlled through physical exercise.
Take a look at a few stretches to improve your hip mobility:
- Stretch like a pigeon: This yoga loosens up muscle tension in and around a person's hip. Your right leg must be stretched behind while the upper part of your body bends over a folded left leg in front. Your head rests on your coupled hands. This stretch improves the shape of your hip as well.
- Try to be an eagle for hip firmness: To align your body in the perfect eagle pose; you probably need to be a conjurer; that is the kind of flexibility the posture requires. Be a half-chair making your hands intersect above your head while your left leg crosses the right one. The pressure is on your hip making it strong. Your body has to be in one single line.
- Sit in the chair pose: Crouching on your haunches with your torso inclined to the front is a good way to better hip mobility. This exercise also relieves you of back pain. It adds potency to the muscles of your upper thighs thus giving a well- rounded hip extra support.
- Stoop in the downward doggy pose: The downward doggy pose helps you concentrate on the fullness of your hips. The back muscles are stretched and the problem of a small, rickety hip is dealt with through this yoga. Your legs should be erect at the knees and should be stretched apart depending upon the width of your hip. The rest of your body should bend in a forward arch while your spread hands touch the ground.
- Try out the benefits of World's Greatest Stretch: World's greatest stretch involves a series of stretches that not only accentuates your hipline making your hip muscles adaptable to stress but also tones muscles in other parts of your body. It is a three- fold exercise. The second step is the most difficult where your body is balanced on a half folded right leg and you're required to touch the ground with your right elbow.
The human hand has multiple bones, tendons, ligaments and muscles which in unison help us to grip things and manipulate other objects to do our work. Within the wrist lies a narrow passageway on the palm side which houses the main nerve for movement of the nine tendons. These tendons help us to move our fingers individually and grip things or accomplish any task we want with our hands.
What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition where this nerve gets pinched due to a variety of factors and may have adverse effects. Some of the symptoms include tingling, numbness and pain with movements of the arm.
Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
The nerve within the wrist which is known as the median nerve can be pinched due to a variety of factors:
- Movements where the wrists are always higher and in an angle: Repetitive movements of the wrists where the hands are always at a lower angle, can increase the chances of carpal tunnel syndrome. This is usually a workplace related problem and thus be caused by bad hand posture.
- Medical Conditions: There are certain medical conditions that may also trigger the onset of carpal tunnel syndrome such as diabetes, thyroid, menopause and other problems.
- Pregnancy: Pregnancy has also known to cause carpal tunnel disorder as it can alter the balance of fluids within your body. However, other factors could also put your fluids in imbalance and cause problems with the median nerve.
- Conditions that may cause inflammation: Certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis can cause the inflammation within the joints which might lead to the median nerve being pinched which in turn might lead to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Some Preventive Measures from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
- Breaks from repetitive work: It is important for your wrists to have a break when you are doing repetitive tasks that might cause carpal tunnel syndrome. Relax and stretch your muscles within the break time
- Wear wrist splints: These are support devices which can help correct problems for repetitive actions throughout the day while you are sleeping.
- Take pain reliever if you start having chronic pains: If your wrist pain is not letting you functions normally, take a pain reliever such as ibuprofen or aspirin and go to a doctor as soon as possible for a more thorough treatment.
Diabetes is a chronic condition where the glucose level of the body rises too high. There are two types of diabetes - type 1 and type 2. In case of type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce insulin and people suffering from this condition have to depend on insulin injections for the rest of their life. In case of type 2 diabetes the body produces less amount of insulin, which is not enough for the proper functioning of the body.
This type of diabetes can be kept under control by following a healthy diet and practicing exercise regularly.
Why diabetic wounds can cause severe problems:
Diabetes can cause a number of complications that makes it harder for certain wounds to heal. These include:
- Nerve Damage: Until a cut or blister worsens and becomes inflamed, in case of neuropathy, you will not experience the pain. Diabetics often suffer from neuropathy, making it difficult for wounds to heal.
- Weak immune system: A minor wound may even get severe and become infected if your immune system fails to exercise its natural defenses.
- Narrow arteries: Blocked arteries may cause severe wounds which becomes difficult to heal. Clogged arteries make it difficult for the blood to flow to the affected area which slows the process of wound healing.
Treating a diabetic wound:
In order to ensure that the diabetic wound does not get infected, below mentioned methods can be used:
- Take care of the wound immediately. If the wound is not cleaned and taken care of immediately, it can lead to bacteria build-up, which will lead to infection.
- Avoid using soaps and hydrogen peroxide to irritate the injury. Use antibiotic lotions to prevent infection and a sterile bandage to keep the affected area covered.
- Consult your doctor before any minor problem turns big.
- Since the bottom of the foot is a common place for developing blisters and calluses in case of diabetic people, try to keep pressure off the wound as it slowly healing.
What causes osteoarthritis and how to prevent it?
The condition of osteoarthritis is very common as you age. The condition is said to affect women more than men and is mainly due to the low estrogen levels that women tend to experience once they cross the age of 50.
What causes this most common form of arthritis?
The problem of osteoarthritis (oa) takes place when the soft but firm connective tissue is known as cartilage found in between bones of your joints (such as knees, ankles or elbows) deteriorates. This soft connective tissue is vital for ensuring frictionless motion of joints. During osteoarthritis, the surface of this tissue takes on a rough texture, and consequently, it wears down completely.
What can you do to reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritis?
There are several simple ways that you can employ to prevent this condition from occurring and these are:
1. Maintain a healthy body weight
Being overweight is one of the leading risk factors for osteoarthritis. The extra body weight causes additional pressure to be exerted on weight-bearing joints like knees and hips. As time passes, this additional strain damages the cartilage that acts as pads between bones of the joints. Additionally, the extra body weight also causes your body to produce a destructive protein known cytokines, leading to inflammation of the joint areas.
2. Maintain an optimal blood sugar level
High levels of glucose in your body bring about the development of certain chemicals that make cartilage rigid and more susceptible to mechanical stress. Controlling abnormal blood sugar levels is vital for reducing this risk of inflammation that can lead to the loss of cartilage and joint damage.
3. Indulge in physical activity
Indulging in any kind of physical can help in keeping your joints healthy. You need to spend about 30 minutes of each day on performing the moderately intense exercise. This will ensure not only the ability of your joints but also make stronger the muscles that hold up and steady your hips and knees.
4. Have a well-balanced diet
Including certain foods in your diet can help in reducing your chances of developing osteoarthritis. A well-balanced diet that prevents oa should consist of ample amount of omega - 3 fatty acids, vitamin d and vitamin c. While fatty fish like tuna and salmon, eggs, sunlight etc are considered to be good sources of vitamin d, strawberries, tomatoes and potatoes are just a few of the food sources that you can consider for meeting your vitamin c requirements. For meeting your omega - 3 fatty acids requirement, you can consume fish oil as well as plant or nut oils.
Related Tip: 3 Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis to Watch Out for