Cortisone shots are injections that help relieve pain and inflammation. They are injected directly into the joints such as the ankle, wrist, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow or spine. These injections are a combination of corticosteroids and local anaesthetics. These corticosteroids are similar to the hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Cortisone injections are often used to treat arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, shoulder bursitis and plantar fasciitis. Though they do not cure the disease but they provide temporary relief.
These injections may be slightly painful but provide relief in a day or two that lasts for a few weeks or months at a stretch. Hence, cortisone shots provide relief faster and have longer lasting results than other forms of anti-inflammatory medication. Another benefit of cortisone injections as compared to other drugs that need to be taken in through the mouth is that it avoids side effects of anti-inflammatory medication such as an upset stomach etc. Cortisone injections can also be used to treat backaches and pain that radiates from the spine to an arm or leg.
However, cortisone injections are associated with a number of risks. These include:
- Infection in the joints
- Nerve damage
- Thinning of tissue and skin around the injection site
- Pain and inflammation in the joint
- Weakening or rupturing of tendons
- Osteoporosis or thinning of bones
- Lightening of skin around the injection site
- Osteonecrosis or death of bones in the injected area
- Blood sugar spikes – this is seen mostly in diabetic patients
- Weakening of the immune system if the person has an underlying infection
In most cases, these side effects are short-lived. Higher dosages and frequent administration can increase the body’s exposure to the corticosteroid. This increases the risk of long-term side effects such as:
- Easy bruising
- Weight gain
- Cataract formation
- Puffiness of the face
- High blood pressure
Cortisone may also be held responsible for the deterioration of cartilage inside a joint. For this reason, doctors do not advise cortisone injections to be had more than 3-4 times a year. The minimum interval between two cortisone injections must be 6 weeks. Doctors also typically limit the number of injections given in one joint.
When used judiciously, cortisone injections can greatly improve the quality of a patient’s life. Hence it is very important to get treated only by a qualified doctor and to completely understand the pros and cons of using this form of treatment.
During the menstrual days, it is necessary to use some kind of padding or easily absorbent material to remain clean and hygienic throughout the day. This material is available in form of tampons or sanitary napkins.
What is the difference between tampons and sanitary napkin
- The tampon is a mass of retentive material shaped in a cylinder, which needs to be inserted into the vagina. Most tampons have a cord or string to aid manual removal. Tampons are used especially when you have to wear tight fitting clothes.
- The sanitary napkins are disposable flat pads that are worn externally to collect menstrual blood and prevent staining. These are mostly made of rayon or cotton. They are available in a variety of sizes, with added benefits of extra absorption and fragrance in some cases. They are easier to carry.
Benefits of using a tampon
- Tampons are easy to use provided you are very well informed and well practiced about its usage and methods of insertion
- Tampons can absorb menstrual blood, depending on your flow, for up to six hours.
- Tampons are more hygienic as the entire material does not get soaked. This helps in preventing the menstrual blood from coming in contact with underwear, skin and staining other clothing.
Disadvantages of using a tampoon
- Tampons, if not changed within 4-6 hours, may cause leakage and staining.
- The insertion of a tampon is extremely inconvenient and uncomfortable if not used by practiced hands.
- Incorrect insertion can be painful and lead to injuries and infection
- Leaving a tampon on for too long can cause a Toxic Shock Syndrome. It is a fatal disease caused by toxins and bacterial infection.
- Tampons may increase menstrual cramps in some cases.
Benefits of using sanitaary napkins
- Sanitary napkins are easy to use. They come in flat, rectangular shapes of absorbent material that are stuck on the underwear and absorb menstrual blood externally.
- Can be worn overnight.
- Easier to use and convenient to carry around.
- Helps to monitor the flow of blood
- Lessens the risk of infections, and there are fewer health risks
Disadvantages of sanitary napkins
- Cannot prevent menstrual odours
- The absorption rate is lower than tampons
- They show through clothing and tight fitted clothes cannot be worn
It is difficult to say which one is a better or healthier option. Both kinds have their own advantages and disadvantages and are a matter of individual preference. No matter what you use, it is important for you to keep in mind that it is necessary to change it after a few hours, and regular washing helps keeping the menstrual odour in check. It also keeps the pubic region clean and free from the risks of bacterial infections. It is necessary to remain active and maintain a healthy diet to have a regular smooth flow without blood clots. In case of uncontrolled bleeding, you must seek medical attention without delay.
Piercing is a form of body ornamentation. It involves the use of needles to pierce through the skin and attach a piece of jewellery to the skin. The purpose of piercing is to beautify and in case of genital piercing, it comes with the additional perks of sexual stimulation. However, this completely depends on individual preference. In the female genital anatomy, several parts are suitable for piercing. This includes the clitoral hood, the labia and the vulva vestibule.
How piercing should be done?
1. The skin around the area where the piercing is to be done must be cleaned with antiseptic.
2. A topical anaesthetic may be applied to temporarily numb the area to be pierced. This helps to control pain.
3. Any piercing must be carried out by a licensed, well-practised professional.
4. Piercing must be done with the use of new, unused, sterilized needles, which are easily disposable.
5. After-care must be provided immediately after the piercing. This includes the application of medicated healing creams, or an ice pack that relieves the pain of piercing. Typically a piercing should heal completely by the sixth week.
Risks associated with vaginal piercing
1. Wrong technique of piercing can lead to uncontrollable bleeding and wounds.
2. Poor placement of jewellery can cause the piercing to heal very slowly and painfully.
3. Poor sterilization of needles and unhygienic methods can cause severe skin infections and other complications.
4. Tearing of skin or sagging of the clitoral hood, or labia can occur due to the improper weight of the jewellery placed.
5. Spread of genital disease may occur if the piercer does not use gloves or antiseptic during the procedure.
Never opt for a piercing just because your friends are getting it done. A healthy method of getting pierced involves an understanding of your anatomy, skin type, tolerance of certain kinds of metal on your skin and extremely hygienic conditions. It sure is fashionable and may appeal to people with a different sense of aesthetics, but you must never ignore the risks. Do a thorough background check of the piercer you would like to visit and the possible after care products that you can use. It would also help to quickly get a check up done by a doctor before going ahead with the piercing.
I have my last periods start on 10 nov and ended on 13 nov, I had unprotected sex on 14 nov, I tested on 8 dec and 9 dec for pregnancy by prega news and both test showed negative result (one line) ,my next periods were due on 8 December but till now my periods are not starting, am I pregnant or not? Please suggest, I tested in the morning for better results. I am too much worried as I don't want pregnancy right now.
I am 30 weeks pregnant. My family and me are so very eager to have a girl. I have come to my native place. People are looking at my stomach and saying it's a boy saying I have small stomach. I am fully aware this is not legal but I think in my present stress situation I would be much better when I know the gender. If it's a girl il be happy and if it's a boy I will mould myself to stay happy so I won't go into depression later on. Please advice.
I was 19 years old female. I have a problem with my periods. I am having irregular periods and I was just having bleeding for two days. Is this harmful?
Hello doctor I have asked question but there was no reply, Ian planning for pregnancy from last 3 months but there is no positive result as I stay in sharja I have consulted a general doctor m2tone tablets for making my periods regular from 40 days to 30 days and she asked me to take Clomid 50 mg 2 times from 5th day of my periods to 7th day and she asked me to take folicum folic acid tablet, this month from 9th day after my period I am using ovulation kit but it's showing negative today is my 15th days till when you want me to use that kit and every day we are having sex can you please tell me for 31 days of periods when will I ovalute till when you want me to use that kit I badly want a baby.
Me and my gf had sex in the 4th day of her period. After that she had light bleeding for few hours. There is any chance of pregnancy.
I had sex on 5th Dec 2016 then I had pill unwanted 72 on 6th Dec 2016. My periods starting date was 9th Dec 2016 but it's still delayed. This was my first time I had sex and had pill. Since 9th white despatch hv increased a lot, which usually doesn't happens to me.
I had sex on 5th Dec 2016 then I had pill unwanted 72 on 6th Dec 2016. My periods starting date was 9th Dec 2016 but it's still delayed. This was my first time I had sex and had pill.
Keep Your Bones Strong.
Calcium and vitamin D can help you do that. Dairy products are the best sources of calcium, but other options are green, leafy vegetables like broccoli and kale. If you don't get enough calcium from food, ask your doctor about supplements.
Me and my girl friend wants to feel the joy of sex, we both are virgins and we are planning to have a sex but we are fiery about pregnancy? Is there any chance to not get pregnancy that too having sex without condom?
Things you should know about Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). I am Dr. Jyotsna gupta (Gynecologist/Obstetrician). What is Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)? Polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) is a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle - Ability to have children. Appearance Hormones Blood vessels Heart With PCOS/PCOD, women typically have high levels of'androgens, these are sometimes called male hormones, though females also make them. Many a times,small cysts (fluid-filled sacs) are formed in the ovaries. What causes PCOS? The cause of PCOS is unknown. But most experts think that several factors, including genetics, can play a role. Women with pcos are more likely to have a mother or sister with pcos. A main underlying problem with pcos is a hormonal imbalance. In women with pcos, the ovaries make more androgens than normal. Androgens are male hormones that females also make. High levels of these hormones affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation.High androgen levels can lead to Acne, excessive hair growth, weight gain problems with ovulation. How many women have pcos? Between 1 in 10 and 1 in 20 women having childbearing age has pcos. It can occur in girls as young as 11 years old. What are the symptoms of pcod or pcos? The symptoms of pcos can vary from woman to woman. Some of the polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms include: infrequent, absent or irregular menstrual periods. Infertility (not able to get pregnant) because of not ovulating. In fact, pcos is the most common cause of female infertility. Increased hair growth on the face, chest, stomach, back, thumbs, or toes, male-pattern baldness or thinning hair. Cysts on the ovaries, acne, oily skin or dandruff, weight gain or obesity, usually with extra weight around the waist. Skin tags excess flaps of skin in the armpits or neck area, pelvic pain, anxiety or depression Patches of skin on the neck, arms, breasts, or thighs that are thick and dark brown or black Sleep apnea when breathing stops for short period of time while asleep. How do I know if I have pcos? There is no single test to diagnose pcos. Your doctor will take the following steps to find out if you have pcos or if something else is causing you symptoms. Medical history - your doctor will ask about your menstrual periods, weight changes, and other symptoms. Physical exam - your doctor will measure your blood pressure, body mass index (bmi), and waist size. He or she also will check the areas of increased hair growth. You should try to allow the natural hair to grow for a few days before the visit. Pelvic exam - your doctor might want to check to see if your ovaries are enlarged or swollen by the increased number of small cysts. Blood tests - your doctor may check the androgen hormone and glucose (sugar) levels in your blood. Ultrasound (sonogram) - your doctor may perform a test that uses sound waves to take pictures of the pelvic area. It might be used to examine your ovaries for cysts and check the endometrium (lining of the womb). This lining may become thicker if your periods are not regular. How is pcos treated? Because there is no cure for pcos, it needs to be managed to prevent problems. Treatment goals are based on your symptoms, whether or not you want to become pregnant, and lowering your chances of getting heart disease and diabetes. Many women will need a combination of treatments to meet these goals. Some treatments for pcos include: lifestyle modification. Many women with pcos are overweight or obese, which can cause health problems. You can help manage your pcos by eating healthy and exercising to keep your weight at a healthy level. Healthy eating tips include: limiting processed foods and foods with added sugars, adding more whole-grain products, fruits, vegetables, and lean meats to your diet. This helps to lower blood glucose (sugar) levels, improve the body's use of insulin, and normalize hormone levels in your body. Even a 10 percent loss in body weight can restore a normal period and make your cycle more regular. Birth control pills. For women who don't want to get pregnant, birth control pills can control menstrual cycles .Reduce male hormone levels Help to clear acne. Fertility medications - Lack of ovulation is usually the reason for fertility problems in women with pcos. Several medications that stimulate ovulation can help women with pcos become pregnant. Even so, other reasons for infertility in both the woman and man should be ruled out before fertility medications are used. Another option is in vitro fertilization (ivf). Ivf offers the best chance of becoming pregnant in any given cycle. It also gives doctors better control over the chance of multiple births. But, ivf is very costly. Surgery - ovarian drilling is a surgery that may increase the chance of ovulation. It is sometimes used when a woman does not respond to fertility medicines. This surgery can lower male hormone levels and help with ovulation. But, these effects may only last a few months. Medicines for increased hair growth or extra male hormones. Medicines called anti-androgens may reduce hair growth and clear acne. Anti-androgens are often combined with birth control pills. These medications should not be taken if you are trying to become pregnant. Before taking any medicines tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Do not breastfeed while taking this medicine. Other options include: cream to reduce facial hair Laser, hair removal or electrolysis to remove hair. Hormonal treatment to keep new hair from growing. Does pcos change at menopause? Yes and no. Pcos affects many systems in the body. So, many symptoms may persist even though ovarian function and hormone levels change as a woman is close to menopause. For instance, excessive hair growth continues, and male-pattern baldness or thinning hair gets worse after menopause. Also, the risks of complications (health problems) from pcos, such as heart attack, stroke, and diabetes, increase as a woman gets older. Polycystic ovary syndrome and pregnancy - how does pcos affect a woman while in pregnancy? Women with pcos appear to have higher rates of miscarriage premature delivery. Pregnancy - induces high blood pressure. Does pcos put women at risk for other health problems? Women with pcos have greater chances of developing several serious health conditions. Recent studies found that women with pcos can have diabetes or pre-diabetes at early age. Women with pcos are at greater risk of having high blood pressure. Women with pcos can develop sleep apnea. This is when breathing stops for short period of time during sleep. Women with pcos may also develop anxiety and depression. It is important to talk to your doctor about treatment for these mental health conditions. Irregular menstrual periods and the lack of ovulation cause women to produce the hormone estrogen, but not the hormone progesterone. Progesterone causes the endometrium (lining of the womb) to shed each month as a menstrual period. Without progesterone, the endometrium becomes thick, which can cause heavy or irregular bleeding. Over time, this can lead to endometrial hyperplasia, when the lining grows too much. If you have pcos, get your symptoms under control at an earlier age to help reduce your chances of having complications like diabetes and heart disease. Talk to your doctor about treating all your symptoms, rather than focusing on just one aspect of your pcos, such as problems getting pregnant. Also, talk to your doctor about getting tested for diabetes regularly. Other steps you can take to lower your chances of health problems include eating right, exercising, not smoking. How can I cope with the emotional effects of pcos? Having pcos can be difficult. You may feel embarrassed by your appearance, worried about being able to get pregnant, depressed. Managing pcos (diet and exercise) - following lifestyle and diet modifications can help manage pcos symptoms to an extent. Frequently have small meals (5-6 times a day) without fail, drink a lot of water (8-10 glasses). Try to consume 2-3 servings of fruits and vegetables every day. Stick to a high fibre diet (wholegrains/fruits/vegetables). Give preference to home cooked meals, add brightly colored and white vegetables to your diet. They have high anti-oxidants food to avoid - Fried/packaged/processed foods. Foods with high glycemic exercises, suggested work out at least 5 times every week for at least 30 minutes Running, swimming, yoga strengthening exercises . Even if you don't lose weight, exercise in pcos helps to improve things like- insulin sensitivity, frequency of ovulation, cholesterol, body composition. Getting treatment for pcos can help with these concerns and help boost your self-esteem. It is advised that you should consult gynecologist who can help you based on your symptoms and requirements to manage pcod/pcos.
Can a breast feeding mother take travel sickness medicine like avomine, if not what are suggestions. Baby is 3 month old.
I had a surgical abortion 3 years ago. For last two months I was trying for baby. But did not get any positive result. Now my age is 30. So is it due to my previous abortion?
When you cant eat fresh, eat frozen. Depending on where you live and what time of year it is, you cant always get your hands on high-quality fresh produce. Keep this in mind: frozen is fine. Manufacturers freeze frozen fruits and veggies at peak ripeness, which means they will pack a similar nutritional value as their fresh counterparts. Just choose plain frozen foods rather than those with added sugars or sodium.
Lumbar disc prolapse causes severe back pain and radiates down to one or both legs below the knee. MRI shows exact problem. After basic pain killers - rest for a week, do some physiotherapy if pain persists, a pain management specialist is needed. He will see the possibility of a root block at the nerve affected by disc prolapse. If severe degree of prolapse, endoscopic discectomy under local anesthesia is best as a day care and minimally invasive procedure.The patient usually is discharged in 12-24 hrs.