Doctor in Dr. Ramachandran Clinic
Kidney Stones Treatment
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Varicose Vein Laser Treatment
Hernia Repair Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Male Breast Reduction Treatment
Prostate Laser Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Accident Injuries Treatment
Stem Cell Transplant
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Patient Review Highlights
How and why are gallstones formed?
The bile in your body contains enough chemicals to dissolve cholesterol excreted by your liver. In case your liver starts excreting more cholesterol than your bile has the capability to dissolve, the excess cholesterol crystallizes and forms stones. Bile may become concentrated if the gallbladder doesn't empty in the time leading to the formation of gallstones. A number of factors can increase the risks of formation of gallstones like:
- high cholesterol
- being obese/overweight
- being an American Indian or Mexican American
- being female
- falling in the age group of 60 or above
- a family history of gallstones
- rapid weight loss
- consumption of cholesterol-lowering medications
- When should you consider undergoing surgery?
In some cases gallstones that are detected during ct scan or ultrasound (without any symptoms) don't require surgery. If you do not feel aggravating pain in your upper right abdomen or other signs and symptoms, then one can postpone the surgical process according to the need. In few instances, it has been seen that small and solitary gallstones can be dissolved with oral medication like ursodiol and chenodiol. However, you need to opt for surgery to remove the gallbladder necessarily in the following cases-
- sudden inflammation or infection in the gallbladder
- if you experience recurring instances of intense pain due to the gallstones
- certain growths known as polyps develop in your gallbladder which is larger than 1 cm in size and begin to give rise to numerous symptoms.
- if you have pancreatitis, which is a condition involving inflammation of pancreas due to gallstones
- if the wall of your gallbladder gets calcified
- your immune system is damaged
- you are experiencing symptoms and your gallbladder has ceased to function
How to prepare for an appendectomy
Appendectomy is the medical term for the surgery that is performed to remove the inflamed appendix (a condition that is known as appendicitis). This surgical treatment is mostly performed on an emergency basis.
But before you move on to know how to prepare for the surgery, it's important why it is important to get a surgery for appendicitis done?
What exactly is appendicitis?
Appendicitis is a medical condition in which the appendix (that is the worm-shaped projection which arises out of the beginning of the colon) gets inflamed.
The major cause of appendicitis is that the tissues of the appendix become infected with bacterial action that results in the formation of pus in the lumen (opening) of the appendix. Factors that can trigger bacterial infection are a hard stool, attack by a foreign body, and accumulation of thick mucus in the appendix tissues among others.
Appendicitis results in aching and acute pain in the abdominal region of the affected person. In many people, it is accompanied by complications like vomiting, nausea, fever, loss of appetite, constipation, abdominal swelling etc. In more severe cases, it is accompanied by diarrhoea.
Appendicitis usually requires an emergency surgery. However, there are some things you need to do before going for the surgery.
Preparations to undertake before surgery
In most cases, appendectomy is an emergency surgery so there are hardly any preparations that a patient can make. The most common preparatory measure that your surgeon may prescribe includes not eating anything up till a few hours before the surgery. Apart from that, certain medications may be prescribed to eliminate or at best reduce the symptoms of nausea and vomiting. There are no other preparations as such that you can undertake before appendectomy.
The recovery time is subjective as it depends on the type of procedure used for the surgery, the type of anaesthesia and the various complications associated with your condition. In general cases, the patients can recover within 12 hours of the surgery. However, it takes approximately 4-6 weeks for a person to resume a normal lifestyle after an appendectomy.
The thought of undergoing a major surgery worries most people as they stress about the possible surgical complications, outcomes of the procedure or just get scared with the idea of getting an incision. But, following a few simple steps before the surgery may enable you to not only lessen your fears but also accelerate the recovery process.
Here are some of the most effective tips to prepare yourself in a way that ensures a stress-free surgical procedure.
1. Acquire knowledge about the surgery beforehand
Keep yourself thoroughly informed about the surgical procedures you will undergo. Ask your surgeon about the time required for complete recovery, your stay at the hospital, hygiene standards of the hospital etc. Also, talk about the surgical complications that you may experience and the measures to be taken from your side to deal with them.
2. Inform the doctor about your prevalent health issues
Talk to your doctor if you are suffering from any medical conditions currently like diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, arthritis etc. Also inform him if you are under any kind of medications or allergic to any particular drug.
3. Enquire about the types of anaesthesia available
Knowing about your anaesthesia choices always help you prepare better for an operation. While some surgery requires specific types of anaesthesia for other you can decide whether you want a local, regional or general anaesthesia. Local anaesthesia is used for affecting a small area while the regional one is used for numbing a larger part and general, your entire body.
4. Be prepared to deal with the post-surgery pain
You might experience post-surgery pain depending on the type of procedure followed. Ask your doctor for suggestions on the type of medicines you should do to curb this pain. Generally, most doctors recommend drugs, hot or cold therapy, massage etc.
5. Look for a caregiver in advance
You will require some support and care after the surgery while you recover. Seek the help of your family and friends in this regard and ensure that someone can stay with you for at least a day after you return from the hospital.
6. Follow the pre and post surgery instructions given by the doctor
Follow all the instructions given by the doctor regarding the kind of diet to be followed, restriction from consuming certain things like alcohol or any other lifestyle changes required to keep you healthy before and after the surgery.
Roadside accidents are common and they lead to many health problems in which some may require amputation for removal of one of the limbs to save the life of a person.
Amputation is a life-saving procedure by which a part of the body that has suffered irreversible damage is surgically removed. Amputation is only carried out as a last resort when the infection/ decay spread to the other parts of the body.
Why is this procedure needed?
The most common cause of amputation is blockage of blood circulation. Without blood, the tissues do not get oxygen and begin to decay, and an amputation is carried out to stop the damage from spreading to other tissues. As stated above, an amputation is carried out only as a last resort. The surgeon checks the infected part for the following to make sure that an amputation is required:
- Checking for a pulse close to the region where the cut is to be performed
- Comparing skin temperatures with the affected limb
- Severe injury (extreme burns/ vehicular accidents)
- Cancerous tumor in the bone or muscle
- Serious infection, which has stopped responding to antibiotics
- Thickening of nerve tissue called neuroma
Risk of complication is lower in planned amputations than in emergency amputations. In the case of a planned amputation, the surgeon will shape individual muscles for future prosthetic limbs, smooth out rough bones and bone fragments and take care of all the loose ends of the procedure. In emergency amputations, however, the limb is amputated very fast and bleeding is stopped as soon as possible. The following complications may arise as a result of amputation procedures:
Do you bleed or feel pain during bowel movements, or the skin around your anus feels sore or itches? Or maybe there's a lump in or around your anus, or you feel as if your bowels haven't emptied completely? Then you may be suffering from piles. Piles or hemorrhoids are essentially swollen veins and muscles in your anal canal or around your anus. And they may stay inside your anus or come outside depending on the severity of the affliction.
Often, piles can be successfully treated with high-fiber diet, proper hygiene, and topical medicines or ointments. But in situations where non-surgical methods don't achieve desired results, surgery becomes the only option. And this may be particularly necessary for those suffering from large painful or bleeding hemorrhoids. The different surgical options are given below:
- Hemorrhoidectomy - In this procedure, the surgeon makes incisions around the anus to remove the piles formations. Local or general anesthesia is offered during the operation, and you can usually return home on the same day. After the procedure, the area might require stitches and commonly remains very tender and painful for quite some time.
- PPH or Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids - This method is minimally invasive and makes use of a stapler-like machine for repositioning the hemorrhoids and cutting off their blood supply. So eventually, the piles shrink and die without blood supply and your pain diminishes greatly. With this process, you can expect a faster recovery, less itching and bleeding, and minimal complications, if any.
- Laser - An accurate and special laser beam is used in this method, to burn off the hemorrhoids.
- Rubber Band Ligation - This procedure can be used for areas with fewer pain receptors. In this, a rubber band is tied around the base of hemorrhoid to stem the blood supply and destroy the affected tissue.
- Sclerotherapy - This method involves the injection of a chemical solution around the blood vessel which supplies the hemorrhoid tissues, to shrink and kill them. Though non-invasive methods are preferred by many since they create less pain, hemorrhoidectomy may provide more long-lasting benefits. Here are some other aspects you need to consider regarding piles surgery:
Risks - Infection, bleeding, reaction to anesthesia, trouble with urination, fecal incontinence are some of the risks involved, though the surgery is usually quite safe.
Ways of treating pain - Pain, especially during and after a bowel movement, can be an issue for several days after the surgery. But it can be dealt with by taking prescribed pain medications, stool softeners, and soaking in a warm bath. Recovery can take up to 3 to 6 weeks after the procedure.
Having a surgery, big or small, will subject your body to a certain degree of pain. Post-operative care, hence, is of paramount importance. You'll have a surgical wound where the surgeon has made an incision. To ensure that it heals quickly and to reduce the risk of an infection, it is important that you care for your wound area and keep a regular check for unusual signs and symptoms.
Let us take a step back to understand the normal process of how a wound heals. At first, there will be inflammation during the first week when blood flow to your wound increases. This is a crucial care period as your wound is still fresh. The second phase is proliferation where new blood vessels and tissue begin to grow around the area.
The third and final phase is maturation where new cells develop to strengthen the wound and soften the scar. Depending on the location and size of your wound, your surgeon may have used stitches (medically called sutures), metal clips or staples, adhesive dressing, tape or glue. Stitches, clips and staples are usually removed between three and fourteen days after your treatment. Here is how you can care for your surgical incision:
- Change your dressing regularly: Most patients are called to the hospital at regular intervals during the first week for change of dressing two or three times. The nurse or doctor ensures a sterile environment during the process. If you find your dressing falling of late night and you can't go to the hospital, you can wash your hands thoroughly and open a new sterile dressing package and apply to your wound. At all times, touch only the edges of your old / new dressing.
- General care for your incision site: Keep the incision site as clean and dry as possible. Keep it covered with plastic during a shower if it is on your hands or legs or take a sponge bath until you get a green signal from your doctor. Protect the incision from sunlight. Some incisions may get itchy as they heal. This is quite common, but it is important not to scratch your incision during this period.
- Eating and drinking properly to heal quickly: Vitamin C and Proteins are important as they aid in healing of wounds. Eat a healthy and balanced diet, which includes a variety of lean meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, fruit and vegetables. Make sure that you drink enough water because if you're dehydrated, your wound may take longer to heal.
- Look for signs of infection: The common signs of an infection are redness, swelling, unusual drainage, warmth around the incision site increased pain or tenderness at the incision, incision opens up or a fever of more than 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hi, i am Suffering from corn from last 2 months I had before but had surgery for that please help to get rid of it.
Dear doctor, I am having a 180 days old baby boy, he is a premature baby while born. One of his testis is undescended at the time of birth and ultra sound scan says that the undescended testis may be a hypoplastic (during 2 month scan). Is it means absence of one testis, no possibility to grow it? Kindly advice us because we are very much worry for that of any surgery to be done. Thanking you in advance.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition whereby, tiny abscesses and ulcers are formed on the inner lining of the large intestine, or on the colon or rectum. These ulcers may burst frequently resulting in diarrhea and bloody stools. This disease may also be responsible for causing anemia as well as harsh abdominal pain.
Ulcerative colitis normally alternate periodically from flaring up to receding quickly. These periods of remission can either last for weeks or maybe, even for years at a stretch. They are, however, not permanent and although the disease may seem to have disappeared completely, it can soon show up again in no time. Usually beginning in the rectum, it can, by and by, spread rapidly to other parts of the colon. If it is, however, limited only to the rectum, then it is more commonly referred to as ulcerative proctitis.
Surgery is generally obligatory and mandatory when it comes to treating ulcerative colitis. If surgery is not performed, you may suffer from long-lasting side effects, including cancer and colon rupture. Here are the different types of surgery that you may undergo:
- Colectomy: This is done when the entire colon needs to be removed and is usually performed to eliminate the perils of acquiring colon cancer.
- Proctocolectomy: This concerns the total removal of both colon and rectum and is usually the standard procedure when dealing with ulcerative colitis.
- Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis: If the treatment does not require a permanent stoma, and if you can still manage to let out stool from your anus, then this surgery, also called restorative proctocolectomy would be most appropriate.
Here, both colon and rectum are removed, but at the same time, the small intestine is utilized to form an internal reservoir, called a J-pouch, which is linked to the anus and can hereafter serve as your new rectum.
The surgical procedure to remove the oesophagus (the tube between your stomach and mouth), partially or completely, and reconstruct it by using a section of the large intestine or stomach is called esophagectomy.
Esophagectomy is commonly used to treat oesophageal cancer.
Early-stage oesophageal cancer is frequently treated with an esophagectomy. Other than that, esophagectomy is also performed to treat oesophageal dysplasia (a condition in which cells in the oesophageal lining are precancerous or likely to develop cancer if not promptly treated).
Esophagectomy is commonly performed when cancer has spread to the stomach, lymph nodes or associated organs.
Some other conditions which require esophagectomy include:
Swallowing of cell-damaging, or caustic agents such as lye.
Problematic stomach disorders that make the passage of food to the stomach difficult.
A previously performed esophagectomy was unsuccessful.
There are three ways a surgeon may perform an esophagectomy, which include:
Transthoracic Esophagectomy (TTE)
In this type of procedure, the incision is made on the chest. A TTE is mostly used to treat the following conditions:
Transhiatal Esophagectomy (THE)
In THE, the incision is made from the end of the breastbone to the bellybutton. THE is performed for the following conditions:
To remove the cancerous oesophagus
To tighten or narrow the oesophagus in order to make swallowing easier
To fix issues in the nervous system
To repair frequent gastroesophageal reflux
Correct a hole in the oesophagus caused by any caustic agent
En Bloc Esophagectomy
In this procedure, the oesophagus, part of the stomach and all the lymph nodes in the abdomen and chest are removed. The incisions are made in the abdomen, chest and neck; the stomach will be reshaped and brought up to the chest to put back the oesophagus.
Potentially curable tumours are treated by en bloc esophagectomy.
Recovery time of esophagectomy is three weeks approximately. You are allowed to go back to your regular diet after a month. You might find that you are eating smaller portions as you stomach size is reduced. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!