Lung diseases are some of the most common diseases suffered by human beings throughout the world. Smoking and infections are responsible for most lung diseases. The lungs perform one of the most important functions of the body. It is also one of the most active organs in the human body and hence lung problems can arise due to problems in any other part of the body.
Some of the most common and infectious lung diseases are discussed below...
- Asthma: Asthma is a common long term disease which is characterized by reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm. The symptoms of asthma include coughing, shortness of breath and tightness of chest. These symptoms may occur frequently during a day and depending on the person, it may become worse during night or during a certain exercise.
- Pneumonia: Pneumonia is another common lung problem which is suffered due to inflammation in the microscopic air sacs in the lungs known as alveoli. Symptoms of pneumonia include dry cough, chest pain, breathing problem and fever. Pneumonia is caused most commonly by viruses or bacteria. It is also caused by certain medications and conditions which are popularly known as autoimmune diseases. There are a number of vaccines available to prevent certain types of pneumonia. Other methods include hand washing and refraining from smoking.
- Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis is a very infectious disease which is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it has been known to affect other parts of the body as well. Symptoms of tuberculosis include cough containing sputum with blood, night sweats, fever and weight loss. Air is an active medium for spreading tuberculosis. This happens when people who already have tuberculosis sneeze, cough or speak. Infection occurs more in those who have HIV/AIDS or those who smoke. Prevention of tuberculosis includes staying away and keeping those who are at high risk, early detection and treatment and vaccination.
- Mesothelioma: Mesothelioma is a type of cancer which affects the lungs. It affects the lining of the lungs and chest wall. Symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, swollen abdomen, cough, chest pain, weight loss and general lethargy. Mesothelioma is caused mainly due to exposure to asbestos. Those people who mine asbestos, produce products from asbestos, work with asbestos products are at high risk. Mesothelioma also results from genetical problems and due to infection caused by the simian virus 40.
- Pulmonary Embolism: This is a disease caused due to blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance which has travelled from another part of the body by the bloodstream. Symptoms of this disease include chest pain, breath shortness and coughing up of blood. There may also be signs of blood clot in the legs.
Dr. Am asking this question for clarification. My problem is related to periods. My periods happened on last months are 19/10/2016 ,14/11/2016, 8/12/2016. Doctor is there any problems with the dates of my periods. Is it irregular periods? And I want to know is there any chances to. Make problems in pregnancy?
Ask any woman who had a baby in the last one year, as to what was one of her major complaints post pregnancy and the answer would be “stretch marks.” And, if you think of the belly as the only affected area, you are wrong! Even the breasts, calves and arms are affected.
The skin stretches beyond its limits in a short period of time and so these stretch marks appear. It is more common with women who have had excessive weight gain and with multiple babies. It is also hereditary and women with oily skin are less likely to have them. Also, women who regularly apply moisturizer have fewer stretch marks. However, there definitely are ways to both avoid and reduce the stretch marks.
Prevention is definitely more effective.
- Stretch mark creams can be used from day one of pregnancy, which can help reduce the formation of these marks.
- A good cream could also help eliminate existing stretch marks from earlier pregnancies, in addition to preventing new ones from forming.
- It is best to use the cream both during day and night after a warm shower. This will help the skin to absorb the cream optimally, making it more effective.
- Preventive lotions have a combination of cocoa butter, shea butter, honey, aloe vera and various oils including almond, castor, olive, vitamin E, and other essential oils. Each of them has their own effective way to control stretch marks.
- Other preventive measures include exercise, exfoliation using a scrubber and eating a diet which is low in zinc.
But treatment is the solution if prevention is not possible.
- Soon after pregnancy, try and use creams that contain cocoa butter, glycolic acid, various oils like almond, vitamin E, castor, and olive which will help manage the stretch marks.
- A good massage using these oils has proved to be one of the best ways to manage stretch marks on the belly and breasts.
- There are various on-the-shelf products nowadays for treating these marks, but use the one prescribed by your doctor. The way these chemicals get absorbed and excreted may not be clear to you and if you are breast-feeding, it is safer to consult a doctor before using such items.
- In addition to the creams, exercise and sufficient hydration are also essential to help stretch marks disappear.
- Laser surgery is another option which can do any of these 3 things – produce pigments in the lighter areas, improve collagen production in the depressed areas, or reduce the color of the darker areas in a stretch mark. Though offered widely, this is best avoided given the side effects.
Stretch marks are an integral part of pregnancy and it is best to let nature run its course after doing everything to prevent it or treating it safely.
Morning after pill is an emergency form of contraception. It is a type of birth control which can prevent unwanted pregnancy which is a potential risk after unprotected sexual intercourse. The typical name, “morning after pill”, is on account of the fact that it is usually taken on the morning after you have had unprotected sex the earlier night.
How does it work?
It primarily works by inhibiting or delaying ovulation. It does not cause abortion, but merely stops ovulation temporarily and thus, prevents fertilization of the egg with the sperm. It is required to be taken within 72 hours or 3 days after having unsafe sex for it to work effectively, but the sooner you take it, the better it is.
Risks associated with the Morning after Pill
Although the prospect of using this pill seems very useful and handy, there are risks associated with it as well.
It has temporary side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, lower abdominal pain or cramps.
It is not a reliable form of birth control like condoms, copper-Ts or IUDs as you might still get pregnant.
It can lead to bleeding between your periods or heavy menstrual bleeding can be experienced. It can even make your menstrual cycle irregular.
In serious cases, it can even lead to cerebral haemorrhage (bleeding inside the brain) and cerebral thrombosis (formation of clots in the brain).
It does not protect you from any sort of STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) or STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection).
It can even lead to hormonal imbalances if taken on a regular basis as it can interfere with your regular estrogen and progesterone levels.
If taken multiple times, it can even affect your fertility in the future as it can alter the pH levels of your uterus.
- It is an emergency contraceptive and not recommended for routine use.
A Pap smear test helps in detecting the signs and onset of cervical cancer. This test helps in pointing at the presence of any suspicious cells that may require further examination and testing with the help of an oncologist. You will enjoy a negative result in case you have a normal reading during the examination process and no further treatment will be required. Yet, you will be asked to go through the test on a regular basis. But here is what happens if you have an abnormal reading.
- Positive Result: You are said to have a positive result, if you have any unusual or abnormal cells were found during this Pap Smear Test. While this may not necessarily mean that you have cervical cancer, it can show what kind of abnormal cells are present in this area of your body. The doctor will check for the following things after a positive result.
- ASCUS: This is also known as Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance. This is a liquid based test that will seek to study the thin and flat squamous cells that may be found on the surface of a perfectly healthy and normal cervix. This test will check for the presence of any virus that may lead to the development of cancer and to determine the level of risk to the patient. Further, if there is any high risk virus, then further treatment and testing will be required.
- Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion: When some of the cells that have been extracted during the Pap Smear test turn out to be precancerous, then they are Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions. In many cases, it takes a few years for these lesions to turn cancerous especially when the changes are low grade, which pertains to the size, shape and other features of the same. If a high grade lesion is detected, then diagnostic testing in the form of imaging tests may be required.
- Atypical Glandular Cells: These mucus producing cells grow within the cervical opening and usually spread into the uterus as well. While they may appear abnormal, it is difficult to tell whether or not they are cancerous, especially in the early stages.
- Squamous Cell Cancer: This is an almost certain reading of the growth of cancer in the cervix. When a reading from the Pap Smear includes such a finding, the doctor will recommend immediate evaluation.
- Colposcopy: Once you have had a positive reading with any of the above findings, the doctor will perform this procedure with sample tissue extracted during a biopsy. This will be done with the use of a special magnifying tool known as a colposcope to examine the cervix, vagina and vulva tissues.
Are you experiencing reduced libido along with intense dryness in your genitals? Loss of libido is a tough thing to cope with in women. In spite of having a great sex life, your vaginal area can become nonresponsive because of several reasons. You might not even know what is happening and the reasons which are causing the condition. These conditions are common in the menopause stage in women.
Reasons for decreased libido and vaginal dryness:
1. Several changes occur in a woman’s body during the menopause stage. The sex hormones, which include estrogen and progesterone start decreasing. This may lower your libido, cause vaginal dryness and affect your sex life to a great extent.
2. Testosterone is the sex hormone which turns you on or gets you into the mood for having sex. When the production of this hormone is insufficient, the urge for having sex gets affected and reaching an orgasm gets even harder.
3. The decrease in estrogen production causes several physical changes in a woman. The blood circulation to your sexual organs gets reduced, making you less sensitive to any kind of sexual stimulation. It also leads to vaginal dryness. The walls of the vagina also become thin due to which penetration may get painful.
Remedies for decreased libido
1. You should start practicing breathing exercises and do meditation for at least thirty minutes every day. This will enable you to eliminate stress, which is a primary trigger for decreased libido.
2. For balancing the estrogen levels, you should consume phytoestrogenic tea and supplements. Some important herbs which you should take include black cohosh, red clover and dong quai.
3. You should also consume aphrodisiac food items. Garlic is such a food item, which contains allicin and increases the blood flow to the vagina. Dark chocolate can also be taken.
Remedies for vaginal dryness
Several conventional vaginal lubricants may lead to irritation, infection and dryness of the vagina.
1. You should always use a natural lubricant, which is not associated with side effects and works effectively. Natural lubricants such as tea tree oil, coconut oil and vitamin E based oils provide effective vaginal lubrication. They also moisturize and repair the vagina.
2. You must keep fit and active. Regular cardio or yoga sessions will help with enhanced blood flow to your sexual organs, making you feel wet.
3. You should drink plenty of water and always stay hydrated in order to prevent dryness in the vagina.
Most importantly, it is a good idea to continue having sex. If you shy away and do not make any effort, the problem of decrease in libido will continue. Therefore, sex is the best way of encouraging your body. Proper communication with your partner is also necessary.
I am a vegetarian. Pls say accordingly for increasing breast milk supply. I already have half a litre milk per day, galact powder with milk, what else I can eat. Pls help me.
She is Missing her period past 2 month then she took m2 tonic for one month n she got her period on 8th nov and next date was 7th dec but still period not come on this month.
Hello ma'am I had unprotected sex with a guy. He came inside me but within 6 hours, I took an i-pill. It was the sixth day of my cycle. Now my periods are delayed by three days. Ma'am I'm really tensed about my periods. Because of it, I'm not able to concentrate on anything. I cry the whole day and feel like I'm left alone by all. Ma'am please help me and get me out of this situation.
My wife is pregnant with 1 month nd 11 days. Am only married in 27 oct 2016. She is student and her further studies going on. We want abort the pregnancy please advice.
What tests are to be done to check on Breast health, especially to detect if the breast is free from breast cancer.
How to find virgins at 1st nit? My wife vagina is free at 1st nit time So I can not believe her So tel me sir how is it possible.
Hi I had done unprotected sex 5th of dec during the cause give him a i-pill for stop pregnancy. But reason is that's she's feeling much weakness, tiered, suffocate. So kindly tell me please what's the reason and if that's medicine not work properly then will we do for avoid pregnancy. Because we are newly married couple. Thanks.
I have stomach cramps, breast tenderness and I got bleeding during. My late menstrual cycle but bleeding seems like implantation bleeding. Am I pregnant?
I have a problem of severe pain in my abdomen when my periods gets started! Is it a hormonal imbalance or reproductive system problem?
I took ipill. I am get bleed on 7th day. I took the ipill within 24 hrs. I took ipill twice in a week. I had sex om the 2nd and 8th day of my period end. Then took ipill within 24 hrs. Is there any chance of pregnancy?
The thyroid gland within the body plays an important role in regulating your metabolism among many other functions. This is a butterfly-shaped gland located in your neck and plays an important role within your body. However, a common condition that may afflict it is hypothyroidism or an underactive thyroid gland. It is even more of a problem if you are pregnant as it may affect your baby’s development in the womb. It has also been noticed that pregnancy in itself may cause hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism-
Pregnant women may also exhibit symptoms common to other patients who are suffering from hypothyroidism. These may include:
Fatigue along with lethargy.
Mild to significant weight gain.
Feeling cold with severe chills
The thyroid gland produces the T4 hormone responsible for regulating many mechanisms within the body such as metabolism. With hypothyroidism, the production of this hormone decreases or stops altogether. This is important as disruption in the production of the hormone may disrupt the normal development of your baby.
Effects of Hypothyroidism on your baby-
Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect your child’s developmental abilities. Many studies in this field have shown that such children tend to have learning difficulties and may even display lower IQ scores during tests. It was noticed that sometimes, hypothyroidism during pregnancy wasn’t diagnosed correctly as the pregnant mother did not show much apparent symptoms. This is also a major issue in the early diagnosis of the problem. Hence, it is absolutely imperative to test for thyroid problems early during pregnancy.
Prevention is the Best Cure-
It is thus very important that mothers be screened properly for thyroid issues even before they are pregnant and while they are pregnant. Some of the medically recommended steps that should be taken are –
Screening before pregnancy as this can help to devise a solution for this condition.
Women with goiter or enlarged thyroid should most certainly be screened.
Women with a family history of hypothyroidism should be screened.
Treatments for Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy-
The doctors may suggest thyroid hormone replacement therapy wherein artificial T4 hormone is introduced into the body. This helps to maintain a constant rate of the thyroid hormone within the body. This can be done even before pregnancy as the developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for its thyroid hormone until at least 12 weeks when the baby’s body can start producing it on its own. Also, the levels of this hormone should be regularly checked within the body through the TSH or the thyroid stimulating hormone tests to ensure that the levels are at a safe minimum.