Treatment of Hip Disorders
Mitral Valve Replacement Surgery
Cerebral Palsy Treatment
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Cardiac Ablation Procedure
Coronary Bypass Surgery
Carotid Angioplasty And Stenting Procedure
Cardiac Catheterization Procedure
Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (Icds) Tre
Intra - Arterial Thrombolysis Procedures
Treatment Of Restenosis
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What Makes the Aedes MOSQUITO so Dangerous?
There are about 3500 mosquito species in the world. Of them, the Aedes genus is responsible for the spread of the most deadliest diseases like Yellow Fever, Chikungunya, Dengue and now Zika Virus. The mosquito is easily recognized by the unique black and white lines on its body.
Here are certain reasons that make this genus of mosquito a threat to humans.
1. A preference for human flesh
It is the dietary preferences of some of the mosquitoes that make them very dangerous. While some species prefer livestock, amphibians, reptiles or birds, the Aedes aegypti prefer human flesh. Due to its affinity for feeding on humans, this species of mosquito is especially dangerous for people. Generally, it is only the female mosquitoes that drink blood; the male mosquitoes, on the other hand, live on water and nectar.
2. Can adapt to any environment
Another reason that makes them very dangerous is that they can adapt to any situation, making them a real menace. The preferred breeding areas for these mosquitoes are places where water stagnates like flower pots, buckets, tin cans etc. But they also breed closer to home as well in areas like wet shower floors or toilet tanks. For laying their eggs they require less than an inch of water and about 1 ½ week time to mature into adults.
In addition to breeding in shaded areas and outdoors, they also breed indoors. Moreover, the indoor environment being less prone to climatic changes, the mosquitoes tend to live longer. Since the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito leads to the spread of diseases, it is important to stop its spread or propagation.
3. Feeds throughout the day and all year long
Although these mosquitoes are known to most generally feed at day break and before nightfall, they can feed at any time of the day as well as spread infection throughout the year.
Once the virus gets inside the mosquito, it infects its mid-gut and consequently travels to its salivary glands over a time span of 8-12 days. Research reveals that most female mosquitoes spend their life span within the houses, and usually fly about 400 meters within the area.
Aedes love feet and ankles
Aedes mosquito is good at finding and sucking on human blood. They bite where we're least likely to notice - at the ankles, behind the knees and at the back of the neck. No matter how much you cover up, one or two will hone in on even the smallest cracks of exposed skin.
They have hundreds of different types of receptors in their antennae and these receptors can detect all sorts of different chemicals that our bodies emit.
Sensors on their antennae help the mosquitoes locate our breath. They look for plumes of carbon dioxide, which we create when we exhale. And they'll start moving toward those plumes.
They have evolved to understand that it's best to avoid flying directly into our mouths.
Different parts of our bodies emit different smells - our feet smell different from our pits, which smell different from our faces. That's because the microorganisms that live on our skin break down our sweat and emit stinky molecules in the process - and different types of microorganisms tend to gather in different parts of our bodies, producing different flavors of stinky molecules.
Mosquitoes are able to pick up on these subtle differences. They may target our feet and ankles because we're less likely to notice a mosquito biting us there. Mosquitoes who bite there are less likely to get smacked or swatted away.
And lucky for them, our feet are among the smelliest parts of our body - lots and lots of stink-producing bacteria live between toes - so feet are easy to find.
They'll bite behind the neck, along your hairline. Over time, they've figured out which parts of our bodies we're more likely to expose and ignore, and they've developed the ability to sniff out those areas.
So what if you shower a ton and douse yourself in perfume - will that make it harder for mosquitoes to track you down?
Mosquitoes are highly sensitive to smell - they can usually sniff though your perfumes and lotions.
The chemicals in traditional mosquito repellents, like deet, disable certain receptors - reducing the insect's ability to smell.
The best bet is to avoid mosquito bites by wearing long sleeves, a generous mist of bug spray - and very thick socks.
Testosterone therapy may restore some sexual desire and function in older men whose natural hormone levels have declined. However, the treatments didn't do much to improve vitality or physical function in men 65 or older. [Dr Gill: a professor of geriatrics and epidemiology at Yale University and director of the Yale Program on Aging in New Haven, Conn.]
Hpv vaccine update
Three different vaccines, which vary in the number of HPV types they contain, are available
- A bivalent vaccine, targets hpv types 16 and 18
- A quadrivalent hpv vaccine, targets hpv types 6, 11, 16, and 18
- A 9-valent vaccine, targets the same hpv types as the quadrivalent vaccine (6, 11, 16, and 18) as well as types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58
- If cost and availability are not issues, use 9-valent vaccine for individuals for whom hpv vaccination is indicated
- Infection with human papillomavirus&nbsp;(hpv) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 is implicated in approximately 90 percent of invasive cervical cancers.
- Two types associated with genital warts are (6 and 11)
- Routine immunization should be offered to boys and girls aged 11 to 12, but can be administered as early as nine years of age. Catch-up vaccination should be offered to males between the ages of 13 to 21 and females between 13 to 26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Repeat vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine is likely not warranted for individuals who have completed a series with a different HPV vaccine.
- Persistent viral infection with carcinogenic HPV types causes virtually all cancer of the cervix and most cases of anal cancer. The carcinogenic types, HPV 16 and HPV 18, which are targeted by the current HPV vaccines, cause approximately 70 percent of all cervical cancers worldwide and 72 percent of anal cancers. Hpv types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 are estimated to cause an additional 19 percent of invasive cervical cancers. Hpv 6 and HPV 11 cause approximately 90 percent of genital warts.
- Hpv immunization is most effective among individuals who have not yet been infected with HPV (eg, before sexual debut).
- The quadrivalent vaccine and 9-valent are administered in three doses at time zero and at two and six months of follow-up. The bivalent vaccine is administered in three doses at time zero, and at one and six months of follow-up.
- Cervical cancer screening is recommended for any woman 21 years of age or older.
- Clinicians should be aware that HPV immunization is not effective in clearing cytologically evident disease or HPV infection that is already present.
Outbreaks of zika virus infection, caused by an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, have occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands; currently, there is an ongoing zika virus outbreak in the Americas. Zika virus is transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito usually bites during the daytime and breeds in standing water.