Dr.A.A.khan in Gorakhpur and Siddharth nagar - Book Appointment, View Contact Number, Feedbacks, Address | Dr. A.A Khan


General Physician
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Dr.A.A.khan is known for housing experienced s. Dr. A.A Khan, a well-reputed General Physician , practices in Gorakhpur and Siddharth nagar . Visit this medical health centre for s recommended by 50 patients.

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Clinic Address
Ashraf Medical Care Centre Zafar colony Bahrampur and Tetribajar siddharth nagar
Gorakhpur and Siddharth nagar , Uttar Pradesh - 273005
Details for Dr. A.A Khan
M.R.medical college banglore
Professional Memberships
American Association of Sexuality Educators Counselors and Therapists (AASECT)
(FPA) Family Physicians Association Bangalore
American College of Chest Physicians
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American Academy of Dermatology (AAD)
Council of Sex Education & Parenthood International (CSEPI)
Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine
Fellow of the Royal Society of Health (FRSH)
Past Experience
general physician at janab abdul aziz khan memorial,ashraf medical care centre zafar shah colony gorakhpur
    General Physician
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    General Physician
    What are the different symptoms of heart attack, cardiac arrest and stroke?

    Many people put cardiac arrest, heart attack and a stroke in the same category. But all these conditions differ in symptoms, severity and background.Making a difference between these three health issues is really important, in order to know how to help a patient and how to prevent any of the conditions becoming more severe. To learn and educate yourselves more, read the full explanation of these conditions below:

    1. Heart attack
    This represents a circulation disorder. In case a person's blood flow is blocked or oxygen deprived, the blood does not get to the heart muscle and if left untreated immediately, could kill the organ. It is important to know that the heart is still working, when someone suffers a heart attack.

    2. Cardiac arrest

    This condition is known as an electrical disorder. When someone's electrical activity in the heart is disrupted, tachycardia happens and the blood flow immediately stops moving thought the body. When this happens, the heart stops working altogether.

    3. Stroke
    This is also known as a brain disorder. Strokes are divided into three types:
    Ischemic stroke- when the artery carrying blood and oxygen to the brain is blocked transient ischemic attack (tia) also familiar as a mini stroke; it occurs when there is a short artery blood flow to the brain hemorrhagic stroke- this represents a ruptured artery inside the brain

    Heart attack symptoms:

    Here are the most common symptoms that can indicate heart attacks:

    (angina) burden inside the chest, mistaken for indigestion. It repeats every few minutes. body pain- especially in the neck, back, abdomen, jaw, arms (particularly the left one) wheezing and shallow breathing cold sweating dizziness and fatigue episodes anxiety coughing nausea

    Treatment for these symptoms is usually via medication and incorporating a healthy diet.

    Cardiac arrest symptoms:

    These symptoms often occur minutes before cardiac arrest happens. Here they are:

    Weakness blackout fainting shallow breaths chest pain excessive palpitation

    In some cases the person can also identify the following symptoms:

    Sudden collapse shortage of breathe weak or no pulse little or no responsiveness

    Cardiac arrests are dangerous, because the symptoms occur rapidly and are usually lethal.

    Stroke symptoms:

    Nausea blurred speech face, arm or leg numbness or paralysis (especially on one side) headaches and vomiting mental disorientation, forgetfulness of names and places, distraction and loss of concentration impaired vision and double vision excessive sweating walking issues and dizziness transient ischemic attack (tia)
    General Physician
    Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (bmi), a person's weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a bmi of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a bmi equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight.

    So celebrities tend to maintain their body mass index (bmi) between 18.5 to 24.9, which is considered to be healthy.

    The best weight loss program is have exercise diet plan.

    There are lot of diet plan to lose weight, and the best diet plan is not to skip your meals, but limit to 1200 calories per day,(skipping meals may make you feel hungrier and lead you to eat more than you normally would at your next meal. In particular, studies show a link between skipping breakfast and obesity. People who skip breakfast tend to be heavier than people who eat a healthy breakfast.)

    To lose weight, reduce the number of calories you take in and increase the amount of physical activity you do each day. Create and follow a healthy eating plan that replaces less

    Healthy options with a mix of fruits, veggies, whole grains, protein foods, and low-fat dairy:

    Eat a mix of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, fruits, veggies, and whole grains. Limit added sugars, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and saturated fat. Eat low-fat protein: beans, eggs, fish, lean meats, nuts, and poultry.

    Discover effective secret tips to lose weight fast and best weight loss diet. Ways to lose weight fast? is it possible to lose weight fast at home naturally? losing weight is something that is really challenging, however you can lose weight fast if you know the secrets tips.

    1. Make up your mind.
    This is very important. If you make half-hearted efforts to lose weight, you are never really going to succeed. So develop a strong determination, that is what you want and you will do anything it takes to achieve your goal.

    2. Stop eating all simple carbs.
    Such as flour, sugar, starchy vegetables like potatoes, and most grains. These foods cause blood sugar to spike and the pancreas to release insulin to turn all that excess sugar into fat. This is very important to do for losing weight.

    3. Increase your water intake.
    Eliminate soda, sweet teas, highly sugared coffee drinks, processed fruit juices and alcohol. Instead, drink water. It can help flush toxins from your system. Several studies recommend that women consume 2.8 quarts of water and men consume 3.9 quarts every day.

    4. Increase your fiber intake.
    Fiber helps you to cut your food cravings and act as natural appetite suppressant. Also most of the fiber rich foods are low on the fat content

    Try to eat at least 5 serving of fruits and vegetables per day. Fruits that are high in fiber include apples, bananas, strawberries, citrus fruits, prunes, pears and tangerines.

    Switch to whole grain or whole wheat bread. White bread is low in fiber.

    Switch to a high fiber cereal or oatmeal for breakfast. Some cereals that are high in fiber include raisin bran, cracklin' oat bran, grape-nuts, all-bran and fiber one.

    Make sure to include peas, beans and legumes in your diet. Foods that will help you add these to your meal plan include: lentil soup, bean burritos, chili with beans, split pea soup, 3-bean salsa, and refried beans.

    Switch from regular pasta to whole wheat pasta, and from white rice to brown rice. Choose high fiber snacks, such as popcorn or whole grain crackers, instead of candy bars or other high-fat, sugary foods.

    5. Increase your metabolism
    Eat 5-6 small meals every 2-3 hours daily. It has been scientifically proven that by eating frequently, you will raise your body's natural metabolism. That means your body will burn more fat naturally. And you become a fat burning machine all day long.

    6. Eliminate processed foods.
    Such as burgers and pizza, cakes, pastas, and get more good carbohydrates such as oats, brown rice and jacket potatoes to ensure that your blood sugar levels are kept even and you have plenty of energy.

    7. Don't eat at nights.
    At nights the body prepares itself for sleep and it naturally begins to slow down. So you are more likely to gain weight when you eat at nights because your metabolic rate slows down and you are no longer active so you don't burn many calories. So avoid eating food after 9 pm.

    8. Exercise everyday.
    Do aerobic exercise four to five days a week. Several studies show that aerobic activities cause your metabolism to stay at an elevated level for a period of time after you have finished exercising.

    9. Running
    Every day is best, but try to run at least 3-4 times a week. If you are lacking motivation, join a running group or ask your friend.

    10. Bicycling
    Get out and ride a bike, but remember to pedal fast. Riding your bike around the track, or on a dirt track in your neighborhood, can burn as much as 500 to 1, 000 calories an hour.

    11. Squats.
    Do about 2-3 sets of 20-30 repetitions. These are important because they target the buttocks and leg muscles. These are the largest muscles in our bodies.

    12. Jumping rope.
    Can be a fun exercise and extremely efficient in not only helping you to lose weight, but to give you coordination, build your leg muscles, and help your cardiovascular system.

    13. and finally. Stay motivated.
    And measure body fat. Every 2 weeks using a fat caliper shoot pictures of yourself every 2 weeks: front, back. The side pictures will show the most change.
    General Physician
    The human brain is the most complex and least understood part of the human anatomy. There may be a lot we don't know, but here are a few interesting facts that we've got covered.

    Nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 170 miles per hour. Ever wonder how you can react so fast to things around you or why that stubbed toe hurts right away? It's due to the super-speedy movement of nerve impulses from your brain to the rest of your body and vice versa, bringing reactions at the speed of a high powered luxury sports car.

    The brain operates on the same amount of power as 10-watt light bulb. The cartoon image of a light bulb over your head when a great thought occurs isn't too far off the mark. Your brain generates as much energy as a small light bulb even when you're sleeping.

    The human brain cell can hold 5 times as much information as the encyclopedia britannica. Or any other encyclopedia for that matter. Scientists have yet to settle on a definitive amount, but the storage capacity of the brain in electronic terms is thought to be between 3 or even 1, 000 terabytes. The national archives of Britain, containing over 900 years of history, only takes up 70 terabytes, making your brain's memory power pretty darn impressive.

    Your brain uses 20% of the oxygen that enters your bloodstream. The brain only makes up about 2% of our body mass, yet consumes more oxygen than any other organ in the body, making it extremely susceptible to damage related to oxygen deprivation. So breathe deep to keep your brain happy and swimming in oxygenated cells.

    The brain is much more active at night than during the day. Logically, you would think that all the moving around, complicated calculations and tasks and general interaction we do on a daily basis during our working hours would take a lot more brain power than, say, lying in bed. Turns out, the opposite is true. When you turn off your brain turns on. Scientists don't yet know why this is but you can thank the hard work of your brain while you sleep for all those pleasant dreams.

    Scientists say the higher your I.Q. The more you dream. While this may be true, don't take it as a sign you're mentally lacking if you can't recall your dreams. Most of us don't remember many of our dreams and the average length of most dreams is only 2-3 seconds barely long enough to register.

    Neurons continue to grow throughout human life. For years scientists and doctors thought that brain and neural tissue couldn't grow or regenerate. While it doesn't act in the same manner as tissues in many other parts of the body, neurons can and do grow throughout your life, adding a whole new dimension to the study of the brain and the illnesses that affect it.

    Information travels at different speeds within different types of neurons. Not all neurons are the same. There are a few different types within the body and transmission along these different kinds can be as slow as 0.5 meters/sec or as fast as 120 meters/sec.

    The brain itself cannot feel pain. While the brain might be the pain center when you cut your finger or burn yourself, the brain itself does not have pain receptors and cannot feel pain. That doesn't mean your head can't hurt. The brain is surrounded by loads of tissues, nerves and blood vessels that are plenty receptive to pain and can give you a pounding headache.

    80% of the brain is water. Your brain isn't the firm, gray mass you've seen on tv. Living brain tissue is a squishy, pink and jelly-like organ thanks to the loads of blood and high water content of the tissue. So the next time you're feeling dehydrated get a drink to keep your brain hydrated.
    General Physician
    Amazing health benefits of broccoli

    Everyone knows that you should eat your vegetables, and broccoli is no exception. Virtually a superfood, broccoli is full of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants. In just one cup of broccoli, you'll sacrifice only 55 calories and receive in return high amounts of vitamins a, k. E, and c, as well as the minerals folate, fiber, potassium, zinc, and iron, just to name a few.

    Amazing health benefits of broccoli

    1. Anti-inflammatory properties

    Thanks to its high volume of omega-3s, broccoli is well-known for its ability to fight and decrease inflammation throughout the body. Broccoli is also rich in kaempferol, a flavonoid that addresses the effects of an allergic reaction, further increasing broccoli's ability to act as an anti-inflammatory agent.

    2. Antioxidant powers

    Broccoli is chock-full of vitamin c as well as the flavonoids that support the role of vitamin c, making it successful in putting all that vitamin c to good use. In addition, broccoli contains three specific carotenoids that further support the immune system: lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene.

    Vitamin e, manganese, and zinc further attest to broccoli's antioxidant powers. It is also this unique combination of nutrients found in broccoli that improve oxygen metabolism in the body, therefore reducing inflammation.

    3. Detox the body

    The nutrients found in broccoli help support the body's natural two-step detoxification process. By being involved in both steps, broccoli helps your body rid itself of dangerous substances that threaten the health of your cells.

    4. Cancer prevention

    Because it is so rich in a variety of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals, it should come as no surprise that broccoli also helps prevent cancer by removing harmful free radicals and toxins from the body. Broccoli has been shown to be especially productive in preventing prostate, breast, bladder, ovarian, and colon cancers.

    5. Digestive support

    Broccoli is full of fiber, which is a vital component in determining the speed, consistency, and bacterial populations of our food as it travels through the digestive system. Fiber helps keep things running on time and as smoothly as possible. Broccoli also helps encourage the growth of healthy bacteria inside of our stomachs.

    6. Heart healthy

    Thanks again to its anti-inflammatory capabilities, as well as its cholesterol-reducing properties, broccoli is an excellent choice for those that are especially concerned about their cardiovascular health. In fact, steaming broccoli may actually increase its ability to lower cholesterol, for reasons yet not completely understood by scientists; so, if you don't like your broccoli raw this is good news for you.

    The b vitamins found in broccoli also help lower your risk of excessive homocysteine in the body; excessive homocysteine formation is often linked to stroke, heart attack, and atherosclerosis.

    7. Eye health

    That's right, broccoli also contains vitamin b2 which helps support the healthy function and structure of the eyes. Thanks in large part to the carotenoids found in the cruciferous vegetable, broccoli may help address/prevent ocular issues such as cataracts and macular degeneration.

    8. Skin support

    Most likely related to the detoxification abilities of broccoli, this veggie may also help counteract sun damage in the skin. This means it may also help the skin look younger and reduce the appearance of lines and wrinkles.

    9. Arthritis support

    Research suggests that sulforaphane, a compound found in broccoli, can block a destructive enzyme that attacks and damages cartilage. By preventing this, sulforaphane helps to reduce and prevent pain and inflammation that results from a loss of cartilage and an increased wearing on the bones.

    10. Blood pressure and kidney support

    Related to its ability to reduce cholesterol in the body, broccoli also helps reduce blood pressure. Sulforaphane has been shown in studies with lab rats to not only decrease blood pressure and the stress on the heart but to also improve kidney function.


    The benefits of broccoli are endless! in addition to those already mentioned, broccoli may also help reduce blood sugar levels and slow the natural decline of our immune systems. Needless to say, broccoli should be added into your diet as often as possible. If you can't eat it by itself, try sprinkling a small amount of shredded cheese and letting it melt over the broccoli. Or, sprinkle some of your favorite seasonings over the vegetable.

    Shoot for at least cup every time you eat it. With all of these health benefits and virtually no negative side effects, everyone should be adding organic broccoli to their diet as often (and as soon) as possible.
    General Physician
    E. Coli enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine from escherichia coli (e. Coli) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travellers diarrhea.

    Causes, incidence, and risk factors

    E. Coli is a type of bacteria that normally lives in the intestines of humans and animals without causing any problems. However, certain types (or strains) of e. Coli can cause food poisoning. One strain (e. Coli o157: h7) can cause a severe case of food poisoning.

    Bacteria may get into your food in different ways:

    Meat or poultry may come into contact with intestinal bacteria when being processedwater that is used during growing or shipping may contain animal or human wasteimproper food handling or preparation

    Food poisoning often occurs from eating or drinking:

    Any food prepared by someone who did not wash their hands properlyany food prepared using unclean cooking utensils, cutting boards, or other toolsdairy products or food containing mayonnaise (such as coleslaw or potato salad) that have been out of the refrigerator too longfrozen or refrigerated foods that are not stored at the proper temperature or are not reheated properlyraw fish or oystersraw fruits or vegetables that have not been washed wellraw vegetable or fruit juices and dairy productsundercooked meats or eggswater from a well or stream, or city or town water that has not been treated

    Although not common, e. Coli can be spread from one person to another. This may happen when someone does not wash their hands after a bowel movement and then touches other objects or someone else's hands.


    Symptoms occur when e. Coli bacteria enter the intestine. The time between being infected and developing symptoms is usually 24 - 72 hours.
    Diarrhea that is sudden, severe, and often bloody is the most common symptom.

    Other symptoms may include:

    Fevergasloss of appetitestomach crampingvomiting (rare)

    Symptoms of a rare but severe e. Coli infection include:

    Bruises that happen easilypale skinred or bloody urinereduced amount of urine

    Signs and tests

    Your health care provider will examine you for signs of food poisoning, such as pain in the stomach and signs your body does not have as much water and fluids as it should, called dehydration.

    Laboratory tests of your food of your stools may be done to determine if e. Coli is causing your symptoms.


    You will usually recover from the most common types of bacterial gastroenteritis within a couple of days. The goal of treatment is to make you feel better and avoid dehydration.

    These things may help you feel better if you have diarrhea:

    Drink 8 to 10 glasses of clear fluids every day. Water is best. Drink at least 1 cup of liquid every time you have a loose bowel movement. Eat small meals throughout the day, instead of 3 big meals. Eat some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high potassium foods, such as bananas, potatoes without the skin, and watered-down fruit juices. Give your child fluids for the first 4 to 6 hours. At first, try 1 ounce (2 tablespoons) of fluid every 30 to 60 minutes. Try an over-the-counter drink, such as pedialyte or infalyte. Do not water down these drinks. Pedialyte is also available as a popsicle. Watered-down fruit juice, or broth, may also help.
    General Physician
    With technology at your fingertips, it is hard to think of times when the existence of laptops and television sets was unimaginable. Technology is common enough to be taken for granted in present times. TV and laptops are especially in widespread use. The primary reason could be entertainment, an urge to connect to the larger world, or the need to kill time. Such dependability leads to severe health hazards. Read on to find out more:

    Effects of TV and laptops on your health:

    Sleep deprivation: Long hours of exposure to artificial light can lead to sleep deprivation.
    It can also lead to serious vision problems: Watching TV or using laptops for long hours can make your eyes vulnerable to constant glare. You fail to realize, but changing lights of a computer screen or of a television set in a dark room can be extremely strenuous for your eyes to adjust. Constantly changing lights can lead to glaucoma. However, dry and itchy eyes, headaches and poor vision are the commonly noticed effects.
    It causes obesity in children and adults: Since all your work can be done on the internet, you tend to become lethargic. You are too lazy to go to the market or to the bank. Even if you are not watching you use the television for background music. Adults therefore do not make qualitative use of their free time. Children are addicted to playing games and browsing sites on the laptop. They hardly indulge in outdoor games. This leads to obesity in adults and children all the same.
    Propels your desire to eat fast food or packaged food: Binge eating is a very common practice while watching TV or using laptops. Chips, pizzas, burgers, ice- creams, cold drinks and absolutely anything junk devoid of nutritional value are more liked by us. Junk food not only leads to weight gain but is also detrimental to our digestive system.
    Can increase the risk of infertility in men: Laptops heat up when used for a long span of time. This heat can increase scrotum temperature which results in reduced sperm production, leading to infertility.

    As is said, nothing in excess is good for your health. It is therefore, best to make controlled use of TV and laptops to avoid its harmful effects.
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    General Physician
    Diabetic neuropathies: the nerve damage of diabetes

    What are diabetic neuropathies?

    Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness - loss of feeling in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs.

    About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight.

    What causes diabetic neuropathies?

    The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors:

    Metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulin
    Neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves
    Autoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nerves
    Mechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome
    Inherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve disease
    Lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use
    What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies?

    Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which nerves are affected. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms at all. For others, the first symptom is often numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet. Symptoms are often minor at first, and because most nerve damage occurs over several years, mild cases may go unnoticed for a long time. Symptoms can involve the sensory, motor, and autonomic or involuntary nervous systems. In some people, mainly those with focal neuropathy, the onset of pain may be sudden and severe.

    Symptoms of nerve damage may include

    Numbness, tingling, or pain in the toes, feet, legs, hands, arms, and fingers
    Wasting of the muscles of the feet or hands
    Indigestion, nausea, or vomiting
    Diarrhea or constipation
    Dizziness or faintness due to a drop in blood pressure after standing or sitting up
    Problems with urination
    Erectile dysfunction in men or vaginal dryness in women
    Symptoms that are not due to neuropathy, but often accompany it, include weight loss and depression.

    What are the types of diabetic neuropathy?

    Diabetic neuropathy can be classified as peripheral, autonomic, proximal, or focal. Each affects different parts of the body in various ways.

    Peripheral neuropathy, the most common type of diabetic neuropathy, causes pain or loss of feeling in the toes, feet, legs, hands, and arms.
    Autonomic neuropathy causes changes in digestion, bowel and bladder function, sexual response, and perspiration. It can also affect the nerves that serve the heart and control blood pressure, as well as nerves in the lungs and eyes. Autonomic neuropathy can also cause hypoglycemia unawareness, a condition in which people no longer experience the warning symptoms of low blood glucose levels.
    Proximal neuropathy causes pain in the thighs, hips, or buttocks and leads to weakness in the legs.
    Focal neuropathy results in the sudden weakness of one nerve or a group of nerves, causing muscle weakness or pain. Any nerve in the body can be affected.
    Neuropathy affects nerves throughout the body

    Peripheral neuropathy affects

    Autonomic neuropathy affects

    Heart and blood vessels
    Digestive system
    Urinary tract
    Sex or.
    General Physician
    Diabetic neuropathies: the nerve damage of diabetes

    What are diabetic neuropathies?

    Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness - loss of feeling in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs.

    About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight.

    What causes diabetic neuropathies?

    The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors:

    Metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulinneurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nervesautoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nervesmechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndromeinherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve diseaselifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use

    What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies?

    Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which nerves are affected. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms at all. For others, the first symptom is often numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet. Symptoms are often minor at first, and because most nerve damage occurs over several years, mild cases may go unnoticed for a long time. Symptoms can involve the sensory, motor, and autonomic or involuntary nervous systems. In some people, mainly those with focal neuropathy, the onset of pain may be sudden and severe.

    Symptoms of nerve damage may include

    Numbness, tingling, or pain in the toes, feet, legs, hands, arms, and fingerswasting of the muscles of the feet or handsindigestion, nausea, or vomitingdiarrhea or constipationdizziness or faintness due to a drop in blood pressure after standing or sitting upproblems with urinationerectile dysfunction in men or vaginal dryness in womenweakness

    Symptoms that are not due to neuropathy, but often accompany it, include weight loss and depression.

    What are the types of diabetic neuropathy?

    Diabetic neuropathy can be classified as peripheral, autonomic, proximal, or focal. Each affects different parts of the body in various ways.

    Peripheral neuropathy, the most common type of diabetic neuropathy, causes pain or loss of feeling in the toes, feet, legs, hands, and arms. Autonomic neuropathy causes changes in digestion, bowel and bladder function, sexual response, and perspiration. It can also affect the nerves that serve the heart and control blood pressure, as well as nerves in the lungs and eyes. Autonomic neuropathy can also cause hypoglycemia unawareness, a condition in which people no longer experience the warning symptoms of low blood glucose levels. Proximal neuropathy causes pain in the thighs, hips, or buttocks and leads to weakness in the legs. Focal neuropathy results in the sudden weakness of one nerve or a group of nerves, causing muscle weakness or pain. Any nerve in the body can be affected.

    Neuropathy affects nerves throughout the body

    Peripheral neuropathy affects


    Autonomic neuropathy affects

    Heart and blood vesselsdigestive systemurinary tractsex organssweat glandseyeslungs

    Proximal neuropathy affects


    Focal neuropathy affects

    Eyesfacial musclesearspelvis and lower backchestabdomenthighslegsfeet

    What is peripheral neuropathy?

    Peripheral neuropathy, also called distal symmetric neuropathy or sensorimotor neuropathy, is nerve damage in the arms and legs. Feet and legs are likely to be affected before hands and arms. Many people with diabetes have signs of neuropathy that a doctor could note but feel no symptoms themselves. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy may include

    Numbness or insensitivity to pain or temperaturea tingling, burning, or prickling sensationsharp pains or crampsextreme sensitivity to touch, even light touchloss of balance and coordination

    These symptoms are often worse at night.

    Outline of a body with shaded lines showing the location of nerves affected by peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral nerves are in the toes, feet, legs, hands, and arms.

    Peripheral neuropathy affects the nerves in your toes, feet, legs, hands, and arms.

    Peripheral neuropathy may also cause muscle weakness and loss of reflexes, especially at the ankle, leading to changes in the way a person walks. Foot deformities, such as hammertoes and the collapse of the midfoot, may occur. Blisters and sores may appear on numb areas of the foot because pressure or injury goes unnoticed. If an infection occurs and is not treated promptly, the infection may spread to the bone, and the foot may then have to be amputated. Many amputations are preventable if minor problems are caught and treated in time.

    What is autonomic neuropathy?

    Autonomic neuropathy affects the nerves that control the heart, regulate blood pressure, and control blood glucose levels. Autonomic neuropathy also affects other internal organs, causing problems with digestion, respiratory function, urination, sexual response, and vision. In addition, the system that restores blood glucose levels to normal after a hypoglycemic episode may be affected, resulting in loss of the warning symptoms of hypoglycemia.

    Outline of a body with shaded lines showing the location of nerves affected by autonomic neuropathy. Autonomic nerves are in the heart, stomach, intestines, bladder, sex organs, sweat glands, eyes, and lungs.

    Autonomic neuropathy affects the nerves in your heart, stomach, intestines, bladder, sex organs, sweat glands, eyes, and lungs.

    Hypoglycemia unawareness

    Normally, symptoms such as shakiness, sweating, and palpitations occur when blood glucose levels drop below 70 mg/dl. In people with autonomic neuropathy, symptoms may not occur, making hypoglycemia difficult to recognize. Problems other than neuropathy can also cause hypoglycemia unawareness.

    Heart and blood vessels

    The heart and blood vessels are part of the cardiovascular system, which controls blood circulation. Damage to nerves in the cardiovascular system interferes with the body's ability to adjust blood pressure and heart rate. As a result, blood pressure may drop sharply after sitting or standing, causing a person to feel light-headed or even to faint. Damage to the nerves that control heart rate can mean that the heart rate stays high, instead of rising and falling in response to normal body functions and physical activity.

    Digestive system

    Nerve damage to the digestive system most commonly causes constipation. Damage can also cause the stomach to empty too slowly, a condition called gastroparesis. Severe gastroparesis can lead to persistent nausea and vomiting, bloating, and loss of appetite. Gastroparesis can also make blood glucose levels fluctuate widely, due to abnormal food digestion.

    Nerve damage to the esophagus may make swallowing difficult, while nerve damage to the bowels can cause constipation alternating with frequent, uncontrolled diarrhea, especially at night. Problems with the digestive system can lead to weight loss.

    Urinary tract and sex organs

    Autonomic neuropathy often affects the organs that control urination and sexual function. Nerve damage can prevent the bladder from emptying completely, allowing bacteria to grow in the bladder and kidneys and causing urinary tract infections. When the nerves of the bladder are damaged, urinary incontinence may result because a person may not be able to sense when the bladder is full or control the muscles that release urine.

    Autonomic neuropathy can also gradually decrease sexual response in men and women, although the sex drive may be unchanged. A man may be unable to have erections or may reach sexual climax without ejaculating normally. A woman may have difficulty with arousal, lubrication, or orgasm.

    Sweat glands

    Autonomic neuropathy can affect the nerves that control sweating. When nerve damage prevents the sweat glands from working properly, the body cannot regulate its temperature as it should. Nerve damage can also cause profuse sweating at night or while eating.


    Finally, autonomic neuropathy can affect the pupils of the eyes, making them less responsive to changes in light. As a result, a person may not be able to see well when a light is turned on in a dark room or may have trouble driving at night.

    What is proximal neuropathy?

    Proximal neuropathy, sometimes called lumbosacral plexus neuropathy, femoral neuropathy, or diabetic amyotrophy, starts with pain in the thighs, hips, buttocks, or legs, usually on one side of the body. This type of neuropathy is more common in those with type 2 diabetes and in older adults with diabetes. Proximal neuropathy causes weakness in the legs and the inability to go from a sitting to a standing position without help. Treatment for weakness or pain is usually needed. The length of the recovery period varies, depending on the type of nerve damage.

    What is focal neuropathy?

    Focal neuropathy appears suddenly and affects specific nerves, most often in the head, torso, or leg. Focal neuropathy may cause

    Inability to focus the eyedouble visionaching behind one eyeparalysis on one side of the face, called bell's palsysevere pain in the lower back or pelvispain in the front of a thighpain in the chest, stomach, or sidepain on the outside of the shin or inside of the footchest or abdominal pain that is sometimes mistaken for heart disease, a heart attack, or appendicitis

    Focal neuropathy is painful and unpredictable and occurs most often in older adults with diabetes. However, it tends to improve by itself over weeks or months and does not cause long-term damage.

    People with diabetes also tend to develop nerve compressions, also called entrapment syndromes. One of the most common is carpal tunnel syndrome, which causes numbness and tingling of the hand and sometimes muscle weakness or pain. Other nerves susceptible to entrapment may cause pain on the outside of the shin or the inside of the foot.

    Can diabetic neuropathies be prevented?

    The best way to prevent neuropathy is to keep blood glucose levels as close to the normal range as possible. Maintaining safe blood glucose levels protects nerves throughout the body.

    How are diabetic neuropathies diagnosed?

    Doctors diagnose neuropathy on the basis of symptoms and a physical exam. During the exam, the doctor may check blood pressure, heart rate, muscle strength, reflexes, and sensitivity to position changes, vibration, temperature, or light touch.

    Foot exams

    Experts recommend that people with diabetes have a comprehensive foot exam each year to check for peripheral neuropathy. People diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy need more frequent foot exams. A comprehensive foot exam assesses the skin, muscles, bones, circulation, and sensation of the feet. The doctor may assess protective sensation or feeling in the feet by touching them with a nylon monofilament similar to a bristle on a hairbrush attached to a wand or by pricking them with a pin. People who cannot sense pressure from a pinprick or monofilament have lost protective sensation and are at risk for developing foot sores that may not heal properly. The doctor may also check temperature perception or use a tuning fork, which is more sensitive than touch pressure, to assess vibration perception.

    Other tests

    The doctor may perform other tests as part of the diagnosis.

    Nerve conduction studies or electromyography are sometimes used to help determine the type and extent of nerve damage. Nerve conduction studies check the transmission of electrical current through a nerve. Electromyography shows how well muscles respond to electrical signals transmitted by nearby nerves. These tests are rarely needed to diagnose neuropathy. A check of heart rate variability shows how the heart responds to deep breathing and to changes in blood pressure and posture. Ultrasound uses sound waves to produce an image of internal organs. An ultrasound of the bladder and other parts of the urinary tract, for example, can be used to assess the structure of these organs and show whether the bladder empties completely after urination.

    How are diabetic neuropathies treated?

    The first treatment step is to bring blood glucose levels within the normal range to help prevent further nerve damage. Blood glucose monitoring, meal planning, physical activity, and diabetes medicines or insulin will help control blood glucose levels. Symptoms may get worse when blood glucose is first brought under control, but over time, maintaining lower blood glucose levels helps lessen symptoms. Good blood glucose control may also help prevent or delay the onset of further problems. As scientists learn more about the underlying causes of neuropathy, new treatments may become available to help slow, prevent, or even reverse nerve damage.

    As described in the following sections, additional treatment depends on the type of nerve problem and symptom.

    Pain relief

    Doctors usually treat painful diabetic neuropathy with oral medications, although other types of treatments may help some people. People with severe nerve pain may benefit from a combination of medications or treatments and should consider talking with a health care provider about treatment options.

    Medications used to help relieve diabetic nerve pain include

    Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine (norpramin, pertofrane) other types of antidepressants, such as duloxetine (cymbalta), venlafaxine, bupropion (wellbutrin), paroxetine (paxil), and citalopram (celexa) anticonvulsants, such as pregabalin (lyrica), gabapentin (gabarone, neurontin), carbamazepine, and lamotrigine (lamictal) opioids and opioidlike drugs, such as controlled-release oxycodone, an opioid; and tramadol (ultram), an opioid that also acts as an antidepressantduloxetine and pregabalin are approved by the u. S. Food and drug administration specifically for treating painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    People do not have to be depressed for an antidepressant to help relieve their nerve pain. All medications have side effects, and some are not recommended for use in older adults or those with heart disease. Because over-the-counter pain medicines such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen may not work well for treating most nerve pain and can have serious side effects, some experts recommend avoiding these medications.

    Treatments that are applied to the skin typically to the feet include capsaicin cream and lidocaine patches (lidoderm, lidopain). Studies suggest that nitrate sprays or patches for the feet may relieve pain. Studies of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, and evening primrose oil suggest they may help relieve symptoms and improve nerve function in some patients.

    A device called a bed cradle can keep sheets and blankets from touching sensitive feet and legs. Acupuncture, biofeedback, or physical therapy may help relieve pain in some people. Treatments that involve electrical nerve stimulation, magnetic therapy, and laser or light therapy may be helpful but need further study. Researchers are also studying several new therapies in clinical trials.

    Gastrointestinal problems

    To relieve mild symptoms of gastroparesis indigestion, belching, nausea, or vomiting doctors suggest eating small, frequent meals; avoiding fats; and eating less fiber. When symptoms are severe, doctors may prescribe erythromycin to speed digestion, metoclopramide to speed digestion and help relieve nausea, or other medications to help regulate digestion or reduce stomach acid secretion.

    To relieve diarrhea or other bowel problems, doctors may prescribe an antibiotic such as tetracycline, or other medications as appropriate.

    Dizziness and weakness

    Sitting or standing slowly may help prevent the light-headedness, dizziness, or fainting associated with blood pressure and circulation problems. Raising the head of the bed or wearing elastic stockings may also help. Some people benefit from increased salt in the diet and treatment with salt-retaining hormones. Others benefit from high blood pressure medications. Physical therapy can help when muscle weakness or loss of coordination is a problem.

    Urinary and sexual problems

    To clear up a urinary tract infection, the doctor will probably prescribe an antibiotic. Drinking plenty of fluids will help prevent another infection. People who have incontinence should try to urinate at regular intervals every 3 hours, for example because they may not be able to tell when the bladder is full.

    To treat erectile dysfunction in men, the doctor will first do tests to rule out a hormonal cause. Several methods are available to treat erectile dysfunction caused by neuropathy. Medicines are available to help men have and maintain erections by increasing blood flow to the penis. Some are oral medications and others are injected into the penis or inserted into the urethra at the tip of the penis. Mechanical vacuum devices can also increase blood flow to the penis. Another option is to surgically implant an inflatable or semirigid device in the penis.

    Vaginal lubricants may be useful for women when neuropathy causes vaginal dryness. To treat problems with arousal and orgasm, the doctor may refer women to a gynecologist.

    Foot care

    People with neuropathy need to take special care of their feet. The nerves to the feet are the longest in the body and are the ones most often affected by neuropathy. Loss of sensation in the feet means that sores or injuries may not be noticed and may become ulcerated or infected. Circulation problems also increase the risk of foot ulcers. Smoking increases the risk of foot problems and amputation. A health care provider may be able to provide help with quitting smoking.

    More than 60 percent of all nontraumatic lower-limb amputations in the united states occur in people with diabetes. Non traumatic amputations are those not caused by trauma such as severe injuries from an accident. In 2004, about 71, 000 nontraumatic amputations were performed in people with diabetes. Comprehensive foot care programs can reduce amputation rates by 45 to 85 percent.

    Careful foot care involves

    Cleaning the feet daily using warm not hot water and a mild soap. Soaking the feet should be avoided. A soft towel can be used to dry the feet and between the toes. Inspecting the feet and toes every day for cuts, blisters, redness, swelling, calluses, or other problems. Using a mirror handheld or placed on the floor may be helpful in checking the bottoms of the feet, or another person can help check the feet. A health care provider should be notified of any problems. Using lotion to moisturize the feet. Getting lotion between the toes should be avoided. Filing corns and calluses gently with a pumice stone after a bath or shower. Cutting toenails to the shape of the toes and filing the edges with an emery board each week or when needed. Always wearing shoes or slippers to protect feet from injuries. Wearing thick, soft, seamless socks can prevent skin irritation. Wearing shoes that fit well and allow the toes to move. New shoes can be broken in gradually by first wearing them for only an hour at a time. Looking shoes over carefully before putting them on and feeling the insides to make sure the shoes are free of tears, sharp edges, or objects that might injure the feet.

    People who need help taking care of their feet should consider making an appointment to see a foot doctor, also called a podiatrist.

    Points to remember

    Diabetic neuropathies are nerve disorders caused by many of the abnormalities common to diabetes, such as high blood glucose. Neuropathy can affect nerves throughout the body, causing numbness and sometimes pain in the hands, arms, feet, or legs, and problems with the digestive tract, heart, sex organs, and other body systems. Treatment first involves bringing blood glucose levels within the normal range. Good blood glucose control may help prevent or delay the onset of further problems. Foot care is an important part of treatment. People with neuropathy need to inspect their feet daily for any injuries. Untreated injuries increase the risk of infected foot sores and amputation. Treatment also includes pain relief and other medications as needed, depending on the type of nerve damage. Smoking increases the risk of foot problems and amputation. A health care provider may be able to provide help with quitting.
    General Physician
    Ibs - irritable bowel syndrome;
    Did you know that if you often have stomach cramps, bloating, gas, diarrhea, or constipation, you could have irritable bowel syndrome?

    What is irritable bowel syndrome?

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the large bowel, meaning the bowel doesn't work, or function, correctly. Ibs is not a disease, but a group of symptoms.

    What are the symptoms of IBS?

    The main symptoms of IBS are

    Pain or discomfort in the abdomen, often relieved by a bowel movement chronic diarrhea, constipation, or both other symptoms include whitish mucus in the stool swollen or bloated abdomen feeling that you have not finished a bowel movement women with IBS often have more symptoms during their menstrual periods.

    How will I know if I have IBS?
    Your doctor may diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. No specific test for IBS exists, but your doctor may do some tests to rule out other health problems that can cause the same symptoms.
    What can I do about ibs?
    Ibs has no cure but you can take some steps to relieve symptoms. You might have to try a few different things to see what works best for you. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment plan, which may include
    Avoiding foods that can trigger symptoms, such as fatty foods, milk products, and carbonated drink seating foods with fiber eating four or five small meals instead of three big meals taking medicines that help relieve symptoms reducing emotional stress.
    General Physician
    Tips to relieve stress and tension

    Whether you are at work or at home, it is common to feel stress and tension. Today, people are often called on to do more with fewer resources. They are faced with more responsibility and more deadlines to get their tasks done. The health of your neck may be at risk with these mounting pressures. But scientists have helped us learn that we have a defense against these mounting pressures the (three r-s) for easing tension and reducing neck pain at home and work:

    Rest  taking frequent breaks during the work hour, and choose alternate activities to get your mind ready for a new job task such as deep breathing, walking, napping, or exercising.

    Relaxation  take a load off. Lie back. Turn down the lights, and listen to your favorite tape or cd. Breath slowly and deeply, allowing your abdomen to rise and fall rhythmically. Using visual imagery can also aid in relaxation. Try to visualize each muscle relaxing one after another.

    Recovery  repeated and prolonged activities can take their toll if your body does not get a chance to recover. Recovery helps repair sore, aching tissues along the way, keeping them healthy.

    Here are some additional tips you can use to avoid tension at work and keep your back and neck healthy:

    Be relaxed try to keep your muscles relaxed. To stay relaxed, look relaxed. Pace yourself keep an even keel. Avoid sudden changes in your workload. Try to avoid last minute - panics- to meet deadlines. Take a break take a thirty second" microbreak" every twenty to thirty minutes to do some deep breathing and a few exercises. Take a few minutes each hour to do some exercises, get a drink, or go bug a coworker. Use your lunch break to take a nap or a walk. Change positions avoid holding your neck, trunk, or limbs still for a long time. Plan ways to get the job done using different positions. Sit for a bit, then stand for a bit. Or simply readjust your approach to the task. Rotate duties rotating or sharing your tasks can be fun by offering a new work setting while giving your body a chance to recover. Avoid caffeine and tobacco caffeine (in coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate), and tobacco can increase stress, reduce blood flow, and increase your awareness of back and neck pain.
    General Physician
    What is cardiovascular disease?

    Cardiovascular disease (cvd), is a group of conditions that includes stroke and heart disease. 
    Cardiovascular disease is caused by a build-up of fatty streaks and cholesterol in the blood vessels. While some contributing factors cant be altered, we can change our lifestyle.

    Natural wear and tear to blood vessels makes it easier for fatty cholesterol to leak in and get stuck to the artery walls. This build-up causes the arteries to narrow, reducing the hearts ability to pump blood through them to the body. If they become completely blocked, it will cause a heart attack or a stroke if the blockage occurs in the brains blood vessels. Importantly, not all cholesterol is bad. There are two types of cholesterol in the bloodstream: ldls and hdls. Ldls create the build-up in arteries, while high hdl levels are a good sign that youre not at risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    Some risk factors for cardiovascular disease are potentially reversible or can be modified. 

    These include:

    Cigarette smokingincreased levels of ldl cholesterolhigh triglycerides (caused by the build up of fats derived from foods eaten or made in the body from other energy sources) low hdl cholesterolbeing overweightlarge waist circumference (being apple-shaped) high blood pressureinactivitydiabetes

    Diet and cardiovascular disease

    Making small changes to your diet is one of the simplest and most effective ways to reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease. You can do this by:

    Reducing fat in your diet, especially saturated and trans-fateating more fruit and vegetables, wholegrain food and soluble fibredrinking alcohol in moderationreducing salt to maintain a lower blood pressure

    Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease

    Reducing the proportion of fat in your diet, especially saturated fat, can help to reduce blood cholesterol levels. Theres a strong link between high blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease. For those who dont have cardiovascular disease or arent considered to be at high-risk of cardiovascular disease, normal blood cholesterol levels are below 5mmol/litre. This can be measured by your gp. People with average energy needs should aim to consume no more than 70g/day of fat and less than 20g/day of saturated fat.

    Trans-fatty acids are a particular kind of fat that are naturally occurring in meat and dairy products but may also be produced when plant-based oils are hydrogenated to produce solid spreads, such as margarines. Theyre often found in confectionery and processed food like pastry, biscuits and cakes. Theyve been found to have the same effect on cholesterol levels as saturated fat and should be avoided as much as possible. Thankfully, many manufacturers have now modified processing techniques to keep these fats to a minimum. Check labels for hydrogenated fats.

    When reducing total fat, its important not to cut out the heart healthy fats from your diet including mono and poly-unsaturated fats and omega-3, mostly found in plant and fish oils.

    How to modify your fat intake:

    Use butter and other spreads sparinglychoose lean cuts of meat or trim fat offgrill, bake or steam food rather than fryingswap saturated fats such as butter for unsaturated oils such as sunflower, rapeseed or olive oillimit your intake of trans-fats from processed foodeat two to three portions of oily fish each week (e. G. Sardines, mackerel, fresh tuna, salmon)

    Essential fatty acids

    Essential fatty acids such as omega-3s, which are found in oily fish, have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood triglycerides, reducing blood clotting and regulating heart rhythm. For general heart health, try to eat two portions of fish per week, one of which should be oily.
    Stanols and sterols

    Certain plant-derived compounds, called stanol or sterol esters have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels. Spreads, yoghurts, drinks and soya dairy alternatives are now available containing these products. These sterol enriched foods may be particularly useful for those with raised blood cholesterol which has remained elevated even after making other dietary changes. Clinical trials show that when used regularly, they can reduce high cholesterol levels.
    Fruit and vegetables

    Fruit and vegetables are rich in many essential nutrients including vitamins c and e and carotenoids (which are all antioxidants). They may help to protect the heart by limiting the damaging effects of cholesterol on body tissues. Aim for at least five servings of fruit and vegetables a day. (see the fruit and vegetables article for more information on what a serving is.)

    Wholegrains and fibre

    Studies of large groups of people in the us have shown that diets rich in wholegrain food can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by up to 30 per cent. You can include wholegrain food in every meal by choosing wholemeal bread and wholegrain varieties of pasta and rice.

    Soluble dietary fibre, found in oats, beans and pulses, can help to lower ldl cholesterol. These foods should be included as part of an overall healthy balanced diet, at least two to three times each week.
    Soya protein

    A diet that includes at least 25g of soya per day has been associated with reductions in ldl cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Soya isoflavones in particular have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk as they inhibit the growth of cells that form artery-clogging plaque. Soya protein is also an excellent substitute for meat and is available in a convenient and tasty form in many ready-made meals. Another good source of soya protein is soya milk and yoghurt.

    The british heart foundation has an excellent range of resources giving information about reducing your risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Rest and relaxation

    While exercise can help lower blood pressure and strengthen your heart, rest and relaxation can reduce your levels of anxiety and improve your reactions to stress - both of which can affect the blood vessels and heart. All of us have to contend with major life events from time to time such as a divorce, bereavement, job loss or financial problems. However, theres also a wide range of everyday events (being stuck in traffic, a row with your partner or a disagreement with someone at work) that can be stressful - and these everyday irritations may be even more stressful because they are constant.
    Ways to manage stress

    Keep a diary: make a note of stressful situations and how your react to them. This will help you identify what stresses you out, so you can begin to change your reactions.

    Stay positive: your thoughts control your feelings. If you stop and listen to your emotions, you may be surprised to discover how negative they are. Replacing negative thoughts with positive ones will help you deal with stressful situations more calmly.

    Learn to relax: pay attention to your posture and consciously relax physically. You may also want to try a technique such as yoga, massage, meditation or other complementary therapies.

    Get as much sleep as you need: we all need different amounts of sleep and you will know how many you need to feel refreshed. Try to get this amount of sleep most nights.

    Smoking and alcohol

    Smoking and drinking are both linked with heart disease. But while there are no potential health benefits from smoking, moderate drinking can help to protect your heart.

    One of the most important things you can do to reduce your risk of heart disease is to stop smoking. Smokers younger than 50 are five times more likely than non-smokers to die of coronary heart disease. By stopping, you not only lower your risk of heart disease but also help reduce your risk of lung diseases such as cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd). The key to successful quitting is to pick a method thats right for you. For example, if youre motivated by other people and enjoy their company, you may find encouragement and support by joining a group.

    If you prefer to go it alone, you may find it helpful to buy a book or tape. Your gp can prescribe aids such as nicotine replacement therapy or, alternatively, you may benefit from a complementary therapy such as acupuncture.

    Drinking alcohol

    Consuming moderate amounts of alcohol - between one and two units a day - has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Alcohol can increase hdl cholesterol and makes it less likely that clots will form. However, high intakes of alcohol are associated with increased risk. Its also worth noting that saving up your weekly units for a weekend binge doesnt offer the same benefits.

    Theres no need to give up alcohol altogether but its important to drink sensibly.

    Always eat when you drink: take a tip from the mediterranean countries and always have a meal or snack when you drink alcohol. Know your limits: to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, dont exceed 1-2 units of alcohol a day. A unit is equal to half a pint of regular strength beer or lager, one small glass of wine or a small (pub measure) of spirits. Watch your glass size: its easy to exceed safe limits by using a bigger glass.

    Mix and match: if youre at a party or drinking socially, try to have a non-alcoholic drink for every alcoholic drink you consume. Once youve consumed your daily units, drink only soft or non-alcoholic drinks.

    Regular monitoring

    People should also have regular blood pressure readings, height and weight monitoring, and tests for cholesterol levels. Those with high levels should be encouraged to improve their diet and can be treated for poor cholesterol levels with drugs - usually, statins or niacins.

    The american heart association recommends that blood pressure should be no more than 140 over 90 hg. The association recommends a series of diets, with no more than 30% of calories coming in the form of fats, and limiting calories in the form of saturated fats to between 7 and 10%. 

    General Physician
    Simple tips for healthy eyes

    Your eyes are an important part of your health. There are many things you can do to keep them healthy and make sure you are seeing your best. Follow these simple steps for maintaining healthy eyes well into your golden years.

    Have a comprehensive dilated eye exam.
    You might think your vision is fine or that your eyes are healthy, but visiting your eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye exam is the only way to really be sure. When it comes to common vision problems, some people don't realize they could see better with glasses or contact lenses. In addition, many common eye diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic eye disease and age-related macular degeneration often have no warning signs. A dilated eye exam is the only way to detect these diseases in their early stages.

    During a comprehensive dilated eye exam, your eye care professional places drops in your eyes to dilate, or widen, the pupil to allow more light to enter the eye the same way an open door lets more light into a dark room. This enables your eye care professional to get a good look at the back of the eyes and examine them for any signs of damage or disease. Your eye care professional is the only one who can determine if your eyes are healthy and if you're seeing your best.

    Know your family's eye health history.
    Talk to your family members about their eye health history. It's important to know if anyone has been diagnosed with a disease or condition since many are hereditary. This will help to determine if you are at higher risk for developing an eye disease or condition.

    Eat right to protect your sight.
    You've heard carrots are good for your eyes. But eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, particularly dark leafy greens such as spinach, kale, or collard greens is important for keeping your eyes healthy, too. Research has also shown there are eye health benefits from eating fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut.

    Maintain a healthy weight.
    Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing diabetes and other systemic conditions, which can lead to vision loss, such as diabetic eye disease or glaucoma. If you are having trouble maintaining a healthy weight, talk to your doctor.

    Wear protective eye-wear.
    Wear protective eye-wear when playing sports or doing activities around the home. Protective eye-wear includes safety glasses and goggles, safety shields, and eye guards specially designed to provide the correct protection for a certain activity. Most protective eye-wear lenses are made of polycarbonate, which is 10 times stronger than other plastics. Many eye care providers sell protective eye-wear, as do some sporting goods stores.

    Quit smoking or never start.
    Smoking is as bad for your eyes as it is for the rest of your body. Research has linked smoking to an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and optic nerve damage, all of which can lead to blindness. Ii, iii

    Be cool and wear your shades.
    Sunglasses are a great fashion accessory, but their most important job is to protect your eyes from the sun's ultraviolet rays. When purchasing sunglasses, look for ones that block out 99 to 100 percent of both uv-a and uv-b radiation.

    Give your eyes a rest.
    If you spend a lot of time at the computer or focusing on any one thing, you sometimes forget to blink and your eyes can get fatigued. Try the 20-20-20 rule: every 20 minutes, look away about 20 feet in front of you for 20 seconds. This can help reduce eyestrain.

    Clean your hands and your contact lenses properly.
    To avoid the risk of infection, always wash your hands thoroughly before putting in or taking out your contact lenses. Make sure to disinfect contact lenses as instructed and replace them as appropriate.

    Practice workplace eye safety.
    Employers are required to provide a safe work environment. When protective eye-wear is required as a part of your job, make a habit of wearing the appropriate type at all times and encourage your coworkers to do the same.
    General Physician
    How do our eyes work?

    There are many different parts of the eye that help to create vision. We see with our brains; our eyes collect visual information and begin this complex process.

    Light passes through the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye. The cornea bends - or refracts - this incoming light.

    The iris, the colored part of the eye, regulates the size of the pupil, the opening that controls the amount of light that enters the eye.

    Behind the pupil is the lens, a clear part of the eye that further focuses light, or an image, onto the retina.

    The retina is a thin, delicate, photosensitive tissue that contains the special photoreceptor cells that convert light into electrical signals.

    These electrical signals are processed further, and then travel from the retina of the eye to the brain through the optic nerve, a bundle of about one million nerve fibers.

    How to clean the eye:

    First, wash your hands with soap and water. Use a cotton ball to clean your eye. Pour the eye wash solution on the cotton ball. Alternatively, you can boil the cotton balls in water and use them after they have cooled down. Wipe your eye gently from the inside (near your nose) out (toward your ears. Don't use the same cotton ball more than once. Don't let your children play with medicine bottles. When you open a bottle, do so by keeping the nozzle a little away from your face and eyes. Do not let your children handle glass bottles. Put bottles in the fridge, not in the freezer. Choose safe toys for your children, which suit their age. Avoid buying darting toys and toys with sharp edges such as bow and arrow, which may hit or injure the eye from a distance. Watch your children while at play, and teach them safe activities. Stone throwing during the play causes severe injuries, which should be avoided. Keep daily use items like detergents, disinfectants and chemicals in a safe place and out of children's reach. Don't allow your children to play with fireworks, which are dangerous. Have a close supervision during festivals like diwali. Always keep a bucket of water nearby while bursting crackers. Keep children away from kitchenware which could harm them. Knives, scissors, etc should be kept in a safe, closed place. Teach your children how to protect their eyes by wearing sunglasses whenever they are out. You should also prevent them from looking directly at the sun. Don't allow your children to use laser pens. Never share your medications with anyone. Keep all medication (eye and others) out of reach of children. Prevention is the best way to protect your children's sight.

    Do remember & consider to donate your eye
    General Physician
    What impotence means

    Impotence is just another word for erectile dysfunction or ed. Its when a man has difficulty getting or maintaining an erection long enough for sex. When you hear someone talk about impotence, hes talking about ed.

    Most of the time this site will use the words erectile dysfunction and ed instead of impotence. But theyre the exact same thing. And when you talk to your doctor, you can use either term. Whatever makes you most comfortable.
    Blood flow is key.

    Ed occurs when not enough blood flows to the penis, preventing an erection.
    And its more common than you think.

    Turns out, more than half of men over 40 have some difficulty getting and maintaining an erection. So your age can be a factor.
    But its not the same for everyone.

    Ed can happen in a few ways. Some men cant get an erection at all. Some can. But its not hard enough for sex. Others can get a hard erection but lose it before or during sex. Learn more about erectile dysfunction symptoms.
    Heres the bottom line.

    Erectile dysfunction is not all in your head. Its not just a part of aging that you have to accept. Its a real medical condition. So it should be treated like one. In most cases, your erections wont improve without treatment.

    Erectile dysfunction causes

    There are many erectile dysfunction causes. Sometimes its caused by a health condition. Other times, lifestyle plays a role. But blood flow is always important. If blood is prevented from properly flowing to the penis, it can lead to erectile dysfunction.

    Sometimes, ed can be caused by a medical condition.

    Many conditions including diabetes, high cholesterol, and hardening of the arteries can affect blood flow in the body. And this can lead to ed. Also, depression can lead to ed.

    Other times, its caused by medications.

    Some medicines that men take for conditions like high blood pressure and depression can lead to ed.

    Lifestyle factors can also play a part.

    For example, smoking can damage blood vessels. And it can lead to hardening of the arteries. This may prevent blood flow to the penis and can cause ed.

    Erectile dysfunction symptoms

    Erections depend on proper blood flow to the penis. Heres why:

    When a man is sexually aroused, the brain sends an impulse telling the arteries in the penis to widenas a result, more blood flows to the penisthe penis expands, hardens, and becomes erectsometimes, this blood flow can be restricted. And that can lead to erectile dysfunction.

    Erectile dysfunction symptoms include when a man has trouble:

    Getting an erection at allkeeping an erection hard enough for sexmaintaining an erection before or during sexed happens in different ways. Some men with ed find it difficult to get an erection every time they try to have sex. For others, erectile dysfunction symptoms can happen just once in a while.

    Either way, its a medical condition that can be treated.

    Both safely and effectively. So if you think youve had any symptoms, talk to a doctor. Together, you can decide if viagra is right for you.

    There are medication treatment for ed like sildenafil citrate 
    More over this is a prescription drugs
    If you any symptoms of erectile dysfunction or impotence feel free to consult your medical practitioner or your family physician 

    General Physician
    In case you didn't know, gout is a health disorder that appears in people who have malfunctioning metabolism of uric causes which leads to arthritis in the tiny bones located in their feet. Some of the typical symptoms of gout are stiff and swollen feet and intense sharp pain.

    So, gout is triggered by accumulation of uric acid in the joint of the feet that comes as a result of improper removal of waste. Uric acid is an incidental product of purines. These substances can be found in many of the foods modern people consume.

    Increased uric acid levels in the blood also known as hyperuricemia are commonly found in gout sufferers. However, this indicator doesn't always mean that people suffering from hyperuricemia will experience gout too.

    In situations where kidneys are not able to remove the uric acid properly, it starts crystallizing and forming deposits in our joints which lead to inflammation. Fortunately, there are a number of completely natural remedies that are able to remove uric acid crystallization and make people feel much better.

    Remove uric acid crystallization

    Altering the lifestyle and eating habits is one thing that each of us can do to prevent and eliminate this problem. Our diet should include foods like veggies and fruits, seafood, lean meat and whole grains. Lower the consumption of foods packed with saturated fat and processed sugars and avoid alcohol.

    Increasing the amount of water you drink daily is another helpful change. In this way, your body will be hydrated and improve its ability to naturally remove toxins and uric acid. Drink more water, fruit enriched water, fresh juices, herbal tea and try to eliminate stress.

    These are some natural solutions that can help you with gout:

    It turns out that baking soda is an excellent remedy in cases of gout. Create a mixture that contains half a glass of water and teaspoon of baking soda. Drink it every day. In case you are dealing with gout attacks, you can use one teaspoon in this solution. If you keep your body's environment alkalized, you will be able to protect it from the negative effects of gout. That's why you must increase the intake of alkaline drinks and foods. One good example of a drink like this is lemon juice. It can prevent the buildup of uric acid crystals. Take half a lemon and squeeze it in one glass of lukewarm water. Drink this beverage in the morning before breakfast. In addition, apple cider vinegar is a type of vinegar that can boost the alkalinity in your body mostly because of the fact that it contains malic acid. This specific type of acid dissolves uric acid and removes them from the body. Take one glass of water (200 ml.) and pour one tablespoon of organic apple cider vinegar. Use this mixture twice a day, before your main meals (dinner and lunch).

    When it comes to foods that prevent gout, you can rely on these three foods:

    Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric and one of the main reasons why this spice is so healthy. Curcumin protects the kidneys and comes with strong anti-inflammatory properties too. Pineapples have another active ingredient bromelain. Bromelain provides powerful anti-inflammatory effects and acts as an analgesic agent too. Finally, flaxseeds provide numerous health benefits and they also have the ability to lower the uric acid levels in people.
    General Physician
    Vitamin c or ascorbic acid is essential for normal growth and the maintenance of practically all the body tissues, especially those of the joints, bones, teeth, and gums. It protects one against infections and acts as a harmless antibiotic. It promotes healing and serves as protection against all forms of stress and harmful effects of toxic chemicals. It helps prevent and cure the common cold. It also helps in decreasing blood cholesterol. This vitamin is found in citrus fruits, berries, green and leafy vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes, sprouted bengal and green grams, a deficiency can cause scurvy marked by weakness, anemia, bleeding gums and painful and swollen parts, slow healing of sores and wounds, premature ageing and lowered resistance to all infections.

    The recommended daily allowance is 50 to 75 mg. For adults and 30 to 50 mg. For children. Smokers and older persons have greater need for vitamin c. It is used therapeutically in huge doses from 100 to 10, 000mg. A day. It prevents and cures colds and infections effectively, neutralize various toxins in the system, speeds healing processes in virtually all cases of ill health, increases sexual vitality and prevents premature ageing. According to Dr. Linus pauling, a world famous chemist and nutrition expert" because vitamin c is one of the least toxic vitamins, it is very safe to use in high doses" your body will take exactly what it needs and excrete any excess naturally"

    Natural source of vitamin c - ascorbic acid

    Citrus fruits (oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes) berries melons tomatoes potatoes green peppers leafy green vegetables.
    General Physician
    Vitamin b12 or cobalamin, commonly known as" red vitamin, is the only vitamin that contains essential mineral elements. It is essential for proper functioning of the central nervous system, production, and regeneration of red blood cells and proper utilization of fat, carbohydrates and protein for body building. It also improves concentration, memory, and balance. Valuable sources of this vitamin are kidney, liver, meat, milk, eggs, bananas and peanuts. Its deficiency can lead to certain types of anemia, poor appetite and loss of energy and mental disorders.

    The recommended daily allowance of this vitamin is 3 mcg. Taken in large therapeutic doses from 50 to 100 mcg, it is beneficial in the treatment of lack of concentration, fatigue, depression, insomnia, and poor memory.

    Natural source of vitamin b12 - cobalamin

    Dairy products, eggs, cereals, soy-based products, liver beef & clams
    General Physician

    Now a days life has become full of ups and downs. But when the down times last for weeks or months at a time or keep you from your regular activities, you may be suffering from depression.

    Depression is a medical illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts. It affects the way you eat and sleep, the way you feel about yourself, and the way you think about things.

    It is different from feeling" blue" or down for a few hours or a couple of days. It is not a condition that can be willed or wished away.

    Different kinds of depression include:

    Major depressive disorder. Also called major depression, this is a combination of symptoms that hurt a person's ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy hobbies. Dysthymic (diss-time-ic) disorder. Also called dysthymia, this kind of depression lasts for a long time (two years or longer. The symptoms are less severe than major depression but can prevent you from living normally or feeling well.

    Some kinds of depression show slightly different symptoms than those described above. Some may start after a particular event. However, not all scientists agree on how to label and define these forms of depression. They include:

    Psychotic depression, which occurs when a severe depressive illness happens with some form of psychosis, such as a break with reality, hallucinations, and delusions.Postpartum depression, which is diagnosed if a new mother has a major depressive episode within one month after delivery.Seasonal affective disorder (sad), which is a depression during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight.

    What causes depression?

    There is no single cause of depression. There are many reasons why a woman may become depressed:

    Genetics (family history) if a woman has a family history of depression, she may be more at risk of developing it herself. However, depression may also occur in women who don't have a family history of depression. Chemical imbalance the brains of people with depression look different than those who don't have depression. Also, the parts of the brain that manage your mood, thoughts, sleep, appetite, and behavior don't have the right balance of chemicals. Hormonal factors menstrual cycle changes, pregnancy, miscarriage, postpartum period, perimenopause, and menopause may all cause a woman to develop depression. Stress stressful life events such as trauma, loss of a loved one, a bad relationship, work responsibilities, caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness dealing with serious medical illnesses like stroke, heart attack, or cancer can lead to depression.

    What are the signs of depression?

    Not all people with depression have the same symptoms. Some people might only have a few, and others a lot. How often symptoms occur, and how long they last, is different for each person. Symptoms of depression include:

    Feeling sad, anxious, or" empty" feeling hopeless loss of interest in hobbies and activities that you once enjoyed decreased energy difficulty staying focused, remembering, making decisions sleeplessness, early morning awakening, or oversleeping and not wanting to get up no desire to eat and weight loss or eating to" feel better" and weight gain thoughts of hurting yourself thoughts of death or suicide easily annoyed, bothered, or angered

    Constant physical symptoms that do not get better with treatment, such as headaches, upset stomach, and pain that doesn't go away

    I think I may have depression. How can I get help?

    Below are some people and places that can help you get treatment.

    Family doctor counselors or social workers family service, social service agencies, or clergy person employee assistance programs (eap) psychologists and psychiatrists

    If you are unsure where to go for help, check the yellow pages under mental health, health, social services, suicide prevention, crisis intervention services, hotlines, hospitals, or physicians for phone numbers and addresses.

    What if I have thoughts of hurting myself?

    Depression can make you think about hurting yourself or suicide. You may hurt yourself to:

    Take away emotional pain and distress avoid, distract from, or hold back strong feelings try to feel better stop a painful memory or thought punish yourself release or express anger that you're afraid to express to others.
    General Physician
    Dandruff is one of the most common chronic hair conditions. It is characterized by a white, flaky substance on the scalp. Dandruff is not a serious condition and neither is it contagious. However, people still want it gone so that their hair looks better. Here are the symptoms as well as the causes of dandruff.

    1. Skin drying up: Dry skin is the most common cause of dandruff. The flakes from dry skin are usually less oily and smaller than with other forms of dandruff.

    2. Seborrhoeic dermatitis: Dandruff can also be caused by oily irritated skin. In this type of dandruff, red, greasy skin has flaky white or yellow scales covering it.

    3. Infrequent shampooing: This is also a very common cause of dandruff. This is because oil and skin cells accumulate, thus resulting in dandruff.

    4. Malassezia: Malassezia is a yeast like fungus. It is usually harmless and stays on the scalp of most adults. However, it is worth noting that sometimes the yeast may irritate the scalp and cause extra skin cells to grow. The skin cells then fall off and become flaky.

    5. Contact dermatitis: Contact dermatitis is a sensitivity to health care products and when you use too much shampoo, hair styling products or other chemicals, such as paraphenylenediamine, the red, itchy, scaly scalp associated with dandruff is caused.

    6. Other skin conditions: There are many other skin conditions, which cause dandruff as well. These include eczema and psoriasis. Eczema is a chronic skin disease, which causes the skin to become inflamed. Psoriasis is another skin condition. It is characterized by thick scales forming resulting from rough, dry, dead skin cells which build up rapidly.

    These are just the causes of dandruff. Now you will see how to identify when you have dandruff by learning about the symptoms of dandruff.

    1. The symptoms of dandruff are pretty easy to spot. All that happens is that you will see white, flaky, dead skin cells in your hair.
    2. It is sometimes accompanied by an itchy, scaly scalp.
    3. There is also a type of dandruff called cradle cap, which occurs in newborns. Just like dandruff, it is not dangerous and goes away when the baby is 3 years old.
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    General Physician
    Vitamin b5 or pantothenic acid helps in cell building, main- taining normal growth and development of the central nervous system. It stimulates the adrenal glands and increases the production of cortisone and other adrenal hormones. It is essential for conversion of fatty and sugar to energy. It also helps guard against most physical and mental stresses and toxins and increases vitality. The main sources of this vitamin are whole grain bread and cereals, green vegetables, peas, beans, peanuts and egg yolk. It can be synthesized in the body by intestinal bacteria. A deficiency can cause chronic fatigue, hypoglycemia, greying and loss of hair, mental depression, stomach disorders, blood and skin disorders.

    The minimum daily requirement of this vitamin has not been established, but is estimated to be between 30 and 50 mg a day. The usual therapeutic doses are 50 to 200 mg. In some studies, 1, 000 mg or more were given daily for six moths without side effects. It is useful in the treatment of insomnia, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia or low blood sugar.

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