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Endometrial Ablation Procedure
Treatment of Treatment of Breast Cancer
Management of Abortion
Hormonal Replacement Therapy Treatment
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
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Hi doctor my weight is gaining now 2-3months over hair fall also is there now my neck also paining some one told to me its thyroid problem but I'm now little scared I want 2nd baby so it will problem me what problem I have any problems will come for conceive? Please tell me.
Hello. My wife is 25 years old. She is pregnant. Nd 8 month running now. Push cell 30 to 40. Rbc 1to 2, albumin present. Now what care?
Hi, im an working women. I has sex with my husband on this 4th November without any precautions. Actually my periods should be from 2nd November but still I don't get it. I'm not ready to hav a baby. Do I get pregnant and I'm much hesitate to consult a doctor directly. Can you please help me in this. What need to be followed for not getting pregnant. Help me.
I missed my monthly period this month n i think its bcoz of my changed lifestyle i m 19 yrs old n is on break from studies i m kinda sleeping late like 1.30 and getting up by 11 or 12 sometimes. So of my change i think i m not getting periods. I m still waiting for it . Hope it starts . Can u please tell me how can i get my periods every month on time as it really bothers me.
I am 24 years old women I got marriage recently I have a doubt before the periods can we have sex or not it may kill my starting pregnancy.
Hi I'm 25 year old .married 3 years since no pregnancy I have pcos problem and I trying to conceive last 3 years 2 iui no success. And my husband have low sperm count also have varicose vein in left side of testicles. Doctor told him to do surgery and sure you 'll conceive naturally but he s not interested to do surgery. I don't have tubal blockage and no issues n utrese. please give some solution.
Sir/madam please tell me that if I intercourse with my partner without condom is there chances for HIV.
The rising incidences of cancer have made it important for us to be vigilant about our health. It has been proven medically that if cancer is detected at an early stage -stage I & II , then the chances of cure and treatment along with full recovery are very high. For early cancer detection & for people at greater risk of cancer, PHC-Preventive Health Care plays a major role. Preventive Health Check is particularly important for the people who have a family history of cancer.
Almost all cancers are caused by damage or mutation in their genes, which, may be acquired from environmental exposure, dietary factors, hormones or through normal aging. In 90% of cases, these genes are not passed from parents to children. These are known as sporadic mutations and the cancers that they cause are called as sporadic cancers. But 5-10% of cancers are caused by gene mutations which are inherited from one or both parents & passed on to the children .These are hereditary or germline mutations & these cancers are known as hereditary or familial cancers.
People /children, who carry gene mutations have a higher risk of developing cancer at an earlier age or at some point in their life time.
Some of the common such cancers, which run in families, are:
- Breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Colo-rectal cancer (cancer of large intestine )
- Prostate cancer
Breast, ovary & colo-rectal carcinoma have well established gene mutation studies.Mutation of BRCA 1 & BRCA2 Genes is responsible for 85% of hereditary breast cancers.
Estimated life time risk for developing breast cancer in woman with BRCA1 & BRCA2 mutation is 56-87% & risk for developing-bilateral /contralatral breast cancer is about 20-40%. These statistics make a preventive health check for women with breast cancer history in their family a necessity. Mutation in these genes confers about 20-40% increased life time risk for developing ovarian cancer. Hence the presence of gene mutation for breast cancer can trigger ovarian cancer.
However as stated above, other environmental and lifestyle factors can also cause breast cancer other than genetic BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutations.
- Increasing age
- Early menarche
- Late menopause
- First birth after the age of 30
- Atypical lobular hyperplasia or Atypical ductal hyperplasia
- Prior breast biopsies
- Long term postmenopausal estiogen replacement
- Early exposure to ionizing radiation
Other Familial Cancers:
Familial cancer syndromes associated with colo-rectal cancers are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).It is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with more than 90% penetrance, manifested by hundreds of polyps developed by late adolescence .The risk of developing invasive cancer is almost 100% .So such patients should start getting colonoscopy at an earlier age- say by 20yr of age & should undergo Total Collectomy on development of significant polyps .
Other familial cancer syndromes are hereditary non -Polyposis Colo Rectal Cancer (HNPCC), Gardner's Syndrome, Turcot's Syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Juvenile Polyposis.
Cancer Assessment & Conclusion:
For breast cancer risk assessment, we have the GAIL model & IBIS model, which take into consideration ,all the risk factors, apart from BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutation. These models calculate the over all life time risk of development of breast cancer for any lady. For this, you have to consult a specialist experienced in area of hereditary cancers, cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling & testing.
To conclude, all people with cancers in their family should undergo genetic testing & counseling, to detect high risk individuals should take adequate measures & treatment.
The Benefits of Papaya
1. Digestion - the enzyme papain present in papaya is known to aid digestion by breaking down proteins. Therefore, a glass of papaya juice is often recommended as a home remedy for digestion-related problems or constipation.
2. Anti-inflammatory - apart from papain, papaya also contains other effective enzymes that help against inflammation and promote healing of burns.
3. Heart disease and cancer - papaya is rich in anti-oxidants and phytonutrients that work against free radicals and therefore is said to protect the body from possible heart diseases and cancer.
4. Diabetes - many researchers have found that the consumption of raw papaya could help maintain blood sugar level and cholesterol because of the high fiber content, thereby keeping a check on diabetes. According to a study done by the centre of excellence for biomedical and biomaterials research at the mauritius university, green tea and fermented papaya work together as preventive means for diabetes. In some parts of india, especially the north east, papaya flowers are locally used as a preventive measure against diabetes. The bitter flowers are lightly sautéed in a little oil and consumed as a side to rice on a regular basis.
5. Immunity - papaya is a great source of vitamin a, b, c, and k and is known as an excellent immunity booster. It is great for the growth of body tissues, including hair and skin. It helps in maintaining collagen, the structural protein of connective tissues. It is said that a medium-sized papaya could provide you double your daily requirement of vitamins.
6. Cleansing - beauty experts too, often suggest using slices of papaya as a natural skin cleanser as the active enzymes work wonders to remove impurities.
7. Arthritis - it is also rich in minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium and copper. Regular consumption helps in building up the calcium bank in the body and in the long run could help keep a check on arthritis.
8. Dengue - papaya leaves are commonly used in the treatment of dengue to help boost up the count of platelets. Dr. Anju sood, a bangaluru-based nutritionist says, “dengue is an infection which affects the blood platelets massively. A simple remedy to get back the platelets count is to give the patient a glass of papaya leaf juice. It is prepared by grinding the leaves with a small amount of water to extract the juice.” however, dengue can prove to be fatal once it develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever which shuts down the circulatory system.
9. Weight loss - papaya is low in calories and therefore proves to be the perfect option for breakfast. A serving of 140 grams of the fruit contains only 60 calories, with total fat 0.4 gram, no cholesterol, 15.7 gram carbohydrates and 2.5 gram dietary fiber.
With terminal illnesses like cancer, the disease is not the only thing that requires treatment. In addition to controlling the severity and spread of the main disease, the effect it has on the other body systems including emotional, social, psychological problems and also physical issues like pain and inflammation. Though the disease has reached an advanced stage and cannot be cured, the patient can be made to be pain-free and at peace to the extent possible.
The goal of palliative care is not to cure - in fact, palliative care is in place for diseases like cancer from the time it is diagnosed and treatment is begun but becomes the major component of treatment once the cancer is identified to be in terminal stages. Therapeutic care aimed at curing the cancer is gradually reduced and palliative care assumes a bigger role. This is also called as symptomatic care, supportive care, or comfort care.
Aspects of palliative care: Once the disease is identified to be in terminal stages, then the following become considerations:
- Stay at home or hospital
- Withdraw chemotherapy and radiation?
- Withdraw feeding tube
- Spiritual discussions
- Reduce anxiety
- Good quality time with the family
- Reduce pain and suffering
As is evident, there is a huge component of social/emotional/spiritual management in addition to reducing pain and suffering:
- Physical: Pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, sleeplessness, loss of appetite are some symptoms that need to be managed. In addition to pain killers, small exercises can be included to make them feel better, even if it is just getting a breath of fresh air.
- Social: Depression (learn the ways to handle depression), anxiety, uncertainty, fear are all looming large and they are not sure how to manage these feelings. Talking to a counselor or some close family member or friend can be a big relief - the burden is off their chest.
- Legal: There could be issues related to property, insurance, property that also need to be discussed. External help can be sought if required to provide financial counselling and legal advice.
- Spiritual: Looking into the spiritual needs and understanding the deeper meaning of life, restoring faith are some things that also can help them feel better. "Why did this happen to me?" is a question most people keep asking and while there is no answer, some solace can be provided through talks.
It is to be noted that palliative care is not just for the patient. The caretakers (family and close friends) are equally in need of some support. So, once the patient is identified to be in terminal stages, all effort is made so the final leg of the journey is peaceful and as painless as possible.