Doctors in SPOT Hospital
Back Pain Treatment
Treatment of Joint Pain
Treatment of Leg Pain
Treatment of Knee Pain
Treatment of Hand Pain
Treatment of Abdominal Pain
Treatment of Swelling
Treatment of Hemorrhoids
Treatment of Shoulder Pain
Treatment of Foot Pain
Treatment of Lower Back Pain
Treatment of Bone Fracture
Treatment of Arm Pain
Treatment of Colic
Knee Pain Treatment
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment of Black eye
Treatment of Finger Pain
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Endocrinology deals with hormones, hormone systems and hormonal disorders. The organs that come under endocrinology are pituitary gland, adrenal glands, ovaries or testicles, thyroid gland and pancreas. These organs maintain the chemical balance of the body by secreting hormones which regulate all the body systems.
Relation between the endocrine system and diabetes:
The hormone insulin is secreted by the pancreatic beta cells called the islets of Langerhans. It is a peptide hormone that metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins and fats, stimulates the conversion of glycogen or stored protein to usable glucose and also helps the body cells to absorb the glucose. The movement of ionized or free calcium (Ca2+) is also somewhat dependent on insulin.
Insulin is secreted from the pancreas in two phases - the first phase occurs when blood sugar level is high and need to be absorbed into the cells while the second phase is associated with a slower production not influenced by blood sugar.
Types of diabetes and how they are affected by the endocrine system
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus: This condition is caused by underproduction of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells. It is called 'insulin dependent diabetes mellitus' (IDDM), since it is directly influenced by the hormone.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus: This type of the disorder is not directly dependent on insulin. It is usually caused by obesity and lack of physical exercise. The cells develop resistance to insulin and because of that blood sugar is not absorbed properly. This eventually leads to under-secretion of insulin.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus: Pregnant women might develop high levels of blood sugar even if they did not have diabetes in the past. This occurs due the changes in the regular hormonal cycles and secretion of pregnancyhormones and can result is complications and miscarriage.
Sub-specialties of diabetic endocrinology
- Diabetic renal disease: The kidneys filter the blood. If there are chronically high levels of sugar in blood, hormones like erythropoietin (regulates production of red blood cells) and renin (regulates blood plasma and fluid content) are not produced. As a result, the kidneys' capacity is reduced and waste materials build up in blood.
- Diabetic vision problems: Insulin problems may cause the blood vessels supplying the retina (light sensitive eye tissue) to expand or contract. This causes blurry and distorted vision and pain in the eyes.
The occurrence of diabetes is expanding step by step. Being a silent executioner, it is attacking the youthful generation subtly that builds the weight of exchequer on the general population. Individuals, who are taking cutting edge medicines for diabetes treatment, prompting to searching of option arrangement of medicine where Ayurveda has more prominent application and significance. Ayurveda treats diabetes through diet, drugs, exercise and panchakarma.
Reasons for diabetes
- Deficiency of exercise
- Diet expanding kapha dosha, for example, fats, sugar, rice, potatoes
- Mental stress and strain
- Over the top sleep
Straightforward Ayurvedic cure for diabetes
- Triphala: Triphala alongside different fixings are helpful in bringing down the sugar levels in blood. The decoction of a balance of base of Triphala, barberry, moth (20ml) and colocynth might be brought with turmeric powder (4gm) twice per day.
- Amla: The juice of Amla (Embelica officinalis) (20 ml) twice per day is useful for diabetic patient. The powder of Amla fruit may likewise be taken twice every day.
- Aloe Vera and ground sound leaf: The blend of turmeric (1/2 tbsp), ground sound leaf (1/2 tbsp), and aloe vera gel (1 tbsp) if taken twice every prior day lunch and supper, is useful to control sugar in blood along these lines successful for the issue.
- Cinnamon powder: This is one of the essential regular home remedies. Step by step instructions to plan: First take one liter of drinkable water. Include 3-4 tbsp of cinnamon powder and warmth it for 20 minutes. Strain the blend and made it cool. Drink it consistently.
- Diet: Use Varee, barly, Kulittha, Mung, old rice, Chickpeas, bitter gourd, dudhee gourd, Dodaka, in diet. Incorporate 'Tikta ras' things in diet.
Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal.
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver. Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine. Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.
What Causes Gallbladder Problems?
Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.
It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones. There is no known means to prevent gallstones.
These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and, occasionally, fever. If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) can occur.
- Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
- In a few more complex cases, other X-ray test such as a CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.
Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful.
Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time-honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.
What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?
- Rather than a five to seven inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
- Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
- Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
- Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.
Are you a Candidate?
Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is an appropriate procedure for you.
Impetigo is a skin disorder that is contagious in nature and primarily affects children; it is characterized by the appearance of red sores on the skin. The face, neck and the hands of a child are usually affected by this condition. This disorder tends to develop around the region where the diaper is worn by a child. It is caused by the bacteria; Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Pyogenes. The disorder is classified as:
- Bullous impetigo: It is a type of impetigo which is common among children below 2 years of age. The blisters initially appear on the body, legs and the arms.
- Impetigo Contagiosa: Another common form of impetigo, this is the most contagious of all the types. The symptoms show up as red sores around the mouth and the nose.
- Ecthyma: This is considered to be the most severe form of impetigo because it affects both the top and the lower layers of the skin. The blisters that form may later turn into ulcers or open sores.
In this disorder, red pus filled sores appear on the skin. Once they burst, they leave a yellow colored crust. The rashes will cause constant itching along with the appearance of swollen lymph nodes.
This condition occurs when the skin is infected by certain types of bacteria. This infection can occur in the following ways:
- Direct skin to skin contact
- Coming in contact with things that the affected person has had contact with
- Bites from certain insects and animals
- Skin injuries
The factors outlined below increase the risks of getting affected by this disorder:
- Being below 6 years of age increases the risks
- Certain skin conditions which have been irritating your skin
- Not following proper hygiene
- Being exposed to hot and humid climatic conditions
- Being diabetic
The treatment for this disorder depends on how severe the symptoms are. If the symptoms are mild then simple hygiene procedures can help with the symptoms.
- At home treatments: For mild symptoms, clean the area thoroughly multiple times. After washing, pat dry the skin and apply an antibiotic ointment on the area.
- Antibiotics: If the at home treatments do not work then you will require medications. Antibiotic creams are prescribed that are applied on the skin. Oral antibiotics may also be prescribed for severe symptoms.
The disorder can be prevented by following proper hygiene procedures. Wash your hands with antibacterial soap, use clean toiletries and keeping your fingernails short are some steps you can take.
Similar to blackheads are whiteheads, which develop on our skin. Both blackheads and whiteheads are caused due to clogged pores. However, as opposed to blackheads, whiteheads cannot be extracted by squeezing. Whiteheads are a form of acne that is referred to as closed comedo. They appear on the skin as small round white or light-coloured bumps. When excess oil is secreted in the skin, dead skin cells clog the pore area and block the pore opening, whiteheads are formed. Unlike blackheads that keep the pore open, whiteheads, on the other hand, block the pores.
Causes of whiteheads
Clogged pores are the prime reason that causes whiteheads, and they can occur due to any of the following reasons:
- Excessive oil secretion or sebum
- Hormonal changes occurring due to puberty, pregnancy, and menstruation
- Birth control pills
- Sweating and humidity
- Use of certain cosmetics or products that are harmful
- Eating excessive oily or greasy foods
- Genetic predisposition
Treatment of whiteheads
Over-the-counter (OTC) creams or prescribed medications by a dermatologist are the ideal treatments for whiteheads. Self-care and some preventive measures will also keep them at bay. OTC creams that contain salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, resorcinol or sulphur may be helpful. With extreme conditions, oral medications like isotretinoin, or Accutane may be prescribed, but these come with potential side effects.
Practising some of the following preventive self-care measures will prevent formation of whiteheads:
Wash your skin twice daily with lukewarm water and mild soap.
- Don’t squeeze pimples.
- Practice caution while shaving.
- Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight.
- Use oil-free skin products.
- Remove makeup before going to bed.
- Opt for non-comedogenic or non-pore-clogging products.
- Wear loose-fitting clothing made of non-synthetic fabrics to let your skin breathe.
- Wash your hair regularly.
- Use fragrance-free water-based emollient for dry skin.
- Continue your skincare regimen.
Here are some remedies you can try to get rid of whiteheads:
- Baking soda scrub: Make a homemade scrub mixing one tsp. of baking soda with enough water to make a paste. Scrub it into the problem area. Let it dry for 15-20 minutes and wash it off with lukewarm water. Baking soda is a natural exfoliant and astringent that eradicates all impurities, which clog the pores. It also balances the oil production in the skin.
- Tea tree oil: Dab a cotton swab with tea tree oil and apply it on the whiteheads to prevent bacterial infection.
The above are just some measures to avoid whiteheads. If the problem persists, then it's time to seek medical assistance and schedule an appointment with a dermatologist to eradicate these pesky whiteheads.
Sometimes children suffer from conditions where their feet may not be in proper shape or size which can affect their posture. Most of the times the disorders correct themselves as they grow up but certainly there can be situations where medical attention is required. These conditions can be normal variations in the anatomy as well which don't essentially require treatment. Some of the common orthopedic disorders found in children include:
1. Flatfeet: While most babies are born with flat feet which develop arches as they grow, in some case the arches remain underdeveloped even after they grow older. Their feet may turn inwards while they walk due to their flat nature. There is no inherent problem in this condition unless it becomes painful. Doctors may recommend special footwear with arches inserted for support to reduce the pain.
2. Toe Walking: Toe walking is not a disorder while your child is just learning to walk. Toddlers who continue to walk on their toes after the age of 3 may require medical attention. Toe walking on one leg or persistent toe walking can be due to other medical conditions like muscle weakness, cerebral palsy or autism. It is advisable to take your child to a therapist for casting the foot and ankle which can help stretch the muscles.
3. Pigeon Toes: In toeing or pigeon toeing is common among babies when they are first learning to walk. Sometimes children above 3 years walk with their toes inwards which can be due to femoral anteversion. This happens when upper part of the leg bends more than it naturally should causing inward rotation of the feet. Specially designed shoes and braces can help to correct this condition. Usually the condition corrects on its own with age and does not interfere with sport activities which involve running.
4. Knock-Knees: It is a common tendency among children aged between 3 and 6 to develop knock-knees (genu valgum), since their bodies go through natural shift in alignment. Usually treatment is not required as the legs straighten out eventually. Knock knees on one side or persistent knock knees may require medical attention. Children with this disorder may suffer from pain hence in some cases surgery is recommended after the age of 10.
Warts refer to a type of a deformity in the skin, which refers to the formation of a small, hard, benign growth on the surface of the skin. It is generally caused by a viral infection and results in a feeling of discomfort or pain. Sometimes they might also have tiny black specks on them. Warts usually form on the hands, feet, face and genitals, although they may appear on other parts of the body in some cases.
What causes the formation of warts?
Common warts are caused due to infection of the outermost layer of skin that occurs as a result of viral contamination. The virus that is responsible for this condition belongs to the human papillomavirus (HPV) family.This infection is highly contagious and easily spreads from one person to the next. It is most likely to occur on skin that is cut or damaged as that allows easy access for the virus to enter the skin system.
Following are the ways to treat warts:
- Vaccine - Sometimes your dermatologist may recommend the use of human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine to successfully eliminate warts.
- Over-the-counter wart removers - Over-the-counter wart treatments containing salicylic acid (a type of fungicide) as an active ingredient are commonly used for effective removal of warts. These medications generally eliminate warts by removing the topmost layer of the skin, following the peel-off process.
- Immune therapy - When warts refuse to vanish after the use of all common treatments, this method is put into use. This type of treatment involves the use of medications or solutions, which strengthens your immune system so that it can repel warts. In this case your warts may be injected with an antigen or a solution or cream may be applied on them.
The dark pigmentation, also known as hyperpigmentation is a condition whereby there is an elevated production of melanin, the pigment responsible for the skin color. The hyperpigmentation can be an extremely unpleasant and annoying experience affecting the overall appearance of a person.
What triggers the hyperpigmentation of the skin?
- The hormonal imbalance can be an underlying factor responsible for the increased production of the melanin by the melanocytes. It is a well-known fact that the use of birth control pills can elevate the estrogen and progesterone level. The increased estrogen level acts as a catalyst, triggering an upsurge in the melanin production.
- The dark pigmentation can also be a hereditary trait that runs in the family.
- In some, if not all people, increased exposure to the sun rays can trigger a skin inflammation leading to hyperpigmentation.
- The problem can also stem from skin allergies that may result in an inflammatory response, eventually giving rise to the skin pigmentation.
- Certain medications such as chemotherapeutic drugs, anti-seizure drugs, non-steroidal drugs, or hormone therapy can act as catalysts resulting in dark pigmentation.
- Skin damage caused by eczema or identical dermatological conditions can also lead to pigmentation of the skin.
Natural remedies to reduce the dark pigmentation
While medications and treatments may be available to reduce the hyperpigmentation of the skin, most people opt for the natural remedies which prove to be equally effective, if not more. Mentioned below are some natural remedies that have produced amazing results in the case of hyperpigmentation.
- Many people with skin pigmentation or blemishes have benefited immensely from the use of potatoes. Just cut a potato in two halves and sprinkle some water on the exposed side. Now take this exposed side of the potato and gently rub it on the affected skin area. Keep it for about 10 minutes and then rinse it off with lukewarm water. Regularly use this for about a month (three to four times daily).
- Apple cider vinegar can also work miracles in the case of dark pigmentation. Take water and apple cider vinegar (about 3-4 tablespoons each) in a bowl. Apply this mixture on the affected skin area and then wash off with water (lukewarm) after 5 minutes. For the maximum results, the mixture should be used twice daily.
- Lemon, known for its bleaching properties can also be used to treat the pigmentation. Take lemon juice and turmeric powder (1 tablespoon each) in a bowl and apply it on the affected skin every night before retiring to bed. In the excitement, however, do not forget to rinse it off with water after 15 minutes.
- You can also use lemon juice (1 whole lemon) and organic honey (2 tablespoons) mixture on the skin. Wash it off after 15 minutes and skin pigmentation will be a thing of the past. Use this regularly (twice daily).
- The regular use of aloe vera gel (2 tablespoons) and raw honey (1/2 tablespoon) can also work wonders to reduce the pigmentation. The mixture applied should, however, be rinsed off with lukewarm water after 20 minutes.
When the reproductive glands produce scant to no hormones like oestrogen or testosterone, then it is known as hypogonadism. These hormones are important for controlling secondary sex characteristics like development of breasts in women and testes in men and growth in pubic hair. Sex hormones are also required for the roles they play in menstrual cycle in women and sperm production in men.
Hypogonadism is curable with the right medicines.
Types of Hypogonadism
1. Primary hypogonadism: In this type, there are not enough sex hormones in your body because of a problem in your gonads (testis or ovary). In primary hypogonadism, the gonads do receive the message from the brain to produce sex hormones but cannot produce them.
2. Central/Secondary hypogonadism: In this type, the brain is wherein the problem lies. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus located in the brain do not work properly.
What causes Hypogonadism
The causes of hypogonadism can be classified according to their types.
In primary hypogonadism, the causes are:
2. Autoimmune disorders
4. Kidney and liver disease
In central hypogonadism, the causes are:
1. Anorexia nervosa
3. Bleeding in the pituitary area
5. Taking certain medicines (for example, glucocorticoids and opiates)
6. Anabolic steroids (alternatives to human testosterone)
8. Genetic problems (example: Kallmann syndrome- unable to start or complete puberty)
Symptoms associated with Hypogonadism
Symptoms of hypogonadism in females include
1. Lack of menstruation
2. Changes in mood and energy
3. Body hair loss
4. Lack of sex drive
5. Milky discharge from breasts
Symptoms of male hypogonadism include
1. Body hair loss
2. Loss in muscles
3. Abnormal growth in breasts
4. Low libido
Back pain that grips you every moment you stand up is a sign that you need to work on your back and thigh muscles. When you are not paying attention to this warning sign, it can lead to a chronic condition that can prevent you from doing even the daily routine activities.
Performing the right exercises can help you keep back pain at bay, and prevent it turning into a threat to your physical and emotional health.
- Partial crunches: This is a core strengthening exercise that helps the lower back and the ab area. People who suffer from spondylitis can find this a great workout to manage pain. To do this, choose a flat surface. Lie on your back with bent knees. Your feet should be flat on the floor. Keep your arms on the chest, crossed. Or you can even place them at the back of your head. Your stomach muscles should be tight and slowly raise the shoulders. Breathe out slowly. You will feel the urge to raise the elbows and neck to ease the movement. But, you shouldn’t try this. Hold for a second, and get back to the floor slowly. Repeat this 8 to 10 times. When you cannot keep ab muscles tight, you will be straining the back muscles and joints again. So, maintain the right posture.
- Hamstring stretches: The hamstring muscles at times become inflexible, which leads to the radiating pain from the thighs to the lower back. You need to lie flat and bend your knee. One leg should be unbent. Keep a soft towel and thread it under the ball of your foot of the unbent knee. Slowly straighten the knee and pull back the towel softly. During this, you will feel a gentle stretch in the back of the leg. Stay in the position for 30 seconds. Initially, you will not be able to stay for this long. So you can start with 10 seconds. Do this stretch at least 4 times for each leg.
- Press up back extensions: Begin this position by lying down on your stomach. Place your hands underneath your shoulders. Push the hands down. You will feel the shoulders lifting away from the ground. You can also place the elbows on the ground if you feel comfortable. Stay in this position for 30 seconds.
- Knee to chest: You can ease your muscles in the thighs and lower back with this exercise. Lie on the back, and your feet should be flat. Now bend the knees. Slowly move one leg to the chest with the knees bent. The other has to be flat on the ground with bent knees. Your lower back should be on the floor. You need to hold for several seconds. Lower the knee. Then repeat with the other leg. Do this 4 times for each leg.
All these exercises can do wonders but give some time to experience the effect and do it regularly. You will feel the changes in due course of time. Do not continue when you encounter severe pain during the workout session. You should also ensure that you stick to the right posture while performing these exercises.