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Prostatitis is a very common infection of the prostate. However, it is worth to note that prostatitis can also be an inflammation of the prostate without infection. Only 5 to 10 percent of prostatitis is caused by bacterial infection. Prostate cancer does not normally have its chances increased by prostatitis. There are several forms of prostatitis, including acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (which is also known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome ).
The exact cause for prostatitis is not known, but here are some factors which increase its risk, particularly acute bacterial prostatitis.
- Medical instrumentation: Putting an instrument like a urinary catheter may well cause prostatitis.
- Rectal intercourse: This is basically another name for anal sex.
- Abnormal urinary tract: The urinary tract comprises of the bladders, kidneys, ureters and urethra. If any one of these organs gets infected, then prostatitis is much more likely.
- Bladder infection: A bladder infection may well spread to the prostate.
Prostatitis has a variety of symptoms. Here are the most common symptoms of prostatitis.
- Constant need of urination: This is one of the most common symptoms of prostatitis.
- Difficulty when urinating: Just like the constant need of urination, difficulty urinating is also a sign that you may have prostatitis.
- Pain while urinating: This is because the prostate gland is a part of your urinary tract and if it does not work properly, there will be pain.
- Chills and fever: This is a rarer symptom, but may indicate prostatitis if it is coupled with the other symptoms.
- Pain in perineal area and genital organs: If you are experiencing pain in genital organs, than it may indicate prostatitis.
- Painful ejaculations or relief of perineal pain after ejaculations: If you are having painful ejaculation or the pain arises after ejaculation, then it may be due to prostatitis.
- Hematospermia: Pinkish or brownish semen.
If these symptoms are persistent or bothersome, then a proper consultation is required. Evaluation includes physical examination along with few simple tests. This can be followed by proper treatment for cure or relief of symptoms.
Benign Prostrate Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition which results in the enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostrate grand is situated near the Urethra (a tube which helps flush out the urine from the bladder). Generally, the chance of developing BPH increases after one crosses the age of 50. But it is yet unknown as to why some men experience more severe symptoms than others.
Causes of BPH
This condition generally occurs because of old age and affects almost all men above the age of 75. It occurs because of the various hormonal changes and changes in cell growth that the body goes through, as one becomes old. Sometimes BPH can set in due to genetics. If BPH sets in due to genetically reasons, it usually is quite severe and affects men before they reach 60.
Symptoms of BPH
Quite a few men who develop BPH, experience no symptoms at all. But when symptoms of BPH, known as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUT) start, they can be either mild or very severe. The severity of the symptoms is not related to the extent of the enlargement. Many a times men with only a mild enlargement complain about severe symptoms, while men with a highly enlarged prostate gland have not complained about any discomfort faced.
Symptoms of BPH tend to worsen due to cold weather and also because of physical and emotional overexertion. There are certain medicines, which should be avoided if you suffer from BPH, as they have a tendency to worsen your symptoms, for example diphenhydramine, pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline spray and other antidepressants.
The symptoms of BPH are related to bladder emptying and issues with bladder storage.
Symptoms related to the urine drainage from the bladder are:
- Strain while urinating
- Weak urine flow
- Some dribbling after urination
- Sudden urge to urinate
- Pain while urinating
Symptoms related to storage of urine in the bladder are:
- Waking during the night to urinate
- Urinating frequently during the day and at night
- Sudden urge to urinate, which may be hard to control
It however, has to be kept in mind that these symptoms may not primarily occur due to prostate enlargement, but are the result of other conditions like urinary tract infections, prostatitis, prostate cancer, neurological disorders and even diabetes. Thus, it is essential that you visit a doctor and get the cause for these symptoms diagnosed properly.
Hi, I was just wondering about a smear test. My mam was diagnosed with breast cancer seventeen years ago and recently was diagnosed with ovarian cancer and I was just wondering if it is necessary for me to get a smear test I am 19 year old.
Hpv vaccine cost for 3 doses. Time limit between the doses. Is it only prevention for cervical cancer?
- Seminomas: These grow and spread slowly and respond to radiation therapy.
- Non-seminomas: These grow and spread rapidly, do not respond to radiation, and often require surgery.
While the exact causes for testicular cancer are not clear, the following are considered to be the possible risk factors:
- Family history
- Prior history of testicular cancer
- Undescended testicles
- Congenital abnormalities of the penis or urinary tract
Symptoms: While testicular cancer is often not easy to diagnose, the patient will have symptoms, which he may ignore.
- Painful lump in one or both testicles
- Pain in the lower abdomen and groin area
- Enlargement of the testicles, due to fluid collection
- Back pain
Often, this type of cancer originates in the testicles and spreads to the adjacent groin lymph nodes. It can also reach distant organs like lungs, liver, and brain via metastasis.
The good news about testicular cancer is that the above symptoms would lead to early diagnosis, confirmed by ultrasound and other tests. Once confirmed, even if diagnosed in the late stages, treatment is quite effective and prognosis is good.
Stages of Testicular Cancer
There are four stages of testicular cancer – 0 to III, and treatment and prognosis would depend on the stage at which it is diagnosed.
Treatment: Various modalities are used depending on the stage and extent of spread.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs are used to kill the existing cancer cells and arrest the further growth of testicular cancer. These can be given as tablets or injected into the system.
- Radiation: Either internal or external radiation can be used. External is when a beam of radiation is directed at the scrotum to kill the cancer cells. Internal is when a needle, seed or wire is planted in the scrotum, which constantly gives out radiation to kill the cancer cells.
- Surgery: If one testicle is involved, then it is removed along with the neighbouring lymph nodes. This may be followed up by chemotherapy or radiation in most cases. If distant organs are involved, it may not be removed. Instead chemotherapy or radiation will help control the spread.
- Clinical trials: There are various drugs in final trial phase, and with the risks understood, some men may choose to be part of such trials.
With any of these treatments, surveillance follow-up is very essential, as testicular cancer is known for recurrence. If only one testicle was involved initially, the second one also could be affected later. Infertility is another issue, which needs to be managed in men with testicular cancer.
Most commonly occurring in children aged 5 or younger, Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer developing from immature nerve cells most often found in and around the adrenal glands. However, it is not limited and can develop in several other areas of the body, like the chest, neck, spine and different areas of the abdomen where nerve cells can be found in clusters.
Depending upon the area of the body affected, signs and symptoms may include:
1. Neuroblastoma in the abdomen:
- Abdominal pain
- Diarrhea, constipation or other changes in bowel movements
- A lump of mass under the skin which is anything but tender
2. Neuroblastoma in the chest:
3. There are other signs and symptoms caused by neuroblastoma. These may include:
- Lumps of tissue found under the skin
- Bruise-like dark circles visible around the eyes
- Proptosis (a condition in which eyeballs seem to protrude from the sockets)
- Back pain
- Bone pain
- Unexplained weight loss
Causes: Neuroblastoma typically originates in neuroblasts. These are immature nerve cells formed by the fetus as part of the development process. Eventually, neuroblasts convert into fibres and nerve cells which then make up the constituents of the adrenal gland. Normally, they either mature or gradually disappear. Others, which neither mature nor disappear, form tumors.
A number of problems may result out of neuroblastoma, including:
- Metastasis or spread of the cancerous cells
- Spinal cord compression
- Paraneoplastic symptoms, such as rapid eye movement or difficulty with eye coordination
- Abdominal swelling
Depending on the child's age, the stage of the cancer, or the types of cells involved, the treatment plan varies accordingly:
- Surgery - However, this depends on the size and location of the tumor. Tumors growing near vital organs are too risky to remove
- Chemotherapy - involves the use of chemotherapy drugs
- Radiation therapy - involves high energy beams, like X-rays
- Stem cell transplant or autologous stem cell transplant in case of high-risk neuroblastoma
- Immunotherapy - involves drugs which stimulate the immune system to destroy cancerous cells
My prostrate volume is 45 cc. I am a diabetic. I am aged 56 years. Since 1 week I am having back ache also.
Dear sir, I am giving breast feeding for my kid of 3.5 years old. He is taking one but another breast is coming pain which he is not consumed. I am suffering with gastric problem. Why it is coming pain. Is there any serious problem? Sir.
A hypoechoic SOL (2.88*2.75*2.95 CM)is seen in upper and inner quadrant of left breast. A small lymph node (0.79*0.53 cm) is seen in left axilla. We have done FNAC and report shows infiltrating Duct carcinoma. Is it cancer or tumor? How to proceed further. I am Female age 47.
One of the most common issues with old age in men is the enlarged prostate. Any difficulty with urination (no constant stream, difficulty initiating, or incomplete emptying of the bladder for instance), and the first suspect is an enlarged prostate. These symptoms are followed by a digital rectal exam to check for an enlarged prostate. Once confirmed, the next step is to check for levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If both the exam and the PSA are positive, it could mean prostate cancer. As with any cancer, it is believed that sooner it is diagnosed and the treatment is started, the better.
Historically, the best way to rule out the prostate cancer had been to do a prostate biopsy. This is a minor invasive procedure, wherein biopsies are taken from various regions of the prostate which are known to develop cancer (about 12). A disadvantage of this procedure includes missing out on the front part of the prostate which can also develop cancer. Secondly, it is not a very pleasant experience and given a chance, most men would not want to have it done.
There is good news for these men who would like to avoid prostate biopsies. The first is the multiparametric MRI which uses no x-rays and is considered very safe with extremely accurate results. This MRI exam requires about an hour, and once the images are obtained, the doctor will analyse these images and check for several parameters to assess for prostate cancer. The absence of cancer can be confirmed with up to 90% accuracy, which is far greater than with usual biopsies. If there is a possibility of cancer, then a biopsy can be done to confirm it.
Also, these images indicate the exact region where cancer likely is, and this guides the doctor to biopsy only where absolutely essential. The chances of false positive and false negative results are reduced drastically. The one disadvantage here is that MRI detected biopsies usually tend to be of a higher grade which requires immediate treatment.
Another way to reduce chances of the biopsy by 30% to 50% is by the 4K test. It helps detect a variety of prostate issues including cancer. It can be used once higher levels of PSA is identified and before going for a biopsy. It combined 4 prostate-specific biomarkers with clinical information to accurately provide men with a risk of developing prostate cancer. It can be used even after negative biopsies to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
These two measures can drastically reduce the incidence of prostate biopsies, which is neither pleasant for the patient nor very effective for the doctor.
I am having tightness in my right breast from past 2 days. I felt like a knot in my breast. Then I took a hot bag as it was paining allot. Now the tightness is less. And I can feel the pain only when I touch it. Little redness was there. But no excretion was there from my breast. I had my last periods on 31st october. Please suggest.
Breast cancer is a type of a cancerous infection that develops in the skin cells of the breast. This condition is more commonly diagnosed after you have skin cancer and is more common in women than men. There are certain signs to identify this disease, which are as follows.
1. Breast lumps - Lumps are patches of skin that occur due to the thickening and swelling of the skin. Breast lumps is a very common phenomenon for women but that does not always lead to a breast cancer; however, frequent and reoccurring instances of the same increases the risk of breast cancer. A breast lump is easily identifiable through the naked eye as it looks different from the surrounding tissues.
2. Blood discharges - The nipple is one of the most sensitive areas in the human body. In case of women, it is meant to emit milk during pregnancy, in order to feed the infant externally. A probable symptom of breast cancer can also be a frequent discharge of blood from the nipple without any visible damage or injury.
3. Breast changes - If you are experiencing any visible changes in the size, appearance or shape of the breast, then it is an indicative sign that you may have breast cancer. Thus, it is of paramount importance that you observe, touch and physically examine your breast regularly for changes. If there is any major change detected then it is advisable to consult a doctor.
4. Inverted nipple - The tip of the nipple is generally bulging and pointing outwards both in cases of men and women. But sometimes the tip of the nipple is pushed inside due to excessive suction caused by the skin tissues present inside the breast around the nipple area. This suction forces the nipple to grow inwards which is abnormal and might harm the breast and skin in various ways.
However, apart from these main symptoms, some other signs are also there that increase your chances of being diagnosed with breast cancer. They are redness or pitting of the skin over your breast like an orange, peeling or scaling of the pigmented area around the nipple, dimpling of the skin on the breasts, and such others.
I am having tightness in my right breast from past 2 days. I felt like a knot in my breast. Then I took a hot bag as it was paining allot. Now the tightness is less. And I can feel the pain only when I touch it. Little redness was there. But no excretion was there from my breast.
While having sex yesterday while I was sucking my girlfriend's breast some fluid came out we're worried now what is that fluid about. Is it normal or is she pregnant? Very scared please help me over it.
Is 27 cc volume for prostate for 28 years guy is something to worry about is this could go into prostate enlargement or prostatitis and does it require medical advice or it is some sort bacterial Information.
The uterus is an organ situated in the pelvis of a female. It is hollow and is usually called the womb where child conception takes place. The uterus functions to help in developing the foetus until birth. Abnormal cell growth that consists of uterine tissues causes uterine cancer.
Although the exact reason for uterine cancer is not known, the risk factors usually can be seen in women with hyperplasia, obese women, and women who have never had kids. Common signs and indications of uterine cancer are unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain while urinating and having sex, and pelvic pains.
Bases upon the sort and phase of cancer, and also your concerns about fertility, there are a number of uterine cancer surgical methods, including the following:
Hysterectomy: The primary focus is an operation to remove the uterus and cervix. At the point when the uterus is removed through a cut in the abdomen, it is known as a total abdominal hysterectomy. In case that the uterus is removed through the vagina, it is known as a vaginal hysterectomy.
Radical Hysterectomy: A radical hysterectomy will be necessary for only a small percentage of women since several better surgical options exist already. This kind of uterine cancer surgery includes removing the uterus, cervix and ovaries and the majority of the encompassing tissue (the parametria) and the upper part of the vagina.
Lymphadenectomy: The lymph nodes in the pelvis may likewise be removed. Your specialist may evacuate the lymph nodes as a component of a hysterectomy to deal with cancer and build up a more focused approach for the uterine cancer treatment plan.
Pelvic Exenteration: For women with repetitive or advanced uterine cancer, pelvic exenteration might be an alternative. During this kind of cancer surgery, the uterus, cervix, vagina, ovaries, bladder, rectum and surrounding lymph nodes are removed. Tissue from somewhere else in the body is used to recreate the vagina and urine and stools are passed into external packs.
Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping: Sentinel lymph node mapping (SLN) might be utilised as a part of early-stage cancer if your specialist can see from the X-ray results that there has been no undeniable spread of cancer to the lymph nodes in your pelvis. In this surgery, a blue dye is infused into the zone with cancer, which is usually close to the cervix. The lymph nodes that turn blue are removed during surgery.
- Omentectomy: The omentum is a layer of greasy tissue that covers the stomach contents like an apron. Cancer at times tends to spread to this tissue. At the point when this tissue is removed, it is called an omentectomy. This might be done during a hysterectomy if cancer has spread there or to check for possible cancer spread.
After surgery if the stage comes beyond stage 1 then patients need Radiotherapy by an oncologist.