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Sleep is known to most as a period of rest and relaxation, but there are multiple disorders which are associated with sleep too. Hypersomnolence or hypersomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders. This is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and prolonged periods of sleep at night. They wake up fresh in the morning, but can easily go back to sleep any time of the day without feeling strained or tired. There is again no freshness associated upon waking up. Funny as it may sound, they can doze off even during a meal or in the middle of a conversation.
Causes: This condition is most common in men and in the early adolescent days.
- There is no underlying cause that has been identified, though there is a genetic predisposition.
- People with history of head trauma are more affected
- People with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorders, epilepsy, and other mental disorders are also more likely to be affected
- People with sleep apnea often are hypersomnolence
- Restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy
- Neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s tend to sleep more.
- Sleeping for longer hours at night time
- Excessively sleepy during daytime
- Able to doze off anytime during the day
- Inappropriate and involuntary sleeping pattern
- Having difficulty getting out of bed after waking up, even after prolonged sleep
- Feeling of disorientation
- Feeling agitated, anxious, lethargic, and irritated
- Impaired cognition and memory
- All these lead to extreme state of drowsiness
- Increased tendency for hallucinations
- Reduced appetite and even weight loss in some people
- There is restlessness, reduced pace of thinking and speaking
- Overall reduced energy levels
- Social interactions are affected including work life, social functions, etc.
- If a person happens to sleep more at night or falls asleep during the day easily for more than 3 times a week, it is usually concerning.
- The added feature of no tiring physical activity can also lead to suspicion
- In acute cases, these symptoms are present for at least a month and in chronic cases, it could be seen for up to 3 months
- It cannot be explained by lack of sleep on a regular basis
- One or more of the above conditions could be present, which can help in making the diagnosis
Most cases of hypersomnia would need treatment only to improve their energy levels and improve the quality of life. Very often, treating the underlying condition can lead to improvement of hypersomnia. The tired, lethargic, restless feeling affects the overall performance of a person, leaving them with a lowered self-esteem. Brain stimulating drugs like amphetamines are used to improve daytime alertness and also reduce sleepy feeling during the day.
While most noise is just in the background for us, loud noises, either in small spurts or prolonged exposure, can cause hearing loss. This has been happening more frequently as the levels of noise in an industrialized society go further up.
Noise induced hearing loss explained
Loud noises may damage the sensitive structure of your ear, which process the sound waves into information. They eventually become nonfunctional, resulting in a loss of hearing in that range. If exposure to loud noises continues, then this might extend to the entire range of hearing and may cause total hearing loss.
What may cause noise induced hearing loss?
Some of the scenarios which may cause noise induced hearing loss are as follows:
1. Listening to music on high volume: If you constantly listen to music or watch movies at your home on very loud levels, then it may result in noise induced hearing loss. In fact, listening to music or watching movies with headphones in your ears is one of the leading causes for hearing loss. Headphones have deceptively loud levels and may result in damaged hearing overtime.
2. Noise of household tools: Household tools such as drills, mixers, grinders, mowers, and saws can expose you to loud levels of noise. Even a quick exposure for a few seconds could temporarily damage your hearing.
3. Occupational problems: Occupations such as construction, factory work and military that require the use of power tools on a constant basis can also cause hearing loss. The sound from the resulting friction might damage your hearing very quickly. Explosions and impacts are also causes of hearing loss in the military and law enforcement departments.
Prevention and treatment
Treatment: It is difficult to treat hearing loss as in most cases; it may be permanent, except sudden shocks, when your hearing might come back to normal. The only treatments for hearing loss are hearing aids or cochlear implantswhich can restore hearing partially.
Prevention: Prevention is the best method to avoid hearing loss and in most cases, you should wear ear protection such as mufflers or sound level reduction devices to protect your hearing. Also, practice listening to music, watching TV or movies at lower levels, especially if you are on the headphones.
Headaches and migraines can vary drastically depending on their duration, specific symptoms and the person they are affecting. The more you know about your specific type of headache or migraine, the better prepared you will be to treat them—and possibly even prevent them. The two types of migraine are-
- Migraine without aura: The majority of migraine sufferers have Migraine without Aura.
- Migraine with aura: Migraine with Aura refers to a range of neurological disturbances that occur before the headache begins, usually lasting about 20-60 minutes.
Symptoms of migraine vary and also depend on the type of migraine. A migraine has four stages: prodrome, aura, headache and postdrome. But it is not necessary that all the migraine sufferers experience all the four stages.
Prodrome: The signs of this begin to appear a day or two days before the headache starts. The signs include depression, constipation, food cravings, irritability, uncontrollable yawning, neck stiffness and hyperactivity.
Migraine Aura: Auras are a range of symptoms of the central nervous system. These might occur much before or during the migraine, but most people get a migraine without an aura. Auras usually begin gradually and increase in intensity. They last for an hour or even longer and are
- Visual: Seeing bright spots, various shapes, experiencing vision loss, and flashes of light
- Sensory: Present in the form of touch sensations like feeling of pins and needles in the arms and legs
- Motor: Usually related with the movement problems like the limb weakness
- Verbal: It is related with the speech problems
Headache: In case of a migraine attack one might experience:
- Pain on both sides or one side of the head
- Pain is throbbing in nature
- Vomiting and nausea
- Sensitivity to smells, sound and light
- Vision is blurred
- Fainting and lightheadedness
Postdrome: This is the final phase of the migraine. During this phase one might feel fatigued, though some people feel euphoric.
Red flags that the patient may be having underlying serious disorder not migraine
- Onset of headaches >50 years
- Thunderclap headache - subarachnoid haemorrhage
- Neurological symptoms or signs
- Immunosuppression or malignancy
- Red eye and haloes around lights - acute angle closure glaucoma
- Worsening symptoms
- Symptoms of temporal arteritis
Diagnosis of Migraine: Usually migraines go undiagnosed and thus are untreated. In case you experience the symptoms regularly then talk to the doctor, who evaluates the symptoms and can start a treatment. You can also be referred to a neurologist who is trained to treat the migraines and other conditions. During the appointment the neurologist usually asks about the family history of headaches and migraines along with your symptoms and medical history.
The doctor might advise for some tests like:
- Blood Tests: These reveal problems with the blood vessel like an infection in the spinal cord and brain.
- CT scan: Used to diagnose the infections, tumors, brain damage, and bleeding that cause the migraines.
- MRI: This helps to diagnose the tumors bleeding infections, neurological conditions, and strokes.
- Lumbar Puncture: For analyzing infections and neurological damages. In lumbar puncture a thin needle is inserted between the two vertebrae to remove a sample of the cerebrospinal fluid for analysis.
Migraine treatments can help stop symptoms and prevent future attacks.
Many medications have been designed to treat migraines. Some drugs often used to treat other conditions also may help relieve or prevent migraines. Medications used to combat migraines fall into two broad categories:
- Pain-relieving medications. Also known as acute or abortive treatment, these types of drugs are taken during migraine attacks and are designed to stop symptoms.
- Preventive medications. These types of drugs are taken regularly, often on a daily basis, to reduce the severity or frequency of migraines.
Your treatment strategy depends on the frequency and severity of your headaches, the degree of disability your headaches cause, and your other medical conditions.
Some medications aren't recommended if you're pregnant or breast-feeding. Some medications aren't given to children. Your doctor can help find the right medication for you.
I am 21 years old and I get migraine headaches very frequently and I also feel pain in small areas of my head my hands get swollen if I walk more I have done a 6 month course and also taken homeopathy but nothing has worked till now what should I do.
I am 23 years old guy. I have questions on sleep. 1.what I face is, while I go to sleep in night or for afternoon lap, when I feel like sleepy I get jerk in body, sometimes is minor but sometimes its too heavy (i dnk proper word for it) that I loose sleep. I face it in opposite directions i.e. Left hand n right leg or vice versa. Right hand and left leg is major one. 2. I also face jerk at my hip joint, when i'm studying n I feel sleepy. 3. Sometimes I also face high heart beat, its like I am able to hear heart beats very fast, when I am still in bed. I.e when I bend down to off my alarm which I keep under my bed. Is any thing serious? What should I do? Any precautions from your side? Or any suggestions? Thank you.
I used to have migraine headache daily ,which medicine I could take daily? Vasograin is harmful if two tablets r taken between the gap of 5 hrs.
My mother was diagnosed with blood clot in brain and she had severe neck pain which the doctor has told as spondylitis and asked to take tablet: ecosprin for lifetime. For neck pain and migraine headache, he has suggested gabapin 300 and sibelium. She has been using them for almost 10-12 days. But still she is suffering from headache and fever today. Even after using the tablets, why does this happen?
Parkinson's disease with continuous tremors and hallucinations and non movement of legs. Is it normal for parkinson's effected person.
Migraines are characteristically throbbing, intrusive and sometimes, prolonged headache accompanied by sensitivity to sound and light and the feeling of nausea. They are fairly common and usually treatable with home remedies and allopathic drugs. The word migraine has been derived from another word ‘hemicranias’ which means one sided headache. Headaches resulting from migraines tend to occur in episodes rather than being regular. Additionally, the intensity of a migraine will also vary with some attacks being very severe while other attacks will be a lot more moderate. The pain is often accompanied by nausea or vomiting.
Homeopathy may play an efficient role in the treatment of migraines. Homeopathic medicines are prescribed based on the type, duration and intensity of the migraine attacks and are most often helpful in their treatment.
Homeopathy aims to cure the headache from its very root without attracting side effects. Some of the common homeopathic medicines include:
- Belladonna: This is one of the most common homeopathic drugs prescribed for migraines. This medicine aims to cure the throbbing character of the migraine in the temporal region, which is further induced by light and sound.
- Spigelia: This is useful to treat headaches arising from the left hemisphere of the brain that is fairly common among individuals experiencing migraines. Additionally, there would be an occurrence of severe pain in the eyeballs which might be worsened by excess movement of the eyes.
- Glonoinum: This medicine works fairly well with congestive headaches which are accompanied by a constant feeling of blood rushing to the head. You might also feel shocks in your head.
- Sanguinaria Canadensis: This is prescribed in case of headaches that form from the back of the skull and settle prominently in the right hemisphere of the skull. The eyes also tend to throb; another symptom that is remedied by the use of this medicine.
- Natrum Muriaticum: this is usually prescribed to women who complain of their migraines worsening during their menses. The headaches can be accompanied by temporary loss of vision.
Firstly, what you need to realise is that Alzheimer’s is not dementia and the main point you need to remember about the difference between the two is that the former is a disease while the latter is a syndrome. Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disease, it breaks down the cognitive functions of the brain and reduces a person’s ability to function properly. It’s one of the foremost reasons for untimely senility in middle-aged to old-aged persons.
It can be a scary time for the patient themselves as well as for friends and family alike but fear not, there are ways to reduce the chances of suffering from this painful predicament. Here are a few easy hacks to keep in mind to stave off the risk of Alzheimer’s:
- Fix your diet: Cut down on saturated fats and construct a diet combining lots of healthy vitamin and mineral rich foods, fruits and vegetables. Vitamin E is essential as well as vitamin B12 which can also be taken in the form of supplements. Vitamin E can be found in foods like spinach and even nuts. Rush University Medical Centre in Chicago has, after a lot of research, developed the MIND and DASH diets. The Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet collates portions of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet to create the perfect combination that has been shown to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s by 53 percent.
- Exercise mental and physical: A sedentary lifestyle is one of the major causes of Alzheimer’s because it leads to slower brain activity and an overall unhealthy lifestyle. To break out of this you need to regularly exercise and not just physical exercises but also mental exercises such as solving mental maths and crosswords and reading books and newspapers. There are a lot of apps concerning games that help boost brain activity on the market that can help as well. Physical exercise can include swimming, brisk walking, joking and even gardening.
- Reduce stress: Stress proves to be a huge issue for the brain contributing to its damage by putting a lot of pressure on it. Try to relax more by improving your sleep cycle, resting as and when required, and not overworking yourself.
- Aromatherapy: Essential oils have been shown to work wonders, by reducing stress and relaxing the mind. Lavender, rosemary, lemon and even orange are some great options you can try out. These oils can help rejuvenate damaged brain and nerve cells.
- Meditation: Studies have shown that regular meditation helps boost grey matter in the brain, and along with yoga, keeps the minds and bodies of middle-aged people active and better focused contributing to the overall health of the brain.