Wilson's Disease Treatment
Scoliosis Correction Surgery
Scar Revision Surgery
Column Traumatology Procedure
Treatment of Mckinzie Treatment For Spine
Anterior Segment Surgery
Rf Neurotomy Procedure
Deep Brain Stimulation Procedure
Decompression Microvascular Surgery
Treatment Of Lumbago
CSF Rhinorrhea Surgery
Csf Rhinorrhoea Repair Procedure
Treatment of Disc Prolapse
Accident Injuries Treatment
Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi)
Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi) Treatment
Treatment of Peripheral Nerve
Peripheral Neuro Surgery
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I found the answers provided by the Dr. J Mariano Anto Bruno Mascarenhas to be very helpful.
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Dr. J Mariano Anto Bruno Mascarenhas provides answers that are very helpful.
A spinal cord injury is a damage to the spinal cord. It’s an extremely serious type of physical trauma that’s likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life.
The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. It also sends messages from the body to the brain. We are able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord.
If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may not be able to ‘get through’. The result is a complete or total loss of sensation and mobility below the injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area.
A spinal cord injury is often the result of an unpredictable accident or violent event. The following can all result in damage to the spinal cord:
- a violent attack such as a stabbing or a gunshot
- diving into water that’s too shallow and hitting the bottom
- trauma during a car accident (specifically, trauma to the face, head and neck region, back, or chest area)
- falling from a significant height
- head or spinal injuries during sporting events
- electrical accidents
- severe twisting of the middle portion of the torso
Some symptoms of a spinal cord injury include:
- problems walking
- loss of control of the bladder or bowels
- inability to move the arms or legs
- feelings of spreading numbness or tingling in the extremities
- pain, pressure, stiffness in the back or neck area
- signs of shock
- unnatural positioning of the head
If you suspect that someone has a back or neck injury:
- Don’t move the injured person – permanent paralysis and other serious complications may result
- Call 911 or your local emergency medical assistance number
- Keep the person still
- Place heavy towels on both sides of the neck or hold the head and neck to prevent them from moving until emergency care arrives
- Provide basic first aid, such as stopping any bleeding and making the person comfortable, without moving the head or neck
Because spinal cord injuries are often due to unpredictable events, the best you can do is reduce your risk.
Some risk-reducing measures include:
- always wearing a seatbelt while in a car
- wearing proper protective gear while playing sports
- never diving into water unless you’ve examined it first to make sure it’s deep enough and free of rocks
The symptoms caused due to herniated disc can be very severe and can also cause a bit of disability. The disc of the spine is like a cushion and separates the set of bones on the backside. The discs are shock absorbers of the spine and are mainly composed of 2 parts, a soft jelly centre called the nucleus and a tough outer covering called the annulus.
Effects of Herniated Disk
A herniated or cracked disc is a severe condition and it seems to happen most commonly in the lower back. It happens when a fraction of the soft centre gets pushed through the destabilized area due to degeneration, trauma or by putting pressure on the spinal cord.
Nerves are located precisely at the back of every disc and are responsible for controlling everything in our body. While a disc gets herniated, the external covering of the disc tears and creates a bulge. The soft jelly gets shifted from the centre of the disk to the region where the damage has occurred on the disc. Most commonly, the bulge occurs in areas where the nerve is located and it causes strain on the affected nerve. It has been observed that individuals do not feel any painful sensations even if their disc gets damaged.
When is Surgery Recommended for Herniated Disc?
Surgery for herniated disc is recommended only after options like steroid injections, pain relievers, exercise and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs do not work. If the pain persists even after these options, then it becomes important to go for surgery. There are certain risks involved in this surgery like infection, bleeding or nerve damage.
There are chances that the disc may get ruptured again if it is not removed. If you are a patient suffering from degenerative disc disease, then there are chances that problem occurs in other discs. It is very important that a patient maintains healthy weight to prevent any further complications.
The main factor that increases the risk of herniated disc is excess body weight, which causes a lot of stress on the lower back. A few people become heir to a tendency of developing this condition. Even individuals with physically demanding jobs are prone to this condition.
Activities like bending sideways, pushing, twisting, repetitive lifting can increase the risk of a herniated disk. At times, emergency surgery is also required to avoid paralysis in a patient. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an orthopedist.
A stroke may be called a brain attack. It may happen to any person at any time. A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is cut off. The brain cells become oxygen deprived due to the stroke and eventually die. Dead brain cells result in brain dysfunction due to which patients lose control over muscle and memory.
Strokes can be mild to life threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Stroke requires advanced care and should be treated by extensively qualified and experienced medical experts.
Neurosurgery satisfies all the required clauses for treatment of stroke and accounts for being one of the best ways for management of stroke. Renowned hospitals have a dedicated neurosurgical wing and a team of neurological specialists who know how to deal with stroke the best.
This form of neurology focuses on patients who have undergone a stroke or have experienced symptoms of stroke. A multidisciplinary approach is taken for the prevention of recurrent cerebrovascular conditions.
Types of stroke
- Ischemic stroke: This kind of stroke occurs when there is a blockage in a blood vessel, which supplies blood to the brain. This form of stroke is the more common. The underlying cause of this stroke is known as atherosclerosis, which is a condition where fatty deposits occur in the walls of the blood vessels and cause blockage in them.
- Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel gets weak and ruptures into the brain. This is caused by two types of weak blood vessels known as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation.
- Transient ischemic attack: This type of stroke is also known as a mini stroke. These attacks occur because of blood clots. The blockage caused is temporary or transient in nature.
Treatment of Ischemic stroke
- Tissue Plasminogen Activator: This is one of the best ways to treat ischemic strokes. This medicine is given to the patient intravenously. It dissolves the blood clot and improves blood flow to the area of the brain which is affected. The medicine should be given within three to four hours after stroke symptoms appear.
- Endovascular procedure: This is a process by which the blood clot is removed using a catheter, which gets inserted into the area of the blocked blood vessel. It helps in restoring blood flow to that area.
Treatment of Hemorrhagic stroke
- Endovascular procedure: Several endovascular techniques and methods are used so that the weakening of blood vessels is reduced and less bleeding is caused.
- Surgical treatment: Different modes of neurosurgery may be undertaken to stop bleeding and for relieving pressure within the skull.
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Spine surgeries are complicated and have serious repercussions if the procedure doesn’t go as planned. Probing your doctor is therefore very critical to ensure a safe operation and early post-op recovery. Questions can range from the type of treatment chosen for speedy recovery to side effects. Here is a list of questions that you need to ask your spine surgeon:
1. Why is the surgery recommended?
Typically, there could be more than one treatment option for a particular problem. Your doctor should be able to tell you very precisely as to why the surgery is recommended and how it is going to address the problem.
2. Is there any non-surgical option?
Many spine related issues can be treated with medicines and physiotherapy. Ask your doctor if such options exist.
3. Explain the surgical procedure in detail
Your doctor should explain the whole surgical procedure, explaining the minute details and help will help you to understand the implications.
4. What is the duration of the surgery?
Spine surgeries do not take more than 2 hours. It, however, depends on the procedure that is being performed. You can also take the package for Reducing Joint/Muscle Pains.
5. How will the surgery address the pain?
It is important to know the source of the pain. Exploratory surgeries are not performed on the spine. Ask your doctor how he intends to address the pain through the surgery.
6. What are the risks involved?
Risks and side effects vary from patient to patient. For instance, a person with obesity, spondylitis and smoking has greater chances of complications associated with the operation.
7. Will the doctor perform the whole procedure or he will use practicing surgeons and intern for the job?
Many senior surgeons use interns and junior surgeons to perform a minor procedure. Get a clear understanding of the role of the doctor and his assistants. It is a good idea to know the background if the surgical team who is going to perform the procedure.
8. What is the success rate of the doctor for the procedure he is going to perform?
A successful spine surgeon should be able to give you valid data on his/her success rate and the overall success rate of surgeons all across the country.
9. How many days do you need to spend in hospital?
Your hospital stay is directly related to your insurance. It is essential to get a clear picture on the same.
10. Whether a back brace is necessary after surgery?
Limiting the spine movement speed the process of healing. Most Doctors suggest braces after a spine surgery.
11. What is the time required for recovery?
The recovery greatly varies from patient to patient. What you should ask your Doctor is the expected time required for you to join your job/school.
12. Will there be any physical limitation after the operations?
Many spine surgeries require you to refrain from strenuous jobs for a while. For instance, certain surgeries require you to stay away from driving for a while. Address all these apprehensions from your doctor.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a specilized orthopedist and ask a free question.
Pain causes a lot of discomfort in the body no matter whether the pain is in the back, legs or in the head. Almost all people experience lower-back pain at some point in their lives, which can be extremely painful and can cause considerable annoyance. The first medical specialty that comes to mind for relief of lower-back pain is Orthopedics. The other two specialists that play a vital role in treating lower-back pain are the neurosurgeons and the physiatrists.
Pain in the Back
It is very difficult for the body to source the pain when it is deep and this pain could be due to infection, disease or injuries in the back, stomach and heart. It is even possible that the pain radiates to different places in the body. Often back pain is accompanied by body changes like redness, fever, neurological problems, heat, and changes in body functions and for that diagnosis of the back pain may be very severe. Patients suffering from lower-back pain and with symptoms that comprise of weakness in the foot or other symptoms of a neurologic insufficiency must definitely see a neurosurgeon.
Back pain that occurs due to reversible problems is known to vanish in a few hours or in a day. However, if it continues longer and is accompanied by body changes, then there are chances that the condition can become worse. You must consult your doctor for back pain, if any of such characteristics are witnessed. It is always better to get evaluated by a physician.
When to Consult a Doctor Immediately
- Back pain that is followed by a shock like a car accident.
- The pain in the back worsens and is constant
- Back pain continues for more than 4-6 weeks
- The pain does not improve even after taking typical remedies such as taking pain relievers or after resting.
- Severe pain in the back in the night and that is alleviated by rest
- The back pain is accompanied by abdominal pain
- Numbness in the upper thighs, buttocks, groin or in the genital area
- Weakness or tingling sensation in the arm or legs
Role of a Neurosurgeon
The neurosurgeon provides non-surgical as well surgical care depending upon the nature of the illness or the injury, and he does not just operate. The neurosurgeons are experts and offer treatment to patients suffering from any spine injury or disease, brain or peripheral nerves that deal with arms, hands, feet and legs. But there are many other neurosurgeons that confine their practice to treating back pain.
Nervous Breakdown is not a medical term. It is connected to health problems associated with depression and anxiety. It often results from extreme stress and need medical help to overcome it. Although there are physical and emotional symptoms of this state of being, people often miss it. Here is a list of some common signs and symptoms related to nervous breakdown:
- It is hard to concentrate: It is often seen that a person finds it hard to concentrate when he is on the verge of mental breakdown. While a little stress helps in better functioning of the memory, chronic stress can prove to be lethal for the human mind and body. According to a study conducted by the University of Maryland Medical Center, it is found that too much stress results in the secretion of a hormone called cortisol which deteriorates the memory.
- Food becomes your best friend: An increased level of stress makes the body release certain hormones such as adrenaline for a flight response. When this hormone wears off, cortisol asks the body to replenish energy from food. This hormonal reaction results in emotional eating. As a result of stress, certain high sugar items such as ice-cream and chocolate give a good feeling to the body. According to a study conducted by the American Psychological Association it was found that 40 percent out of 3000 individual seek pleasure in high fat high sugar items.
- An upset stomach: Often before nervous breakdown, many people report symptoms related to IBS. A patient might also go through certain other symptoms such as stomach aches, abdominal pain and diarrhea. These indicators are related to overwhelming stress more often than not. According to a recent study conducted by the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, it is found that more than half the people suffering from IBS have anxiety or depression related disorder.
- Slouching becomes your favorite activity: Slouching is a major indicator of stress. A study conducted by the San Francisco State University in 2012 revealed that slouching drains more energy than skipping. Poor posture and depression is a common phenomenon in people suffering from anxiety and stress related disorder. If this is occurring way too frequently, it is time to consult a doctor and get professional help.
- A hyperactive nose: People with hypertension, anxiety, depression and stress often find themselves with a hyperactive sense of smell. A study conducted by the University of Wisconsin revealed that when a person is exposed to disturbing images of crashes or accident, he is often found to have a distorted sense of smell. Even neutral smells can be mistaken as foul ones by patients suffering from anxiety. If this sounds familiar, it is time to visit a doctor.