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HIV is a systemic disease which affects all parts of the body. The oral cavity also has some tell-tale symptoms which indicate HIV / AIDS. A careful examination and detailed history of symptoms is essential. In some cases, the oral manifestations could be the area where HIV is suspected. This can help in reducing morbidity and improves prognosis. The oral lesions that occur in HIV patients can vary and differ significantly in children and adults. While there are a variety of oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals, listed below are some common infections seen in HIV patients. These are a combination of fungal, viral and bacterial infections.
- Candidiasis: Candida is an opportunistic fungus that is normally present in the oral cavity and with reduced immunity of HIV, recurrent bouts of the infection begins to show up. It can be in the form of regular thrush which is whitish and cannot be scraped off (pseudomembranous candidiasis), hyperplastic candidiasis (white patches which can be scraped off) or erythematous (reddish patches). Candida can involve any part of the oral mucosa including the pharynx and the palate.
- Herpes Simplex: This is the most common viral infection seen in patients with HIV/AIDS. There could be primary or secondary infection of herpes virus, especially inside the mouth and the vermillion border of the lips.
- Herpes zoster: This virus, when already present in the body, can be reactivated with HIV/AIDS and with oral herpes. The distinction with herpes simplex is from their distribution. These are unilateral, along the distribution of the maxillary or mandibular nerve. The lesions appear both on the facial skin and the oral mucosa. While the facial ones break open and form crusts, the mucosal ones coalesce to form larger lesions.
- Hairy Leukoplakia: This is present in about 20% of asymptomatic HIV patients. Onset of hairy leukoplakia is an indication of rapid progression of HIV with increased CD4 counts. The typical lesion is a non-movable, hairy lesion along the side of the tongue and can spread to the top and the undersurface of the tongue. There are large amounts of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) identified from biopsies of hairy leukoplakia.
- Cytomegalovirus: If the ulcers have a necrotic base with a halo surrounding it, it is CMV infection, usually seen on any oral mucosal surface.
- Periodontal disease: This is one of the bacterial infections that manifests itself in HIV patients. It can take two forms such as Linear Gingival Erythema (LGE) which can subsequently lead to Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis (NUP). The oral hygiene is generally good with minimal plaque and there is rapid bone loss and soft tissue reddening and swelling. The, mouth, therefore is certainly a window to one’s health.
Diagnosing HIV with Western Blot Test-
It is a series of blood screenings are performed to test for HIV. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is the first test that your healthcare provider will order to screen for HIV. ELISA, like the Western blot test, detects HIV antibodies in your blood. Antibodies are proteins your immune system produces in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses. If you test positive for HIV on the ELISA test, your provider will order the Western blot test to confirm HIV infection. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
I am suffering from dry mouth and bitterness and not interested to take dinner since a fortnight. Please advise me for cure.
I am addicted to raw tobacco like gutkha khan for several years. Teeth and gums are very much effected. Wat can be the worst outcome as I don't drink or smoke much. Is a big reason to worry. Wat are the remedies.
I can't open my mouth fully while eating or chewing the food. Earlier I was chewing gutkha but now since 6 months I am not chewing gutkha, but still I am having the problem and have pain in both the side jaws.
I am a 21 years old boy I have some problems in my chest and morning when I am brushing at that time blood is coming in my mouth please tell me what is this how I control?
I am suffering from mouth ulcer from my childhood. What can I do? please give me any suggestion which are beneficial for me.
Sir, I hv gaps between my front upper teeth. I want to go for crowns. Bt I heard that crowns will cause tooth decay. What I should do?
Hi sir. I've got some yellow shades on my tooth. My parents also had that thing. Can you suggest me some natural or herbal cures.
I use gul manjan heavily and now suffering from bp. I want to leave it but can't. Also my teeth has blackened. Kindly guide home remedies. Dentist scaling I did in april this year.
Use a good toothbrush. Choose a toothbrush with soft nylon bristles. This must effectively remove plaque and debris from your teeth, without irritating the gums or eroding tooth enamel like hard bristled brushes can do when used with sideways action. The toothbrush should also fit comfortably in your hand, and have a head small enough to easily reach all of your teeth, especially the ones at the back. If you have difficulty fitting the toothbrush into your mouth, it is probably too big.
Electric toothbrushes are a great choice if you are a lazy brusher and think that the electric toothbrush might encourage you to spend more time on your teeth. However, you can do just as good of a job with a manual toothbrush -- it's all in the technique.
You should definitely avoid toothbrushes with" natural" bristles made from animal hair as these can harbor bacteria.
Replace your toothbrush regularly. The bristles will wear out over time, losing their flexibility and effectiveness. You should get a new one every 3 to 4 months, or as soon as the bristles start to splay out and lose their shape. Visual inspection of the toothbrush is more important than the actual timeline. You can also buy toothbrushes nowadays whose handles will change color when its time to get a new one.
Research has found that thousands of microbes call toothbrush bristles and handles" home" and can cause infections.
Always rinse your brush after using it, and store it upright and uncovered so that it can dry before your next use. Otherwise bacteria will grow.
Use a fluoride toothpaste. It not only helps remove plaque, it also helps strengthen tooth enamel. however, it's important to note that fluoride toothpaste is not to be swallowed, as ingesting too much can have serious health consequences. It should not be used for children under the age of 3.
You can get toothpastes to target a wide variety of dental and gum problems, including cavities, tartar, sensitive teeth and gums, gingivitis and stained teeth. Opt for the one that suits your best or ask your dentist or hygienist for advice.
Use dental floss. Flossing your teeth is just as important as brushing, as it removes built up plaque, bacteria and food particles that get trapped between the teeth and which soft floppy toothbrush bristles can't reach even when used with up/down natural motion. You should always floss before brushing your teeth so that any food or bacteria that comes loose during flossing doesn't remain in your mouth.
Remember to floss gently. Don't" snap" the floss between the teeth as this can irritate sensitive gums. Ease it down gently, following the curve of each tooth.
If you find dental floss awkward to use or you have braces, look for dental picks instead. These are small wooden or plastic sticks which you can insert between teeth, achieving the same results as flossing if spaces are large enough.
My teeh are yellowish, why so, and in my lower jaw inner side get tartar like reddish deposition which were gets cleaned two times, I never use smoke or tabbacoo. Please suggest me.
Many cases of bad breath may be readily alleviated by:
Proper dental care and oral hygiene, including daily flossing.
Gentle cleaning of the posterior portion of the dorsum of tongue (e.g., with a plastic tongue cleaner).
Rinsing and deep gargling with an effective mouthwash (in order to get the liquid as far back as possible without swallowing it, one can extend the tongue while gargling). This is most effective when done at bedtime.
Eating fibrous foods (a healthy breakfast is recommended).
Chewing gum briefly (5 minutes is often sufficient) if the mouth is dry, or after meals, especially with high protein intake. Sugar-free gum is preferable.
Sufficient water intake.
Decreasing alcohol and coffee intake.