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Kidney Stones Treatment
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Varicose Vein Laser Treatment
Hernia Repair Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Male Breast Reduction Treatment
Prostate Laser Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Accident Injuries Treatment
Stem Cell Transplant
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This surgery involves the removal of Gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ that lies right beneath the right side of the liver. The main function of the gallbladder is to collect and concentrate bile, which is a digestive juice produced by liver after eating, aiding digestion. The most common disorder of the digestive system is presence of Gallstones, which are the stones made up of a mixture consisting of cholesterol, bile pigment and calcium salts.
These Gallstones don’t cause any problems in most cases. But prompt treatment is required if stones block ducts and cause infections and inflammation in the pancreas. This may lead to removal of the gallbladder through a surgery, known as cholecystectomy, which further includes techniques such as laparoscopic (keyhole) cholecystectomy or open surgery.
Although it is a less vital organ, the body can cope up even after removal.
Procedure of surgery:
- The surgery involves removal of gallbladder and gallstones through several incisions in the abdomen. In order to see clearly, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with air or carbon dioxide.
- A lighted scope attached to a video camera is inserted into one incision near the belly button. The video monitor is used as a guide for inserting other surgical instruments into the other incisions to remove the gallbladder.
- Intraoperative cholangiography is the X-ray procedure which shows the anatomy of bile ducts. This is done before the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
- Bile flows from the liver through the common bile duct after the surgery into the small intestine. As the gallbladder has been removed, the gallbladder can no longer store bile between meals but has no effect or little effect on digestion.
- In case of open surgery, the surgeon reaches the gallbladder through a large, single incision in the abdominal wall.
Complications after gallbladder surgery:
This surgery carries some degree of risk like any other surgery. Complications such as internal bleeding, infection, injury to nearby digestive organs, injury to the bile duct and injury to blood vessels.
Types of gallstones:
There are three main types of gallstones. They are
1. Mixed stones: They are made up of cholesterol and salts. They tend to develop in batches.
2. Cholesterol stones: Mainly made of cholesterol, which is crucial to many metabolic processes. They can grow large enough to block the bile ducts.
3. Pigment stones: The colour of bile is greenish-brown, due to some particular pigments.
Medical factors to consider before cholecystectomy:
The most important factor is a consideration of your medical history. This is because the pre-existing conditions influence decisions on surgery and anaesthetic and information about any bad reactions or side effects from any medications would be helpful for surgery.
Self-care after the surgery:
Taking rest is the most important thing after surgery. Avoid things such as heavy lifting and physical exertion. The usual recovery period after the surgery is one week.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The bowel is a very important part of your body within the digestive system as it plays a vital role in the absorption of nutrients and minerals within your body as well as excreting toxic matter. The bowel contains the small bowel or small intestine as well as the large bowel or the large intestine. However, parts of the bowel may be infected or damaged in such a manner that they may need to be removed in order to save further worsening. Thus, the removal of sections of the bowels is known as bowel resection surgery.
How is bowel resection surgery performed?
In this procedure, sections of either the large intestine or the small intestine are removed which have either become diseased, infected or have malignant growths within them. The doctors and surgeons first identify the sections that need to be removed and then perform the surgery wherein a section of the tissue is excised and then two ends of the bowel are stitched together to form a new section of continuous small intestine or large intestine.
Types of bowel resection
There are two types of bowel resection, namely small bowel resection performed on the small intestine and large bowel resection performed on the large intestine. The indications for both of them are mentioned below:
Small Bowel resection: Some of the cases wherein small bowel resection may be required are as follows:
- Cancerous or benign polyps or growth
- Precancerous growths and polyps
- Damage to the small intestine due to injuries
- Congenital defects in the small intestine
- Blockages in the intestine
- Growth of ulcers, bleeding, and infection within the small intestine
- Infections within the intestines
- Other disorders of the small intestine
Large bowel resection: Large bowel resection is also carried out due to many of the same reasons as mentioned above. However, some of the specific reasons for large bowel resection are mentioned below:
- Colon cancer
- Diverticulitis, disorder that specifically affects the large intestine
- Bowel inflammation or ulcerative colitis
- Abnormal twisting of the bowel also known as volvulus
- Intestines which slide into another section of the intestine; also known as intussusception
Risks of the bowel resection
Like any other surgery, bowel resection also carries its own risks just as any other form of surgery. Some of the common risks of bowel resection are –
- Adverse reaction to anesthesia
- Heart attacks or strokes during the operation
- Excessive bleeding among others
Specific risks for large and small bowel resections are mentioned as follows:
- Small bowel resection: Certain common risks include accumulation of pus in the abdomen, internal bleeding within the intestine after surgery, diarrhea, infection of the incision area and the stitched area breaking open among others
- Large bowel resection: In this case, tissues protruding through the cut causing an incisional hernia is the most common element of risk. Nearby organs may be damaged as well; scar tissue, problems with the passage of material within the colon among others are some of the other complications.
However, these issues occur rarely and resections are performed very successfully and quite regularly by surgeons.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Feeling a lump on your breasts can be a terrifying moment. 'Cancer' is the first thing that comes to mind but in reality, most lumps in the breast are not caused by cancer. Apart from cancer, breast lumps can be caused by non-cancerous growths, injuries and infections. The only way to correctly diagnose the cause of a lump in the beasts is through a biopsy.
Hence, this is the first step towards treating a breast lump. From here on, treatment will depend on the cause identified.
- Mastitis or Breast Infection: Mastitis is a painful infection of the breast tissue often faced by women who are breastfeeding. It can be treated with heat treatment and antibiotics. Massaging the breast while taking a warm shower or applying a warm compress. This will open up the milk ducts and should be followed by nursing the baby or using a breast pump to relieve the swelling and pain.
- Abscess: Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against an abscess but this is effective only if given in the initial stage of the infection. In later stages, an abscess will need to be surgically drained.
- Fibroadenomas: This is a non-cancerous tumour often found in young women. It is often difficult to distinguish between a Fibroadenoma and a cancerous tumour and hence these are usually surgically removed.
- Fibrocystic Changes: In some cases, the breast itself is composed of knotted, rope like tissue. This is known as having fibrocystic breasts. If a new lump presents itself on fibrocystic breasts, a mammogram and an ultrasound are performed to evaluate the lump. In most cases fibrocystic changes do not require any medication or surgery.
- Breasts Cysts: Cysts can be defined as fluid filled lumps. In some cases, these cysts become apparent at the time of ovulation and disappear after the period. In other cases, it may need to be drained with a thin needle. Cysts often recur and need to be re-drained.
- Fat Necrosis and Lipoma: Fat necrosis is a lump caused by an injury to the fatty tissue in the breast. Lipoma is a fatty growth within the fatty tissue. In both these cases, no treatment is required but if it causes any problems, it can be removed.
- Breast Cancer: If the biopsy reveals the presence of a cancerous tumour, you must immediately consult an oncologist. Treatment options for breast cancer include chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and hormone treatment. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition whereby, tiny abscesses and ulcers are formed on the inner lining of the large intestine, or on the colon or rectum. These ulcers may burst frequently resulting in diarrhea and bloody stools. This disease may also be responsible for causing anemia as well as harsh abdominal pain.
Ulcerative colitis normally alternate periodically from flaring up to receding quickly. These periods of remission can either last for weeks or maybe, even for years at a stretch. They are, however, not permanent and although the disease may seem to have disappeared completely, it can soon show up again in no time. Usually beginning in the rectum, it can, by and by, spread rapidly to other parts of the colon. If it is, however, limited only to the rectum, then it is more commonly referred to as ulcerative proctitis.
Surgery is generally obligatory and mandatory when it comes to treating ulcerative colitis. If surgery is not performed, you may suffer from long-lasting side effects, including cancer and colon rupture. Here are the different types of surgery that you may undergo:
- Colectomy: This is done when the entire colon needs to be removed and is usually performed to eliminate the perils of acquiring colon cancer.
- Proctocolectomy: This concerns the total removal of both colon and rectum and is usually the standard procedure when dealing with ulcerative colitis.
- Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis: If the treatment does not require a permanent stoma, and if you can still manage to let out stool from your anus, then this surgery, also called restorative proctocolectomy would be most appropriate.
Here, both colon and rectum are removed, but at the same time, the small intestine is utilized to form an internal reservoir, called a J-pouch, which is linked to the anus and can hereafter serve as your new rectum. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A tumor may be defined as an abnormal unwanted growth of tissue in any part of the body. This word need not immediately cause panic because the tumor may or may not cause a health threat. There are three types of tumors:
- Benign tumor: This is a noncancerous type of tumor. In our body, new cells are formed while the old ones called dead ones are disposed by our immune system. When this disposal of cells does not occur, the remaining dead cells form a lump, which is called a benign tumor. They are not dangerous since, they do not contain harmful fluids and do not spread. A person suffering from a benign tumor in the brain may have frequent headaches.
- Pre-malignant tumor: It is an initial disorder, or an earlier symptom of cancer manifestation. The inclination of this medical condition is that it will progressively become precarious. This is so because it is capable of conquering neighboring tissues and spreading as well. Leukoplakia is a form of premalignant cancer. They evolve as thick white patches inside the cheeks or on gums below the tongue. These patches are very difficult to be scraped off from the mouth. They are caused mainly due to chewing tobacco and smoking, and ff left untreated can expand.
- Malignant tumor: These are the cancerous tumors, in which cells multiply abnormally and rapidly. They are unstable and travel along bloodstream, circulatory system and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. Sarcomas and carcinomas are the most common types of malignant tumors. While the former is related to connective tissues the latter is related to organs and glands.
The most common procedure to name the type of cancer is to refer to their site of origin. Adenocarcinoma, refers to cancer in the adenoid glands. Similarly, a benign tumor of fatty tissue is called lipoma, where as a malignant tumor in the same area is referred to as liposarcoma.
What is a biopsy? How does it relate to a tumor?
A Biopsy is a medical procedure practised by qualified medical practitioners. This procedure helps in identifying the type of tumor within a patient. It aids the doctor to conclude the type of treatment to be given to any patient. This procedure is a definite diagnosis to the identification of cancer. A Biopsy is the removal of a sample of the abnormal, unwanted tissue for laboratory examination. Biopsies are of different types, and they may be performed using ultrasound, CT scan or MRI depending on where the tumor is.
- Excisional biopsy: In this method the entire lump of excess tissue is removed.
- Incisional biopsy: Here a sample of the abnormal tissue is removed surgically.
- Needle aspiration biopsy: Here the sample is extracted with the help of a needle.
After extraction, the tissue layers are sent to pathological departments to check their composition, and cause of disease.
Cleft palate or palatoschisis is a common genetic abnormality that leads to a horde of problems and is presently a growing challenge to medicine practitioners. The major developmental stages affected due to this particular irregularity include feeding, speech development, dentition and maxillofacial growth which are rather important to the normal overall developmental pace of an individual. Even though the cleft palate deformity was defined centuries ago, no fixed management algorithm exists for patients suffering from the condition in the present day scenario.
Cleft palate may be successfully fixed using reconstructive surgery. Multiple specialists are involved in the reconstruction surgery including plastic surgeons, otolaryngologists, nutritionists, oromaxillofacial surgeons and speech pathologists. Some hospitals also consider psychological therapy for the patient and the family to help get through the emotional trauma and the issues faced due to developmental backlogs.
The treatment for cleft palate usually begins around 9 to 12 months of age. If left untreated, it may cause major deformities. It takes about some years before the whole procedure is completed although it depends on the type and severity of the deformity.
The process involves the administration of anaesthesia after which the palate repair closes the inner, middle and final layers and at the same time realigning of the palatal muscles in a technique called anintravelarveloplasty is conducted. This ensures that the muscles are adjusted in a normal position which facilitates the best functioning of the palate during feeding, swallowing and speaking. It is possible that the child might require more than one surgery to completely close the palate.
Some of the risks involved during the process include:
1. Abnormal reactions to the medications
3. Problems in breathing
4. Need for more surgery
Although complicated and time consuming, cleft palate must be given immediate attention to avoid serious developmental issues. The reconstruction surgery and therapy combined ensures a normal development for the child in the longer run, given the surgery was done at the correct time. The child would be required to remain at the hospital for about 5-7 days. Complete recovery takes a time period of 4 weeks. Keeping the wound of the surgery clean is of the utmost importance and it should not be strained.
It is a type of surgery, which involves the usage of small tubes, surgical instruments and video cameras for operations through small incisions or cuts in your body.
Even though laparoscopy is a very popular form of surgery, there are quite a few myths associated with it, which are:
- Myth: If you've undergone multiple abdominal surgeries in the past, you can't opt for a laparoscopy: The truth is that you can go for a laparoscopy even if you've gone through multiple surgeries previously, irrespective of the location or size of the previous incisions. This is done through the use of a special instrument, called a microlaparscope that enables safe entry into the abdomen of the patient.
- Myth: If you're overweight or underweight, you can't undergo a laparoscopy: No matter if you're obese or too thin, you can still undergo a laparoscopy as the tools used for this surgical procedure are available in different lengths and sizes, and can be adjusted as per the body type of the patient before the incision is made.
- Myth: The images taken through a laparoscope are of poor quality: This is not true. In fact, the visuals obtained through a laparoscope are clearer and much more accurate when compared to those obtained via an open surgery. The visuals of a video laparoscopy provide a detailed magnification of even those parts of the area that are inaccessible by the human eye.
Though different people experience the surgery differently due to difference in health conditions, there are some points everyone should know about a laparoscopic surgery.
- The problems that laparoscopy addresses: Conditions like ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disorders are generally treated using laparoscopic surgery. Moreover, laparoscopy is also used to remove the gallbladder, appendix, patches of endometriosis or detect adhesions, fibroids and cysts. Also a biopsy of the organs inside the abdomen can be done through laparoscopy.
- The duration of your stay in hospital: Usually performed on an outpatient basis (release on the same day as the surgery), a laparoscopic surgery may require you to stay overnight at the hospital if your condition requires a complex or lengthy surgery. Moreover, if the doctor feels that a bowel resection or partial bowel resection needs to be performed, you may have to stay at the hospital for a few days. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Having a surgery, big or small, will subject your body to a certain degree of pain. Post-operative care, hence, is of paramount importance. You'll have a surgical wound where the surgeon has made an incision. To ensure that it heals quickly and to reduce the risk of an infection, it is important that you care for your wound area and keep a regular check for unusual signs and symptoms.
Let us take a step back to understand the normal process of how a wound heals. At first, there will be inflammation during the first week when blood flow to your wound increases. This is a crucial care period as your wound is still fresh. The second phase is proliferation where new blood vessels and tissue begin to grow around the area.
The third and final phase is maturation where new cells develop to strengthen the wound and soften the scar. Depending on the location and size of your wound, your surgeon may have used stitches (medically called sutures), metal clips or staples, adhesive dressing, tape or glue. Stitches, clips and staples are usually removed between three and fourteen days after your treatment. Here is how you can care for your surgical incision:
- Change your dressing regularly: Most patients are called to the hospital at regular intervals during the first week for change of dressing two or three times. The nurse or doctor ensures a sterile environment during the process. If you find your dressing falling of late night and you can't go to the hospital, you can wash your hands thoroughly and open a new sterile dressing package and apply to your wound. At all times, touch only the edges of your old / new dressing.
- General care for your incision site: Keep the incision site as clean and dry as possible. Keep it covered with plastic during a shower if it is on your hands or legs or take a sponge bath until you get a green signal from your doctor. Protect the incision from sunlight. Some incisions may get itchy as they heal. This is quite common, but it is important not to scratch your incision during this period.
- Eating and drinking properly to heal quickly: Vitamin C and Proteins are important as they aid in healing of wounds. Eat a healthy and balanced diet, which includes a variety of lean meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, fruit and vegetables. Make sure that you drink enough water because if you're dehydrated, your wound may take longer to heal.
- Look for signs of infection: The common signs of an infection are redness, swelling, unusual drainage, warmth around the incision site increased pain or tenderness at the incision, incision opens up or a fever of more than 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit.
Colorectal surgery deals with the disorders of the rectum, anus and colon. Another name of colon is ‘large intestine’. These three body parts form the last stages of the digestive process. When the human waste passes through the colon, its salt and water are extracted before it exits the body as human excreta.
- Swelling and inflammation of the veins in the anus (also called as Haemorrhoids)
- Anal fissures- unnatural cracks and fissures in the anal area
- Fistulas or the unnatural connections between the anus and other anorectal areas
- Conditions of constipation
- Incontinence in passing of faeces
- When the walls of the rectum protrude through the anus- also called as Rectal prolapse
- Birth defects such as imperforate anus
- Anal cancer- this condition is rare
- Colorectal cancer- cancer of colon and rectum
- Any injuries to the anus
- Removal of any objects inserted into the anus
Bowel habits after colorectal surgery
Many patients report cases of diarrhoea, leakage of stool or gas, urgency to use the toilet and a feeling of insufficient evacuation of faeces. Relax; these conditions are not going to last forever. Your rectum and anus are adjusting to new conditions after this surgery. These organs may take six to twelve months to adjust to new bowel habits.
Is there a need to take a laxative or stool softener?
There is no need to take laxatives after a colorectal surgery. Drink lots of water to make your stool softer and easy to pass. If there is a water deficiency in your body, then it may lead to your faeces becoming hard. In that case, take milk of magnesium, colace etc.
Activities post surgery
You can continue with your normal schedule after this surgical procedure. Carry on running, jogging, exercising, climbing up the stairs etc. even after your surgery. Gastroenterologists recommend that patients should desist from lifting loads weighing more than 10 pounds so that there are no post surgery complications.
Diet after colorectal surgery
Avoid spicy and heavy to digest meals after your surgery. Once the intestines begin working normally, you can continue having your spicy food. Chew your food well to aid its digestion.
Returning to work after colorectal surgery
Most people are back to their work after taking a break of 2-5 days. If the surgery is pretty detailed, you may have to take a break of up to a month. Patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery may have to take a rest of 2- 4 weeks before they report back to work. Take it easy before slipping into your regular schedule. If working hurts after your surgery, don’t do it.\
When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides in, it is called as hernia.
Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.
Types of hernias:
- Inguinal hernia: The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. This is more common in men than women.
- Hiatal hernia: The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.
- Umbilical hernia: The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.
- Incisional: These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.
These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.
This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment. Hernias need to be managed under medical supervision. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Surgeon.