Critical Care Procedures
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment
Memory Improvement Techniques
Quit Smoking Techniques
Psychotherapy For Couples
Manual Therapy Treatment
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Learning Disorders
Anger Management Therapy
Psychological Diagnosis (Adult And Child)
Psychoanalysis for Suicide
Treatment of Behaviour & Thought Problems
Psychoanalysis for Mourning
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Avoid napping during the day. It can disturb the normal pattern of sleep and wakefulness.
Avoid stimulants such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol too close to bedtime. While alcohol is well known to speed the onset of sleep, it disrupts sleep in the second half as the body begins to metabolize the alcohol, causing arousal.
Exercise can promote good sleep. Vigorous exercise should be taken in the morning or late afternoon. A relaxing exercise, like yoga, can be done before bed to help initiate a restful night's sleep.
Food can be disruptive right before sleep. Stay away from large meals close to bedtime. Also dietary changes can cause sleep problems, if someone is struggling with a sleep problem, it's not a good time to start experimenting with spicy dishes. And, remember, chocolate has caffeine.
Ensure adequate exposure to natural light. This is particularly important for older people who may not venture outside as frequently as children and adults. Light exposure helps maintain a healthy sleep-wake cycle.
Establish a regular relaxing bedtime routine. Try to avoid emotionally upsetting conversations and activities before trying to go to sleep. Don't dwell on, or bring your problems to bed.
Associate your bed with sleep. It's not a good idea to use your bed to watch tv, listen to the radio, or read.
Make sure that the sleep environment is pleasant and relaxing. The bed should be comfortable, the room should not be too hot or cold, or too bright.
Selfie obsession: could be attributed to the neglected people face from family. It's a mechanism to gain attention from society.
In children with asthma, lower ses was associated with heightened production of il-5 and il-13 and higher eosinophil counts (p values < .05). Lower ses also was associated with higher chronic stress and perceived threat (both groups:p values <. 05). Higher levels of stress and threat perception were associated with heightened production of il-5 and il-13, and higher eosinophil counts in children with asthma (p values <. 05). Statistical mediation tests revealed that chronic stress and threat perception represented statistically significant pathways between ses and immune processes in children with asthma (p values <. 05). In healthy children, associations were in the opposite direction from the asthma group, though generally not significant.
Its very common to have suicidal ideas while you are depressed. This is time you must go to a psychiatrist and take medications. Simple advice won't be useful at this level. Simple counselling wont lead to any wonder if you are harbouring suicidal thoughts. Never neglect in this stage as you can save yourself or the one you love.
In everyday life, events and circumstances trigger
off two levels of thinking: inferring and evaluating.
At the first level, we make guesses or inferences
about what is ‘going on’ – what we think
has happened, is happening, or will be happening.
Inferences are statements of ‘fact’ (or at least
what we think are the facts – they can be true or
false). Inferences that are irrational usually consist
of ‘distortions of reality’ like the following:
• Black and white thinking: seeing things in extremes,
with no middle ground – good or bad,
perfect versus useless, success or failure, right
against wrong, moral versus immoral, and so
on. Also known as all-or-nothing thinking.
• Filtering: seeing all that is wrong with oneself
or the world, while ignoring any positives.
• Over-generalisation: building up one thing
about oneself or one’s circumstances and ending
up thinking that it represents the whole
situation. For example: ‘Everything’s going
wrong’, ‘Because of this mistake, I’m a total
failure’. Or, similarly, believing that something
which has happened once or twice is happening
all the time, or that it will be a never-ending pattern:
‘I’ll always be a failure’, ‘No-one will ever
want to love me’, and the like.
• Mind-reading: making guesses about what
other people are thinking, such as: ‘She ignored
me on purpose’, or ‘He’s mad with me’.
• Fortune-telling: treating beliefs about the future
as though they were actual realities rather than though they were actual realities rather than
mere predictions, for example: ‘I’ll be depressed
forever’, ‘Things can only get worse’.
• Emotional reasoning: thinking that because
we feel a certain way, this is how it really is: ‘I
feel like a failure, so I must be one’, ‘If I’m
angry, you must have done something to make
me so’, and the like.
• Personalising: assuming, without evidence,
that one is responsible for things that happen:
‘I caused the team to fail’, ‘It must have been
me that made her feel bad’, and so on.
Stuttering can lead to social anxiety, bullying, academic decline and childhood depression. Don't simply ignore it. It has evidence-based treatment with good results.
Feelings of shyness or discomfort in certain situations aren't necessarily signs of social anxiety disorder, particularly in children. Comfort levels in social situations vary, depending on the individual's personality traits and life experiences. Some people are naturally reserved and others are more outgoing.
In contrast to everyday nervousness, social anxiety disorder includes fear, anxiety and avoidance that interferes with your daily routine, work, school or other activities.
Emotional and behavioral symptoms
Signs and symptoms of social anxiety disorder can include persistent:
Fear of situations in which you may be judges worrying about embarrassing or humiliating yourself concern that you'll offend someone intense fear of interacting or talking with strangers fear that others will notice that you look anxious fear of physical symptoms that may cause you embarrassment, such as blushing, sweating, trembling or having a shaky voice avoiding doing things or speaking to people out of fear of embarrassmentavoiding situations where you might be the center of attentionhaving anxiety in anticipation of a feared activity or even spending time after a social situation analyzing your performance and identifying flaws in your interaction expecting the worst possible consequences from a negative experience during a social situation
For children, anxiety about interacting with adults or peers may be shown by crying, having temper tantrums, clinging to parents or refusing to speak in social situations.
Performance type of social anxiety disorder is when you experience intense fear and anxiety only during speaking or performing in public, but not in other types of social situations.
Physical signs and symptoms can sometimes accompany social anxiety disorder and may include:
Fast heartbeat set stomach or cause trouble catching your breath dizziness or conversations dating attending or feeling" out of body" diarrhea muscle tension
Avoiding normal social situations
Common, everyday experiences that may be hard to endure when you have social anxiety disorder include, for example:
Using a public restroom interacting with strangerseating in front of othersmaking eye contactinitiating conversationsdatingattending parties or social gatheringsmissing work or schoolentering a room in which people are already started returning items to a store
Social anxiety disorder symptoms can change over time. They may flare up if you're facing a lot of stress or demands. Although avoiding anxiety-producing situations may make you feel better in the short term, your anxiety is likely to persist over the long term if you don't get treatment.
The pace of modern life makes stress management a necessary skill for everyone. Many people juggle multiple responsibilities, work, home life, caregiving, and relationships. Learning to identify problems and implement solutions is the key to successful stress reduction.
The first step in successful stress relief is deciding to make stress management an ongoing goal, and to monitor your stress level.
Once you start monitoring your stress level, the next step is identifying your stress triggers. When or under what situations do you experience the most stress? some causes of stress are easy to identify, such as job pressures, relationship problems or financial difficulties. But daily hassles and demands, such as commuting, arranging child care or being overcommitted at work, also can contribute to your stress level.
Positive events also can be stressful. If you got married, started a new job and bought a new house in the same year, you could have a high-stress level. While negative events, in general, are more stressful, be sure to also assess positive changes in your life.
Once you've identified your stress triggers, you can start thinking about strategies for dealing with them. Identifying what aspect of the situation you can control is a good starting point.
For example, if you have a difficult time falling asleep because you're stressed out, the solution may be as easy as turning off the tv when the evening news is too distressing. Other times, such as high demands at work or when a loved one is ill, you may only be able to change how you react to the situation.
And don't feel like you have to figure it out all on your own. Seek help and support from family and friends. You may want to ask them what stress-relief techniques have worked well for them.
And many people benefit from the daily practice of stress-reduction techniques, such as deep breathing, massage, tai chi or yoga. Many people manage stress through practicing mindfulness in meditation or being in nature.
And remember to maintain a healthy lifestyle to help manage stress - eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly and get enough sleep. Having a healthy lifestyle will help you manage periods of high stress.
Stress won't disappear from your life. And stress management isn't an overnight cure. But with ongoing practice and incorporation of resiliency into your lifestyle, you can learn to manage your stress level and increase your ability to cope with life's challenges.
Premature ejaculation occurs when a man ejaculates sooner during sexual intercourse than he or his partner would like. Premature ejaculation is a common sexual complaint. Estimates vary, but as many as 1 out of 3 men say they experience this problem at some time. As long as it happens infrequently, it does not cause for concern.
However, you may meet the diagnostic criteria for premature ejaculation if you:
Always or nearly always ejaculate within one minute of penetration unable to delay ejaculation during intercourse all or nearly all of the time feel distressed and frustrated, and tend to avoid sexual intimacy as a result
Both psychological and biological factors can play a role in premature ejaculation. Although many men feel embarrassed to talk about it, premature ejaculation is a common and treatable condition. Medications, counseling and sexual techniques that delay ejaculation - or a combination of these - can help improve sex for you and your partner
Some doctors believe that early sexual experiences may establish a pattern that can be difficult to change later in life, such as:
Situations in which you may have hurried to reach climax in order to avoid being discovered guilty feelings that increase your tendency to rush through sexual encounters
Other factors that can play a role in causing premature ejaculation include:
Erectile dysfunction. Men who are anxious about obtaining or maintaining an erection during sexual intercourse may form a pattern of rushing to ejaculate, which can be difficult to change. Anxiety. Many men with premature ejaculation also have problems with anxiety - either specifically about sexual performance or related to other issues. Relationship problems. If you have had satisfying sexual relationships with other partners in which premature ejaculation happened infrequently or not at all, it's possible that interpersonal issues between you and your current partner are contributing to the problem. Treatments and drugs
Common treatment options for premature ejaculation include behavioral techniques, topical anesthetics, oral medications, and counseling. Keep in mind that it may take a little time to find the treatment or combination of treatments that will work for you.
In some cases, therapy for premature ejaculation may involve taking simple steps, such as masturbating an hour or two before intercourse so that you're able to delay ejaculation during sex. Your doctor also may recommend avoiding intercourse for a period of time and focusing on other types of sexual play so that pressure is removed from your sexual encounters.
The pause-squeeze technique
Your doctor may instruct you and your partner in the use of a method called the pause-squeeze technique. This method works as follows:
Begin sexual activity as usual, including stimulation of the penis, until you feel almost ready to ejaculate. Have your partner squeeze the end of your penis, at the point where the head (glans) joins the shaft, and maintain the squeeze for several seconds, until the urge to ejaculate passes. After the squeeze is released, wait for about 30 seconds, then go back to foreplay. You may notice that squeezing the penis causes it to become less erect, but when sexual stimulation is resumed, it soon regains full erection. If you again feel you're about to ejaculate, have your partner repeat the squeeze process.
By repeating this as many times as necessary, you can reach the point of entering your partner without ejaculating. After a few practice sessions, the feeling of knowing how to delay ejaculation may become a habit that no longer requires the pause-squeeze technique.
Anesthetic creams and sprays that contain a numbing agent, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, are sometimes used to treat premature ejaculation. These products are applied to the penis a short time before sex to reduce sensation and thus help delay ejaculation. A lidocaine spray for premature ejaculation (promescent) is available over-the-counter.
Although topical anesthetic agents are effective and well-tolerated, they have potential side effects. For example, some men report a temporary loss of sensitivity and decreased sexual pleasure. In some cases, female partners also have reported these effects. In rare cases, lidocaine or prilocaine can cause an allergic reaction.
Many medications may delay orgasm. Although none of these drugs is specifically approved by the food and drug administration to treat premature ejaculation, some are used for this purpose, including antidepressants, analgesics, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. These medications may be prescribed for either on-demand or daily use, and may be prescribed alone or in combination with other treatments.
Antidepressants. A side effect of certain antidepressants is delayed orgasm. For this reason, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (ssris), such as sertraline (zoloft), paroxetine (paxil) or fluoxetine (prozac, sarafem), are used to help delay ejaculation. If ssris don't improve the timing of your ejaculation, your doctor may prescribe the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine (anafranil). Unwanted side effects of antidepressants may include nausea, dry mouth, drowsiness and decreased libido. Analgesics. Tramadol (ultram) is a medication commonly used to treat pain. It also has side effects that delay ejaculation. It may be prescribed when ssris haven't been effective. Unwanted side effects may include nausea, headache, and dizziness. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Some medications used to treat erectile dysfunction, such as sildenafil (viagra, revatio), tadalafil (cialis, adcirca) or vardenafil (levitra, staxyn), also may help premature ejaculation. Unwanted side effects may include a headache, facial flushing, temporary visual changes and nasal congestion.
This approach, also known as talk therapy, involves talking with a mental health provider about your relationships and experiences. These sessions can help you reduce performance anxiety and find better ways of coping with stress. Counseling is most likely to help when it's used in combination with drug therapy.
Main causes of unconsciousness. If a patient is unconscious, how to differentiate and diagnose the reason.
1) gums are swollen and tongue bite - epilepsy.
2) wet forehead and severe perspiration- hypoglycemia.
3) hot forehead and high fever-cerebral malaria.
4) high fever and neck stiffness-pyogenic meningitis.
5) fever and neck stiffness- TB Meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage.
6) very hot forehead- heat stroke.
7) eyes yellow- jaundice (hepatic coma).
8) eyes red and congested- alcoholic coma.
9) pupils unequal- cerebral haemorrhage.
10) bilateral pinpoint pupils- pontine haemorrhage.
11) dilated pupils- datura poisoning.
12) nasolabial folds unequal- paralysis.
13) blood in nose and ears- haemorrhage in a base of the brain.
14) blue lips- COPD patient.
15) fruit smell- diabetic coma.
16) urine smell - uremic coma.
17) rotten rat smell- hepatic coma.
18) perfume smell- sleeping pills poisoning.
Primary nocturnal enuresis is the involuntary discharge of urine at night by children old enough to be expected to have bladder control. Enuresis is considered primary when bladder control has never been attained and secondary when incontinence reoccurs after at least six months of continence.
- Commonly recommended strategies for parents to help their child achieve continence include the following.
- Clarify the goal of getting up at night and using the toilet.
- Assure the child's access to the toilet.
- Avoid caffeine-containing foods and excessive fluids before bedtime.
- Have the child empty the bladder at bedtime.
- Take the child out of diapers (training pants may be acceptable).
- Include the child in morning cleanup in a nonpunitive manner.
- Preserve the child's self-esteem.
Exercise. Physical activity can lift moods and improve depression. It’s believed that endorphins — feel-good brain chemicals that are released during exercise — may help counteract some of the hormone changes that may trigger severe PMS. “Exercising can also boost energy and help with cramps and bloating, which may help you feel better,” says Livoti. Aerobic exercise such as walking, running, bicycling, or swimming is recommended.Small, frequent meals. Eating small meals throughout the day rather than two or three big meals may also help ease PMS symptoms. A large meal, particularly one high in carbohydrates, can cause blood sugar swings, which could worsen PMS. “Low blood sugar may contribute to crying spells and irritability that are often seen in women with severe PMS,” says Livoti. Try to eat six small meals a day to keep your blood sugar levels steady.Calcium supplements. In a 2009 double-blind clinical trial of college women with PMS, those who supplemented their diet with 500 milligrams of calcium twice daily had significantly less depression and fatigue than those who didn’t. In fact, “a number of studies have shown that getting plenty of calcium can help ease mood changes related to severe PMS, although we don’t know exactly why,” says Livoti.Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and sweets. Staying away from coffee and other caffeinated drinks for two weeks before your period may make a difference in your mood because caffeine can increase anxiety, nervousness, and insomnia. Cutting down on alcohol may also be helpful because alcohol acts as a depressant. And steering clear of candy, soda, and other sugary foods, especially in the week before your period, may help ease severe PMS symptoms by preventing mood swings associated with blood sugar fluctuations.Stress management. Stress can make severe PMS symptoms worse, so finding ways to give stress the slip can help treat PMS. Try relaxation techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, and yoga. Individual or group therapy has also been found to be an effective PMS treatment for women with severe mood swings and debilitating emotional changes.
Antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that change serotonin levels in the brain have been shown to be helpful for women with severe PMS and PMDD. In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved three of these medicines — Zoloft (sertraline), Prozac or Sarafem (fluoxetine), and Paxil CR (paroxetine) — for the treatment of PMDD.
Talk to your doctor about which of these approaches might work best for any moderate or severe emotional PMS symptoms you’re experiencing.
Ready to get your anger under control? Start by considering these 10 anger management tips.
1. Think before you speak
In the heat of the moment, it's easy to say something you'll later regret. Take a few moments to collect your thoughts before saying anything — and allow others involved in the situation to do the same.
2. Once you're calm, express your anger
As soon as you're thinking clearly, express your frustration in an assertive but nonconfrontational way. State your concerns and needs clearly and directly, without hurting others or trying to control them.
3. Get some exercise
Physical activity can help reduce stress that can cause you to become angry. If you feel your anger escalating, go for a brisk walk or run, or spend some time doing other enjoyable physical activities.
4. Take a timeout
Timeouts aren't just for kids. Give yourself short breaks during times of the day that tend to be stressful. A few moments of quiet time might help you feel better prepared to handle what's ahead without getting irritated or angry.
5. Identify possible solutions
Instead of focusing on what made you mad, work on resolving the issue at hand. Does your child's messy room drive you crazy? Close the door. Is your partner late for dinner every night? Schedule meals later in the evening — or agree to eat on your own a few times a week. Remind yourself that anger won't fix anything and might only make it worse.
6. Stick with 'I' statements
To avoid criticizing or placing blame — which might only increase tension — use "I" statements to describe the problem. Be respectful and specific. For example, say, "I'm upset that you left the table without offering to help with the dishes," instead of, "You never do any housework."
7. Don't hold a grudge
Forgiveness is a powerful tool. If you allow anger and other negative feelings to crowd out positive feelings, you might find yourself swallowed up by your own bitterness or sense of injustice. But if you can forgive someone who angered you, you might both learn from the situation. It's unrealistic to expect everyone to behave exactly as you want at all times.
8. Use humor to release tension
Lightening up can help diffuse tension. Use humor to help you face what's making you angry and, possibly, any unrealistic expectations you have for how things should go. Avoid sarcasm, though — it can hurt feelings and make things worse.
9. Practice relaxation skills
When your temper flares, put relaxation skills to work. Practice deep-breathing exercises, imagine a relaxing scene, or repeat a calming word or phrase, such as, "Take it easy." You might also listen to music, write in a journal or do a few yoga poses — whatever it takes to encourage relaxation.
10. Know when to seek help
Learning to control anger is a challenge for everyone at times. Consider seeking help for anger issues if your anger seems out of control, causes you to do things you regret or hurts those around you.
Inattention refers to a behavioral pattern in which the individual has difficulty initiating, remaining engaged in and completing a task. Inattentive children struggle to organize tasks and activities, to listen when spoken to, to plan or execute actions. Inattention also includes distractibility, forgetfulness, frequent loss or difficulty keeping track of objects. In adolescents and adults, it is common to observe distorted time perception; patients commonly underestimate time in relation to tasks to be executed and tend to procrastinate. Hyperactivity is characterized by:
excessive physical activity
constant feelings of restlessness, making patients incapable of remaining still even in situations in which that is expected
non-goal-directed motor activity; that is, activity is purposeless and affects the environment in a negative way (frequently standing up and walking purposelessly when they should remain seated, or move the hands and manipulate small objects when they are expected to remain still)
- frequent fidgeting or squirming in their seat
- inability to play quietly
- talking too much, running around or climbing when it is inappropriate. Impulsivity refers to difficulty in delaying an action or response even when it is known that this action will have negative consequences. Impulsiveness is associated with the need for immediate over delayed gratification, even when the postponement would lead to better results.
- Impulsive behaviors manifest themselves as difficulty waiting for one's turn to speak, in games and play activities or crossing the street. It can manifest also as a tendency to act without thinking. For example, giving immediate answers irrespective of their accuracy, giving answers not related to the question, or blurting out answers before the question is finished. Parents may hesitate in accepting an ADHD diagnosis based on the perception that the child is able to remain focused when performing specific tasks such as playing video games, watching television or in certain situations. It is important to highlight that motivation, the relevance and attractiveness of the task for the child, and the environment largely influence the manifestation of symptoms.