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Metabolic Bone Disease is a term used for various conditions of the bones that can be caused by a number of different disorders. Most of these disorders are developed due to nutritional deficiencies, defects in the bone metabolism procedure or due to hereditary defects in the skeletal structure. Conditions that fall under the category are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, Paget's disease, parathyroid conditions, chemotherapy induced bone loss and menopause induced bone loss.
Causes of Metabolic Bone Diseases
- Imbalance in the level of calcium: Too much calcium or too little calcium can cause bone diseases. While the overabundance of calcium (hypercalcemia) in the body will lead to calculi formation, which can be harmul for the body, the lack of calcium (hypocalcemia) causes weakness, bone pain and restricted growth.
- Deficiency of phosphorus: Low phosphorus in blood (hypophosphatemia) leads to softening of the bone tissue and bone loss. Osteomalacia is commonly caused by phosphorus deficiencies.
- Deficiency of Vitamin D: Vitamin D is essential for the body to absorb calcium. Cells called osteoblasts need vitamin D in order to absorb calcium and secrete the bone tissue proteins. A deficiency of vitamin D can lead to a number of metabolic bone diseases like rickets and osteoporosis.
- Over or under secretion of the parathyroid hormone: The parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates the secretion of an enzyme which converts the inactive circulatory form of vitamin D into its active usable form. The hormone can also increase the circulation of free or ionized calcium (Ca2+) which is not attached to proteins. Both underproduction and overproduction of the hormone causes skeletal problems.
Symptoms of Metabolic Bone Diseases
The symptoms of most of the Metabolic Bone Diseases are similar. They are:
- A dull, throbbing pain in the bones is the most common symptom. The pain is frequent and lasts for a long amount of time but, unlike muscular pain, the exact region of bone pain cannot be specified.
- Severe joint pains accompanied by stiffness and swelling of the joints. The patient experience pain during regular physical activities, especially during cold weather conditions.
- Frequent fractures are caused by most bone diseases because the bone mineral density decreases drastically. Severe bone injury may be caused by mild trauma.
- Defects in the bones can cause bowed out legs and a bent backbone.
- A general feeling of exhaustion is often caused by bone diseases.
- Kidney stones are an associated complication of metabolic bone diseases.
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder. It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that causes the death of brain cells, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects a person’s thinking and behavior. The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time passes.
As it is a kind of dementia, Alzheimer’s is caused by the death of brain cells. Over a course of time, brain cells die progressively and at the end, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections. As a result, the total brain size shrinks. Tiny inclusions called plaques and tangles can be seen in the postmortem. These cannot be seen or tested in a living Alzheimer’s affected brain. These plaques are given the name “amyloid plaques” because they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons; they are formed from a protein called tau.
There are several reasons behind all this, some of which are listed below-
- Anti-anxiety medications
- Hitting on the head too many times
- Regularly sleep-deprived
- Diabetes in the brain
- Old age
- Genetic line
- Down’s syndrome
- Cardiovascular diseases
Alzheimer’s disease damages the brain, so the clinical signs and symptoms begin to show very early. The symptoms are-
- Memory loss
- Agitation and mood swings
- Poor judgment
- The trouble with money calculations
- Difficulty doing familiar tasks
- Trouble in planning or solving a problem
- Confusion with time and place
- Difficulty in communicating
- Loss of motivation
- Inappropriate behavior
- Aggressive personality
- Childlike behavior
Preventing Alzheimer’s disease:
Alzheimer’s disease ultimately results in death. Even if there are treatments, they cannot fully cure it. So it’s better to try to prevent it before it happens. Ways to prevent Alzheimer’s disease are-
- Eating more fruits and vegetables.
- Eating berries every day.
- Increasing omega-3 fatty acids.
- Taking folic acid supplements.
- Drinking grape juice or red wine with evening meal.
- Doing the Mediterranean style diet.
- Controlling the blood pressure.
- Having strong social support.
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease:
- Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is a long time process.
- First of all, doctors perform a physical exam to check the overall neurological health. By this, they check muscle strength, reflexes, walking ability, sense of sight and hearing, coordination and balance.
- Then comes the blood test to find the cause of confusion and memory loss by checking the thyroid disorder and vitamin deficiency.
- Then they perform the neuropsychological test and check the mental status.
- Then there are other tests, like MRI, CT, and PET.
- After all this, drugs are given and a safe and supportive environment is created with proper exercise and nutrition.
Alzheimer’s disease is undoubtedly the worst kind of disease. Hence, it is highly recommended to contact a doctor as soon as any symptom is noticed.
Arthritis Types and Risk Factors
Arthritis is a complex family of musculoskeletal disorders consisting of more than 100 different conditions that destroy joints, bones, muscles, cartilage and other connective tissues, hampering or halting physical movement and causing pain.
While arthritis is not a single disease, its symptoms are often universal and are largely experienced as stiffness, soreness, inflammation and pain. Over time, the cartilage between the joints can begin to wear down, exposing the joint to friction. When two bones rub together, inflammation and pain can take place. Redness and swelling of the joints and loss of joint function soon follow.
While the most common form, osteoarthritis, is a result of external factors like physical injury or wear and tear of joints through overuse, this is not the case with rheumatoid arthritis. In fact, despite advances in science, the exact causes of RA are unknown … but certain risk factors have been identified:- genetics, age, weight, injury, occupational hazards, sports, illness or infection, stress, etc.
Now we will go through two most common types of arthritis: osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Osteoarthritis most commonly type of arthritis which is caused by poor lifestyle. It is degeneration of the cartilage that cushions the area where two bones meet to form a joint. When the cushion wears out or cracks, the bones rub together, causing intense pain. In severe cases, the joints can develop calcifications. This means that calcium builds up on the bones and soft tissues, making them stiff and painful to move. The pain of osteoarthritis gradually worsens with use over the course of the day.
This type of arthritis occurs slowly over time and is the type that many runners, martial artists and construction workers begin to feel by middle age due to over-extreme use of joints.
Prevention is always the best medicine. However, reversing damage already done is also essential.
Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is a chronic disease of the autoimmune system that causes inflammation of the synovial membrane (joint lining). This causes destruction and deformity of bone, cartilage, ligaments and muscle tissue.
RA commonly called “crippling arthritis” is a “systemic” disease. Besides the tissues around the joints, other areas RA affects include the glands of the eyes and mouth, the lining of the lungs and the pericardium. When inflamed, the tissue lining between the joints becomes red, painful and swollen. The frequency and duration of these “flare-ups” vary widely. After repeated episodes, chronic inflammation begins to cause damage to the surrounding tissue, cartilage and bone. Eventually this damage can lead to loss of cartilage and weakening of bones, resulting in painful and permanent destruction and deformities.
The second study offers even more hope as to the healing power of green tea for RA sufferers. Green tea, supplementation and relaxation techniques are powerful solutions for this disease.
The autoimmune trigger of RA also affects children causing Juvenile arthritis (JA). Actually, JA is a term used to group the various autoimmune disorders affecting children 16 and under. While JA affects the joints, it also can affect the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract as well.
JA, while similar to RA, is more easily diagnosed. Again, this autoimmune disease is not precise in how, or whom, it affects, but inherited genes and external factors can trigger it in a child. If you have a family history of RA and your child shows red inflammatory joints.
The natural solutions and plan for JA are the same as for RA. The difference is that usually a parent or adult will have to manage the lifestyle changes in the home and keep the child on course with the plan.
There Is Hope!
People think that because they experience excruciating pain today, they will experience it tomorrow and keep experiencing it for the rest of their life. It is as if the trajectory of arthritis, to them, is inevitable, and therefore there is no hope. This does not have to be the case. Nothing about arthritis is “inevitable” if you understand the condition and take steps to control it.
People suffering with arthritis do not believe anything can be done to help ease their pain. Why? Because the drug-based therapies they have been following are not useful in providing a change to the condition – only symptomatic relief. Yes, immediate relief of pain or stiffness or inflammation is a good thing and drugs are the fastest means for that relief. However, there are two problems with relying on synthetic drug therapies over the long term.
Problem 1: The drugs and cortisone injections are toxic to the system, causing in some cases damage to the liver and stomach lining, weakening of the joint cartilage and the immune system, and GI tract issues.
Problem 2: Drugs do not change the course of the condition and thus, as the arthritis worsens over time, drugs that are more potent are needed, causing more toxicity and potentially damaging side effects.
The good news is that a multi-pronged approach to arthritis can do wonders, and even feel like a miracle to those suffering its nasty symptoms. Because there is no cure, it is extremely important to become proactive in managing, treating and slowing down the condition.
A lot of things can be done to cope with the initial stages of dementia. A person goes through a wide range of emotions such as fear, denial, frustration, and anger, post the diagnosis. Here is a list of tips that will help a patient with dementia to cope better:
- Physical health: For a dementia patient, it is very important to take care of one’s health. A good diet along with regular exercise and adequate rest is a prerequisite to manage this disorder.
- Regular check-ups: Regular medical check-ups with the doctor are necessary in this condition. Depression and other mental health problems should be discussed with a professional.
- Quit alcohol: Alcohol might give momentary pleasure from the misery, but it has long-standing implications. It reacts with the medicine and creates additional health and memory-related complications.
- Allocate time for difficult tasks: With time, it can become difficult to perform even the simplest of tasks. The patient should accordingly schedule the time to perform the tasks which may be difficult to carry out. Adequate breaks should be taken while performing a task to avoid getting fatigued.
- Redefine work: If a patient is suffering from dementia is still working, it should be ensured that the work is more manageable from a desk. Planning an early retirement may be a good idea in order to cope with dementia.
- Be organised: Keeping track of things can get difficult with time. It, therefore, makes sense to organise all belongings systematically. Putting labels on doors and drawers also help.
- Continue pursuing your hobbies: Amidst the difficulty and the depression, it is a good idea to continue doing things that are fun. While such activities might require some assistance from the doctor and family members, this helps the patient to be cheerful and healthy.
- Maintain notes: Since dementia is involved with forgetfulness, it makes sense to maintain a diary and keep records of phone numbers, people, appointments, etc.
- Communication channel: Maintaining a direct communication channel with family, friends, and relatives is a good idea. Sharing feelings will go a long way in maintaining relations with loved ones.
- Support group: Joining a dementia support group can be highly beneficial for the patient. It will not only give the patient company but also make sure that the patient gets a lot of useful information about the disorder. It also helps in keeping the morale up.
- Getting ready for the future: Things need to be meticulously planned well in advance to ensure that when the disease progresses, the patient has enough people to look after him. Things such as medical arrangements, financial assets, and property details should be carefully handed over as per the patient's wish. This will ensure a smooth run of the patients’ life when they can no longer take care of themselves.
Doctor I am suffering left side solder pain past 1 month, I feel it's muscle pain when do Anything with left hand its pain very badly. Please suggest.
In order to provide tailored treatment choices to a maximum number of patients, researchers from Stanford University in the US have defined five new categories of mental illness that will cut across the current broad diagnoses of anxiety and depression.
The five categories are general anxiety, tension, anhedonia, melancholia and anxious arousal. These categories are primarily defined by their specific symptoms and areas of brain activation.
This step was taken, in order to provide guided treatment to millions of patients who suffer from these problems worldwide. In India, as per WHO the number of people who suffer from depression and anxiety is 5 and 3 Crore respectively.
My age is 22 can I stay without surgery for ACL complete tear for life time because my knee slips not so much and the pain is little bit and while folding my leg I feel pain that's all.
My 90 year old grandma had a Inter Trochanteric Fracture (hip). She has to undergo surgery. Is surgery advisable or any chances of recovering without surgery.
Sir mai chalte-chalte gir gyi thi ek mahina ho gya but thik nhi hua hai. Ankle me bahut pain hai, chal nhi pati hu, bahut dard hota hai. X-ray me koi fracture nhi hua hai. Please advise
I have been having lower back spasm for more than 3 months. I am taking myoril and fomentations 2 times a day. How long should I be following this to get rid of muscle spasm completely?
I have severe Shoulder pain since many years. I have taken lot of physiotherapy session but no help. Please advise.
The hand is one of the most commonly used parts of our body and is susceptible to damage, wear and tear as well as injury. Pain in the hand can be attributed to numerous causes, including damage and other conditions that can affect the joints, cartilage, nerves and other parts of the hand.
De Quervain's tendinitis: This is also known as de Quervain's tendinosis. It causes pain on the thumb side of the wrist. The pain may grow slowly or suddenly. It can also spread to every part of the thumb and up the lower arm. On the off chance that you have de Quervain's tendinitis, you may experience pain while performing the following actions:
- Clenching The fist
- Handling on or holding objects
- Turning the wrist
Treatment for this includes the following:
- Wearing a prop to rest the thumb and wrist
- Calming drugs
- Cortisone infusions
Carpal tunnel disorder: This is common amongst the well-known nerve issues. It can cause pain in the following parts of the hand:
- Palm and a few fingers
- Lower arm
The treatment methods includes the following:
- Resting the hand and wrist
- Wrist support
- Steroid infusions
- Active recuperation
Fracture: It's a crack or break in a bone that can cause immense pain in the hand. Other than this, the hand may also experience the following:
- Loss of proper motion and movement
The kind of treatment depends on the kind of fracture. Braces are usually used for small fractures. Sticks, wires, or plates might be used to treat severe fractures. Likewise, surgery may also be recommended to set the broken bone properly.
Arthritis: This is a disease causing joint inflammation and stiffness of the joints. It causes the joints to lose the ligament that permits them to move easily against each other. This tears the ligament, giving rise to crippling pain and swelling.
In the hand, the regions where this regularly happens are as follows:
- Base of the thumb
- Center joint of one or more fingers
- End joint, which is nearest to the fingertip
The treatment depends on the seriousness of the injury and the following may be used:
- Props for the fingers or wrist
- Non-intrusive treatment
Trigger finger: Also known as stenosing tenosynovitis, this defect causes the fingers or the thumb to bend. It can be difficult, particularly when bowing or fixing the influenced finger or thumb.
Knobs may form on the influenced ligaments. Also, the sheath itself may thicken. In the long run, the ligament may get to be adhered when you attempt to fix a twisted finger or thumb.
Resting now and again while wearing a support may help resolve the issue. Over-the-counter torment pharmaceuticals can facilitate the agony. Corticosteroid infusions can mitigate side effects. Surgery might be recommended for extreme cases.
A nagging achy pain in the shoulder is something that all must have experienced, especially aged people. Some choose to ignore it while for others, the pain may be so debilitating that it interferes with daily routine considerably. Making an appointment with an expert orthopedic doctor should be your priority. Meanwhile, here are some easy to follow tips to manage shoulder pain:
- Applying ice- Shoulder pain is normally caused due to inflammation of the tendons, and since ice is the natural reliever of inflammation, you can get some relief with the application of ice. It can slow down blood flow to the affected region and thereby reduces the pain. You should apply ice for about 20 minutes and try to keep your shoulders at an elevated position.
- Paying attention to the neck- It is no surprise that the shoulders and neck are closely positioned, and they always have an impact on each other. Sometimes, shoulder pain is caused by neck pain, and both of them can be relieved by practicing gentle neck stretches at home. You should also replace old mattress and pillows and opt for thicker pillows for the desired level of support.
- Keeping the elbow by your side- This could aid to your aching shoulders. You may use an armrest or arm sling in case of extreme pain in the shoulders. But it is worthy of mention here that using this equipment for long hours is not at all recommended.
- Relieving stress- The most effective means of treating shoulder pain is to get to the root of the problem. Stress may be the cause of your shoulder pain, and therefore, you should allow some rest to the shoulder by refraining from exercise and physically strenuous activities. You should also try to review your daily activities such as sleeping positions, motions, and habits that may have an adverse impact on the shoulders.
- Warming up- You may use a heating pad to keep the shoulders warm and do some gentle exercise if it doesn’t cause any discomfort. This will warm up the muscles for a wide range of activities and improve circulation.
- Strengthening the rhomboids- The muscle located in between the shoulders is termed as rhomboids. These muscles are essential for normal shoulder movements, and it is important to keep them stronger to hold the shoulders in the right position and support the weight of the arms and perform pushing and pulling effectively.
Experiencing shoulder pain is an issue, but with these effective measures targeted at relief, you may manage it easily and take part in all the activities that you love to. In case the ache persists, it is imperative that you visit an ortho specialist to avail proper treatment.
The ankle, despite being one of the smaller joints, plays a crucial role as it bears the brunt of a person’s weight. Due to improper gait or injuries, the ankle often gets sprained. This can be a recurring problem in older people. Therefore, over a period of time, the ankle gets unstable and can cause chronic symptoms including pain, imbalance resulting in recurrent falls. Read on to know more about some causes, symptoms, and management techniques for ankle instability.
Causes: The ankle has ligaments which stretch to allow for ankle movement. When this ligament stretches beyond the limit, then it can tear or stretch. Therefore, sportspersons like basketball and football players, gymnasts who tend to use their ankle a lot are at a much higher risk of developing ankle instability over a period of time.
Symptoms: The most common symptom of ankle instability is when a person is unable to stand firm. This pain is worse in people wearing heels or walking on uneven ground. Patients may experience swelling, stiffness, and excruciating pain.
Management: Ankle instability is an acute problem but the recovery time is limited too, so the symptoms disappear over a period of time. However, in some people, especially sportspersons, it may lead to a chronic condition which needs immediate attention. Few remedies for getting relief from ankle pain are mentioned below:
- Ice: For pain relief, icing the ankle is an excellent option. Applying a cold pack for about 10 to 15 minutes about 2 to 4 times per day is an effective way to relieve the pain, stiffness, and swelling.
- Rest: Ligament injuries often heal on their own, and sportspersons may be advised to stay off of the game for about a week or two, to give it time for self-repair.
- Compresses: Using an elastic wrap or compression ice wrap for a few hours can help in relieving ankle instability.
- Pain killers: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen can help in reducing both the inflammation and pain from the ankle injury.
- Exercise: Increasing the strength and flexibility of the ankle via exercise is a great way to reduce chances of further sprain. Rotating the ankles, standing on one leg, etc., are some effective ways to do this.
- Surgery: If none of the above-mentioned remedies work, a surgery may be required which is only in severe and/or chronic cases.
Ankle instability is quite common but is equally easy to manage.
Is there any permanent treatment for slip disc problem or surgery is the ultimate treatment? Please advise me
I lost somebody close last year and since then feel very depressed and prefer keeping to myself all the time. Please help me.
Osteoporosis is a condition which usually results due to a decrease in bone density. In this condition, the bones become weak and brittle. Fractures are a common result of osteoporosis. Usually, symptoms or signs do not show up until the condition progresses to its advanced stages.
Since osteoporosis is usually irreversible and incurable, preventing the fractures is considered to be extremely important.
Who is at risk of osteoporosis?
All men and women have some risk of developing 'thinning' of the bones (osteoporosis) as they become older, particularly over the age of 60. As mentioned above, women are more at risk than men. The following situations may also lead to excessive bone loss and so increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. If you:
- Are a woman who had the menopause before 45 years of age
- Have already had a bone fracture after a minor fall or bump
- Have a strong family history of osteoporosis.
- Have a body mass index (BMI) of 19 or less (that is, you are very underweight)
- Have irregular periods
- Have taken, or are taking, a steroid medicine (such as prednisolone) for three months or more
- Are a smoker
- Have an alcohol intake of more than four units per day
- Lack calcium and/or vitamin D (due to a poor diet and/or little exposure to sunlight).
- Are mostly inactive
Ways To Treat Osteporosis
Osteoporosis in women can be treated using Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). The therapy makes use of either a combination of progestin and oestrogen or simply, oestrogen. However, it is possible that certain combinations have side-effects that might give rise to other medical conditions. Therefore, proper consultation with an orthopedist is an essential pre-requisite so that the condition of osteoporosis as well the side effects may be addressed before proceeding with Hormone Replacement Therapy.
There are a number of medications that can be used which have long-term effects on osteoporosis. However, the schedule for intake of these medicines should be followed diligently. Failing to adhere to the schedule could lead to serious complications. For example, the intake of Risedronate medications (prevent bone loss) should be scheduled once every month, failing which can cause ulcers in the food pipe. Raloxifene has effects which are similar to oestrogen but does not exhibit any serious side effects. Teriparatide can be used to treat osteoporosis in people who have a high risk of suffering from bone fractures.
Don't rely entirely on medication as the only treatment for your osteoporosis. These practices also are important:
- Exercise. Weight-bearing physical activity and exercises that improve balance and posture can strengthen bones and reduce the chance of a fracture. The more active and fit you are as you age, the less likely you are to fall and break a bone.
- Good nutrition. Eat a healthy diet and make certain that you're getting enough calcium and vitamin D. Being underweight or losing a lot of weight unintentionally is associated with poorer bone health and a higher risk of fracture — even if you're taking a bisphosphonate.
- Quit smoking. Smoking cigarettes speed up bone loss.
- Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.