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Becoming a mother is a special feeling. This can be best explained by only those women who start feeling their babies inside them from the very early stage of pregnancy. These nine months, for a mother to be would need extra care and she has to take precaution of each and every type. In the first trimester or the first three months of your pregnancy detection, you need to take certain precautions. Here are some of the ways in which you can make yourself and your baby secure during the first three months of your pregnancy.
- Double check your pregnancy: There have been many cases of false pregnancies during this time. It is thus best to double check that you are really pregnant so as to avoid a heart break later on. Most home tests are accurate but if you are still unsure, you might want to wait another week after taking your first test and then take a second one. Alternately, you can also go and visit a doctor and take their advice to confirm that you really are pregnant.
- Prenatal vitamin: Once your pregnancy has been confirmed, it is time for you to start taking your prenatal vitamins. These vitamins have enough folic acid which is required by the to-be mother to conceive. These vitamins also help in the development of the baby and protect it from developing any birth defects.
- Arrange for a health insurance: Medical bills can be very costly in contemporary times. Thus, if you are pregnant then it is best to start looking for health insurance schemes which cover pregnancy and delivery cost. This procedure might take sometime to finish and thus it is best to start the process in your first trimester.
- Choose a doctor: If you already know a doctor who specialises in delivery and pregnancy then you need not worry. But in case you do not have enough information then it is time you start looking for an experienced doctor. You can consult your friends and family members and choose a doctor whom you find appropriate for you. You should also consult a doctor by the time you are two months pregnant in order to get the necessary vaccines and other advice.
- Quit bad habits: Smoking, drinking and too much of coffee would damage the development of your child. Thus, you must try and quit all of them to deliver a healthy baby.
Thus, these are the five most important precautions that you need to take in your first trimester in order to ensure a healthy delivery ahead.
A Pap Smear is a screening test done to to test for occurrence of uterine cancer. Carried out in a quick and simple way to extract a sample, the sample is collected from the cervix area of a woman during a pelvic exam. The examination of the sample takes place under a microscope thereafter to find abnormalities that can point towards cancer and pre cancer changes.
There are many reasons why women should get a pap smear screening done:
- Women who are HIV positive should get this test done regularly so as to detect any anomalies in the cervix. This condition usually comes with higher risk of infections and cancer, which is why regular screening is required.
- Age is also another factor and women over the age of 30 should go through an annual screening on a compulsory basis. This is also true for women who have been through pregnancy and childbirth.
Preparing for a pap smear: To prepare for a pap smear test, you need to ensure that you are not menstruating at the time. Also, you may want to avoid sexual activity just before the test so as to get the most accurate readings. During the process, remember to stay calm and relax your body physically.
Procedure: The pap smear procedure is a quick one that might be only slightly uncomfortable. This test is usually carried out on the examination table at the gynecologist's clinic. The legs will need to be spread and placed in stirrups. The doctor will insert a speculum to hold open the vaginal opening so that the spatula can be inserted easily to take a sample from the area. This sample of the cells will be tested in a lab after due preservation.
Test Results: The test results can either be normal or abnormal. An abnormal result does not point at the presence of cancer. Rather it can simply mean that abnormal cells exist in the cervix. The doctor may ask you to go through these tests and screening more frequently so as to study the anomalies in a more detailed manner. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
The inability to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex is known as infertility. It can also be referred to the biological incapability of a male to cause the conception or a woman being unable to carry the pregnancy for full-term. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases while a majority of the other causes include sperm disorders.
Treatment of infertility depends on:
- Cause of Infertility
- Duration of Infertility
- Age of both partners
- Personal preferences
Causes of infertility in women include:
1. Ovulation disorders: This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to the following
- Premature ovarian failure
- PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)
- Poor egg quality
- Overactive or Underactive thyroid gland
- Chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.
2. Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus: Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to:
- Submucosal fibroids
- Previous sterilization treatment
3. Medications: There is a possibility that treatment will cure infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. Treatment of infertility might involve a significant amount of psychological, physical, temporal and financial commitments. In men, treatment is done to treat lack of healthy sperm or general sexual problems. The treatments include:
- Change in lifestyle
- Sperm retrieval
Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
- Stimulation of ovulation with fertility drugs
- Surgery to restore fertility
In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve pregnancy. It is a form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.
One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperms are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus. Some aspects involved in an IVF cycle are:
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
- Assisted hatching
- Donor eggs or sperm
- Gestational carrier
Some complications that may occur during the treatment of infertility are:
- Multiple pregnancy
- Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.